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Customer services in financial institutions, a step towards improving profitability

Customer services in financial institutions, a step towards improving profitability

(a case study of union bank plc, oko)

 

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Table of Contents

Chapter one

1.0   introduction                                                 1

1.1   background of study                                     4

1.2   statement of the problem                              5

1.3   purpose of the study                                     6

1.4   hypothesis                                                    7

1.5   scope/limitation of the study                 9

1.6   significance of the study                        10

1.7   definition of terms                                        11

Chapter two

Review of related literature                                   15

2.0   introduction                                                 15

2.1   budget                                                         15

2.2   budgeting

2.3   historical development pf budgeting               21

2.4   reasons for budgeting                                   23

2.5   types of budget                                             29

2.6   variance analysis                                          38

2.7   importance of variance analysis                    38

2.8   controllable and uncontrollable cost              44

2.9   responsibility accounting                              44

2.10 budget administration                                   45

2.11 budgetary control                                          46

2.12 objectives of budgetary control                      47

2.13 basic requirements for a good budgetary

Control system                                             48

Chapter three       

Research methodology                                          51

3.0   introduction                                                 51

3.1   population of the study                                 51

3.2   sample size                                                  52

3.3   sample method of data                                  52

3.4   sources of data collection                              53

3.5   administration and retrieval of questionnaire 53
3.6   procedure used for data analysis                   54

Chapter four

Presentation and data analysis                             56

4.0   introduction                                                 56

4.1   presentation and analysis                             56

Chapter five

5.0   introduction                                                 75

5.1   summary of findings                                     75

5.2   conclusion                                                    76

5.3   recommendation                                           77

5.4   suggestion for further research                     78

5.5   limitation of the study                                   79

references                                                    81

appendix a                                                   83

appendix b                                                   84

List of tables

Table i:    response to the question; how is union bank of nigeria plc, oko branch rated by is customers and general public in terms of profitability.

 

Table ii:  response to the question which of union bank of nigeria customer service innovations are its customers aware of?

 

Table iii: response to the question; how do they rate them via-a-vis their ability to engender customer satisfaction?

 

Table iv:  response to the question; what perception do the customers of union bank of nigeria plc have of courteousness and friendliness of their staff at oko branch.

 

Table v:   response to the question; what do the customers of union bank plc, oko fell about their speed of service?

Abstract

Due to the importance of customers service in the business world. Many privileged organizations most especially the financial institutions are now depending strongly on it to enhance or improve their profitability. Ideas and opinions were received from staff and reputable customers of union bank of nigerian plc, oko branch, which was used as a case study.

These ideas and opinions were got through the use of open and close ended questionnaires, interviews and observation. The data collected was analysis with the use of chi-square (x2) which is a statistical technique used in comparing the differences between observed and expected frequencies. Actually only banks with foresight with respect to customer service will succeed amidst competition.

Meanwhile union bank of nigeria plc will really benefit more if they take advantage of the result of this research work, here by sustaining its customers and at the same time keeping them happy.

Chapter one

Introduction

        the topic of this research work is of course, customer services in the financial institutions, a step towards improving profitability (a case study of union bank plc oko).

woodruff (1997) defines profitability as the ability of an investment or a company to make a profit after costs. Overhead, etc. Profit on the other hand, is the difference between the income of the business and all its costs and expenses over a period of time.

shaw (1990) defines a service as a performance that delivers some combination of benefit to the customer.

union bank of nigeria plc, a bank established in 1917, as bank of colonial africa, increased its profits after tax from 5.035 billion in 2001 to 9.375 billion naira in 2005. In july 2009, the bank was rated the 556th largest bank in the world and the 14th largest bank in africa, with an asset base of us $826 million.

however, the bank was one of the banks that were controversially indicated by the central bank of nigeria in november 2009, for what the apex bank termed as improper loan and financial management.

the profitability of banks could be increased through a plethora of ways. These include the aforementioned financial management, the recruitment and training of seasoned personnel, honesty of staff intensive/extensive selling efforts and other factors. Nevertheless, the focus of this work is to examine how profitability could be increased through improved customer services. This line of thought is congruent with the marketing concept, which makes consumer satisfaction the fulkrum of all organizational activity, banks not being exceptions.

 

1.1   background of the study

in the last ten years there have been important changes in the business of consumer financial services. The main characteristic that has marked the evolution of the financial system has been paradoxical (in the sense of reduction in number of banks but increase in their ability to compete, through bank consolidation) increase in competition in the sector. The banking business has undergone changes in the regulation of the sector, changes in consumers demand for services, technological changes and the entry of new competitors from businesses outside banking (gardner et al, 1999). Due to this an increasingly open and competitive framework has been formed, in which many financial entities are beginning to be concerned about developing defensive strategies, in order to avoid in discriminate loss of customers. According to jacuhy and chestnut (1978), firms should strive to maintain long-term relationships with their customers, in order to obtain the advantages of a clientele loyal to the firm.

union bank of nigeria plc was established in 1917, as bank of colonial african. It opened its bank at oko in august 15,1995. The bank, since its inception has initiated several customer friendly innovations and strategies which it also extended to its oko branch. These innovation and strategies include the use of automatic teller machines (atm), computerized banking services, automated security check doors, bullet proof bullion services, flash me cash, air conditioned banking hall, cable television etc.

we will examine, in the course of this research work of course, at a macro level, how these customer services innovations and strategies have increased the profitability of the bank. We will also recommend ways in which the bank could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its service delivery system.

 

1.2   statement of the problem

  1. Lack of customers satisfaction.

Ii.     Loss of market share

Iii.    Poor customer relationship

Iv.    Lack of improved customer service

  1. Poor quality services rendered to their customers

 

1.3   purpose of the study

  1. To determine if customers are satisfied with performances of the bank.

Ii.     To find out the best way to increase the banks customers.

Iii.    To increase the staff and customer relationship.

Iv.    To determine how best to improve customer service.

  1. To find out how to improve the quality of services rendered to the customers.

 

1.4   significance of the study

        this research work may be helpful to those who are either carrying out research work in banks profitability, customer service, hotels any other establishments in the service industry.

it will also be useful to scholars and students of the aforementioned areas.

 

1.5   research questions

the following are the research questions

  1. How is union bank of nigeria plc, oko branch rated by its customers and the general public, in terms of profitability?
  2. Which of union bank of nigeria’s customer service innovations are its customers aware of?
  • How do they rate them, vis-à-vis their ability to engender customer satisfaction?
  1. What perception do the customers of union bank of nigeria have of the courteousness and friendliness of their staff at oko branch?
  2. What do the customers of union bank of nigeria plc, oko branch feel about their speed of service?

 

1.6   hypothesis

the hypothesis was formulated based on the problems stated above.

  1. Null hypothesis – ho: the profitability of financial institutions in nigeria cannot be increased through improved customer service.

Ii.     Alterative hypothesis – hi:       the profitability of financial institutions in nigeria can be increased through improved customer service.

 

1.7   scope of the study

this research work is limited to union bank of nigeria plc, is services are more or less similar to that of other banks.

based on this, the researcher has decided to find out the kind of services and how to satisfactorily these services are rendered to customers.

 

1.8   definition of terms

the following terms are hereby defined:

  1. Customer services: an instrumental activity performed for a consumer or a consummatory activity involving consumer participation in but not ownership of a company’s product and facilities
  2. Marketing: marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating offering and exchanging products of value with others.
  • Marketing concept: is a corporate state of mind that insists on the integration and co-ordination of all the marketing functions which in turn are melded with all other corporate functions, for the basic purpose of producing optimal consumer benefits and maximum long-range corporate profit.
  1. Commercial bank: is an institution which accepts deposits, makes business loans and offers related services for profit.
  2. Bank: this is any person or institution responsible for collecting deposits and other valuable items from customers for safe-keeping.
  3. Customer satisfaction: – this is the extent to which a firm fulfills customers needs desires and expectations.

 

 

Continue reading Customer services in financial institutions, a step towards improving profitability

OXIDATIVE STRESS LEVEL IN FEMALES WITH HEART DISEASES USING VITAMIN A, C AND E AS DETERMINANTS

OXIDATIVE STRESS LEVEL IN FEMALES WITH HEART DISEASES USING VITAMIN A, C AND E AS DETERMINANTS

INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE MARKERS IN MALARIAL INFECTED MICE RECEIVING PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS TREATMENT

 

 

                                                   ABSTRACT

Heart disease is associated with elevated oxidative stress via increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decline in antioxidant defences. Increased oxidative stress is thought to play a role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was carried out to see the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E and total antioxidant (AO) in hypertensive female patients with heart disease. Twenty-two patients (all women) with history of Hypertension from outpatient clinic unit of the State Central Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria where studied. Eight control subjects (all women) with no history of hypertension and heart diseases were studied. The raw group data of their age, weight, height, blood pressure and pulse rate of the subjects were obtained.  They were selected on the basis of general physical examination Serum level of vitamin A, C and E were obtained using documented method. Serum levels of vitamin A,C, and E were 380.24±68.13 U/L and 135.69±21.32 U/L, 1.23±0.13 mg/dl and 1.20±0.09 mg/dl, 136.26±9.72 U/L  and 185.41±1.84 U/L in experimental and control. Vitamin A shows significant increase with experimental when compared with control, but Vitamin C shows mild increase when experimental group was compared with control group, but did not attain significant at (p<0.05) and Vitamin E shows moderate significant decrease when experiment group compared with control group at (p<0.05). This study reveals a significant reduction in serum vitamin E level of hypertensive patients as compared to the controls with the mean vitamin C level showing no significant difference. In this research, the scientific data do not justify the use of antioxidant vitamin supplements for CVD risk reduction.

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1: shows the effect of hypertension

on the blood pressure, enzyme and non

enzyme antioxidants in hypertensive

female patients          –                –       –       –       –       –  62

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Cover page        –       –       –       –       –       —      –       –       -i

Title page  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  –    –       -ii

Certification      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       -iii

Dedication         –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – –     -iv

Acknowledgements    –       –       –       –       –       –  –    –       -v

Abstract    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  –    –       -vi

List of tables and figure     –       –       –       –       –       –  –    -vii

Table of content         –       –       –       –       –       –       –  –    -vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1    INTRODUCTION  –     –       –       –       –       –  –    –       –1

1.2    Aims and Objectives          –       –       –       –  –    –       -5

1.3    Scope of study  –       –       –       –       –  –    –       –       -6

1.4    Significance of study:         –       –       –       –  –    –       -6

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    LITERATURE REVIEW       –       –       –       – –     –       – 7

2.1    HEART DISEASE       –       –       –                —      –       – 7

2.2    TYPES OF HEART DISEASE       —      –  –    –       –       – 8

2.2.2 Hypertensive heart disease         —      –       – –     –       -8

2.2.3 Heart failure    – –       –       –       –       –  –    –       -8

2.2.4 Cor pulmonale or pulmonary heart disease         —      -9

2.2.5 Valvular heart  disease      –       –       –       —      —      9

2.2.6 Cerebrovascular disease    –       –       –       –  –    —      -9

2.2.7 Congenital heart disease   –       –       –       —      -10

2.3    Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease     –       –  –    -10

2.4    Risk factors       –       –       –       –       –  –    —      —      -11

2.5    OXIDATIVE STRESS –       –       –       –  –    —      -13

2.6    Physiological Sources of Reactive Oxidant

Species in Cells         –       –       –       –       –       —-  13

2.6.1 Mitochondrial respiration as a source

of reactive oxidant  species in cells    –       –       –  –    -14

2.6.2 NADH/NADPH oxidase system as a source of

reactive oxidant species in the cell    –       –       –  –    -17

2.6.3 Xanthine oxido-reductase system as a source of

reactive oxidant species in the cell     –       –      –         –  –    -20

2.6.4 NOS uncoupling as a source of reactive

oxidant species in the cell. Uncoupled NO –     —          21

2.7    Reactive Oxidant Species Formation and

Cardiovascular Disease     –       –       –       –      –         —       21

2.7.1 Oxidative stress and endothelial

Dysfunction in aterosclerosis     –       –       –     ­-          –  –    -24

2.7.2 Oxidative stress and hypertension      –       —  –   —      31

2.7.3 Oxidative stress and cardiovascular ischemia –   —      -33

2.7.4 Oxidative stress and heart failure    – –       –  –    -35

2.7.5 Oxidative stress and postoperative arrhythmias –  –    -39

2.8    Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Disease   –       -39

2.8.1 Antioxidants     –       –                –       –  –    —      —      -40

2.8.2 The Use of Antioxidants     –       –       –       –  –    —      -42

2.8.3 Dietary Intervention and Risk of

Cardiovascular Disease     –       –       –       –       –       –  –    -42

2.8.4 Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Risk        —  –   —      -45

2.8.5 Vitamin C and Cardiovascular Disease       —  –   —      -48

2.8.6 Vitamin E and Cardiovascular Disease       –       —      -51

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    MATERIALS AND METHOD        –       –       –       —      -56

3.1    MATERIALS      –       –       –       –       –  –    —      —      -56

3.1.1 Instruments      –       –       –       –       –       –  –    —      -56

3.1.2 Apparatus and glass wares        –       –       –  –    —      -56

3.1.3 Reagents   –       –       —      –       –       –  –    —      —      -57

3.1.4 Specimen –       –                –       –       –  –    —      -57

3.1.5 Blood Serum     –       –       –       —      –  –    —      —      -57

3.2    METHODS         –       –       –       –                –  –    —      -57

3.2.1 Study group      –       –       –       –         –     —      —      -57

3.2.2 Clinical assessment  –       –       –                —      —      -58

3.2.3 Sample collection and preservation    –       –       –  –    —58

3.3    SAMPLE ANALYSIS   –       –       –       –  –    —      —      -58

3.3.1 Serum vitamin E estimation     –       –       –  –    —      -58

3.3.2 Serum  Vitamin A estimation     –       –       –  –    —      -60

3.3.3 Serum Vitamin C estimation      –       –       –  –    —      -60

3.4    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS    –       –       –  –    —      —      -61

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    RESULTS —      –       –       –       –      –       –                -62

 CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  –    — 64

5.1 Conclusion –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –   –      67

References

 

 

                                CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

Heart disease(cardiovascular disease), defined as coronary artery disease, hypertensive heart disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and atherosclerosis including cerebral artery disease and strokes, is the leading cause of death in the United States and disability in the  world today, (Thom, 1989). In the United States, the heart disease death toll is nearly one million each year, and in 2002 the estimated cost of heart disease treatment was $326.6 billion, (Shekelle et al., 2003). To provide early prognosis and better therapies for preventing and curing these diseases, an understanding of the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of heart disease is essential. Growing evidence indicates that oxdant stress production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other free radicals under pathophysiologic conditions is integral in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Free radicals are molecules containing one or more unpaired electrons in atomic or molecular orbital, (Gutteridge et al., 2000). Reactive free radicals play a crucial part in different physiological processes ranging from cell signaling, inflammation and the immune defense, (Elahi et al., 2006). There is increasing evidence that abnormal production of free radicals lead to increased stress on cellular structures and causes changes in molecular pathways that underpins the pathogenesis of several important human diseases, including heart disease, neurological disease and cancer and in the process of physiological ageing, (Pacher 2008; Vassalle et al., 2008). One of the major contributors of oxidative stress is the reactive oxygen species (ROS) family of molecules. These include free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (HO-), lipid radicals (ROO-) and nitric oxide (NO). Other reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), although are not free radicals but they have oxidizing effects that contribute to oxidative stress. ROS has been implicated in cell damage; necrosis and cell apoptosis due to its direct oxidizing effects on macromolecules such as lipids, proteins and DNA, (Izakovic et al., 2006). Production of one free radical can lead to further formation of radicals via sequential chain reactions, (Cronin et al., 2005).

Understanding the contribution of free radical stress in the pathogenesis of disease will allow us to study the development of oxidative stress; a condition that occurs due to an imbalance between cellular production of oxidant molecules and the availability of appropriate antioxidants species that defend against them. In physiological conditions, cells would increase activities of antioxidant enzymes and other antioxidant defenses to counteract occurrence of oxidative stress, (Brunzini et al., 2004). These include radical scavengers such as vitamin E, A, beta carotene and vitamin C, Manganese dependent superoxide dismutase such as manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductae and catalase (CAT). Decreased risk of cardiovascular death has been associated with higher blood levels of vitamin C and E. In addition, vitamin C, vitamin E, and A have demonstrated antioxidant effects, including beneficial effects on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. There is evidence that these vitamins affect other risk factors for CVD such as hypertension. Vitamin E may also reduce coronary artery blockage by decreasing blood platelet aggregation. Thus, it was reasonable to expect that supplementation with these antioxidants would decrease the risk of developing CVD.  Large numbers of people are taking antioxidants with the expectation that they will prevent disease. As part of a natural defense system, antioxidants can mitigate the activity of free radicals and other oxidative species that have been implicated in the development of heart disease, (Krzanowski, 1991; Duthie et al., 1999). The epidemiologic and observational literature has suggested a beneficial effect of antioxidant-rich foods, as well as specific antioxidants, on the risk of CVD and stroke, (Asplund, 2002; Tribble, 1999). Because oxidative functions also contribute positively to the health of the cell by their participation in energy metabolism, biosynthesis, detoxification, and cellular signaling, a balance is clearly required between the pro-oxidants and the antioxidant defense system to maintain health, (German et al., 2001).

1.2     Aims and Objectives

The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of three antioxidants, vitamin E, vitamin C, and A, for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or modification of known risk factors for heart diseases in hypertensive female patients

Specifically, the objective of this study is to determine;

  1. The vitamin A level in hypertensive patient with heart disease.
  2. The vitamin C level in hypertensive patient with heart disease.

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER SOLD IN ABA

 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER SOLD IN ABA

 

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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447

First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

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form>

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08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction and Literature Review –       –       –       1
  • Physical Characteristics of Water –       –       –       8
  • Temperature –       –       –       –       –       –       –       9
  • Turbidity –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       9
  • Conductivity –       –       –       –       –       –       –       10
  • Chemical Characteristics of Water –       –       –       11
  • Inorganic Nutrients –       –       –       –       –       –       12
  • Hardness of Water –       –       –       –       –       –       13
  • Cation –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       15

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   MATERIALS AND METHODS   –       –       –       –       16

2.1   Samples Collection  –       –       –       –       –       –       16

2.2   Samples preservation and Storage   –       –       –       16

2.3   Laboratory Analysis of Water Samples     –       –       17

2.3.1 Temperature   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       20

2.3.2 pH   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       21

2.3.3 Total Hardness       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       21

2.3.4 Calcium Hardness  –       –       –       –       –       –       22

2.3.5 Magnesium Hardness     –       –       –       –       –       23

2.3.6 Total Alkalinity       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       23

2.3.7 Dissolved Oxygen Determination    –       –       –       24

2.3.8 Biochemical Oxygen Determination        –       –       –       25

2.3.9 Chemical Oxygen Determination    –       –       –       26

2.3.10 Nitrate   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       28

2.3.11 Sulphate       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       29

2.3.12 Phosphate     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       30

2.3.13 Isolation of Micro-organisms –       –       –       –       31

2.3.14 Catalase        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       32

2.3.15 Coagulase     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       33

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1   Result      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       34

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   DISCUSSION   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       36

4.1   Conclusion and Recommendation   –       –       –       41

4.2   Recommendation     –       –       –       –       –       –       42

 

Reference –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       43

Appendix

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

The investigation carried out on the physico-chemical analysis of sachet water sold in Aba were conducted from January to February 2012 on these water samples (DINS, FAMBUS and GRAMCO). Their individual temperature varied from the range of (24.00 to 25.60)0C against (15.28)0C of WHO standard. Their pH were within the range of (6.90 to 7.60) against (7.00, 8.50). Their total hardness were far below standard from the range g2 940.00 to 44.00mgl) against (200.00). Their calcium were within the range of (30.00 to 32.00) against 975.00). Magnesium hardness (8.00 to 16.00), Total alkalinity (16.00 to 19.00), dissolved oxygen demand (12.00 to 18.30), Biochemical oxygen demand (8.95 to 10.50), Chemical oxygen demand (2.00 to 4.00). Their nitrate ranges from )0.0026 to 0.0030) against (10) sulphate were within the range of (0.20 to 0.05), chloride (9.20 to 11.00), phosphate (0.0003 to 0.0025). The other result obtained were the microbial assessment of the three water samples and it shows that in Table 3.2 MacConkey agar was used as an isolation medium and the following test colonial morphology, cell shape, catalase, coagulase was negative in NINS and GRAMCO water but for FAMBUS water the test was positive for catalase, the cell shape was rod like in shape, its colonial morphology shows small pink colour, Escherichia coli was observed as probable organism but was negative for coagulase test. ie in FAMBUS water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.1   INTRODUCTION

Water is a clear, colourless, testless and odorless liquid that is essential for life. Water is among the natural resources that occupies 708 of the earth surface (Willy et al, 2008). The human body needs about three to four litres of water per day for its normal functions. Apart form drinking and body functions, man needs water for various purposes including for use in transportation, recreation, water disposal, hydroelectric system (Onyeagba and Isu 2009).

Watear is a good solvent and is often reffered to as the universal solvent. It is transparent in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. Aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them. Ultraviolent and infrared light is strongly absorbed. Chemically, water is made up of two moles of hydrogen and one mole of oxygen in the ratio 2:1 the boiling point of water (and all other liquids) is dependent on the barometric pressure. For example, at the top of mount. Everest water boils at 680C (1540F) compared to 1000C (2120F) at the sea level conversely, water deep in the ocean near geothermal vets can reach temperature of hand reds or degrees and remains liquid.

Water has the second highest molar specific of any known substance, after ammonia, as well as high heat of vaporization (40.65KJ mol-1). Both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules these two unusual by buffering large fluctuation in temperature. Water plays a critical role in regulating body temperature, it carries nutrients throughout the body, it improves digestion, it eliminates waste and toxins from the body.

The total amount of water in the body of an average adult is 37 litres, human brains are 75% water, human bones are 25% water, human blood is 83% water. Water needs to be continuously replaced since, on average, 250ml is lost on a daily basis through breathing alone. By drinking an adequate amount of water each day at least 8 glasses/ 2 litres, you can ensure that your body has all it needs to maintain good health, of course, your fluid needs might be double or even triple that amount when you work out for more than an hour in the heart.

Water suppresses the appetite naturally and helps the body metabolize stored fat. Incredible as it may seem, water is quite possible the single. Most important catalyst in losing weight and keeping it off. Studies have shown that a decrease in water intake will cause fat deposits to increase, while an increase in water intake can actually reduce fat deposits.

The kidneys can’t function properly without enough water. When they don’t work to capacity, some of their load is dumped onto the liver. One of the liver’s primary functions is to metabolize stored fat into usually energy for the body. Water can help relieve constipation, when the body gets too little water, it siphons what it needs from internal sources which the colon is one primary functions. But when a person drinks enough water normal bowel function usually returns.

In order of importance, air, water and food are the three main’s necessities of life. A person can survive fro a mouth without food, about a week, without water and less than five minutes without air. The provision of an adequate supply of safe drinking water was of the eight components of primary health care 1918. Increase in human population have exerted an enormous pressure on the provision of safe drinking water especially in areas of developing.

Countries in the ear of colonialism in Nigeria. Water was supplied to the public free by the government. But Nigeria has moved form a mixed to capitalist economy. In cities and towns today, water now attracts rates and fees with insufficient governments supply private sector participation has evolved and the idea of packaged drinking water popularly referred as “pure water” is now a common phenomenon in eh country.

Drinking water is now commercially packed in easy to open 50-60ml polyethene sacs and is referred to as “sachet water”. This packed water is cheap and convent and have increasingly become popular. Arising from the abuse of its production leading to a situation whereby the pure. Although there is death of documentation of data in incidence rate. It has been widely observed that the advent of pure water has significantly increase the case of samonelosis and typhoid fever in recent years.

Water pollution has continue to generate unpleasant implication. For health and economic development in Nigeria (Adelegan 2004). There are several files and regulations for drinking water. In Nigeria, such regulations are monitored by the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) which was established by decree No. 15 of 1993 surveillance carried out by NAFDAC between 2004 and 2005 revealed that some producers of packed water indulge in share practices such as a packaging of untreated water, production under unhygienic conditions, illegal production of unregistered water in unapproved premises, use of non-food grade sachets and release of packed water for distribution and sale without data masking, these malpractices completed the agency to formulate guidelines for the production of wholesome packaged water.

However, deposit the policies formulated by public and internal agencies to address this problems, the situation in Nigeria seems degenerating and therefore demands increase attention in order to effectively solve the problem. However; there is need to fully asses the extent of the problem and it causes. Drinking water regulation require that potable water on human consumption be free from human diseases. Causing bacterial and specific of these pathogenic (Listw 1993). This does not mean that drinking water should be sterile, some bacterial are classified as pathogens. Examples of bacterial pathogens and their related diseases (dysenteric) and lagionella pnenophilia (legconneaire’s disease) this study was therefore aimed at investigating the incidence of pathogenic organisms in sachet packed drinking water sold in Aba, Abia State.

For studies (Olayemi, 2007; Adekunle et al, 2003; Asheye et al; 2001; Gyang et al; 2008) have been conducted in recent years on the quality of packaged water in Nigeria. These focused primarily on the end-product, leaving out the processes that determine the final rate of the package water, as well as the people (various stakeholders involved) in whose hands the will power to effect the desire changes consequently, practicable recommendations aimed at changing the statusquo have not yet emerged. This study set out to ascertain the bacteriological quality of the water in sachets, to identify contributory factors that determine the fate of the packaged water product as it moves form catchment to consumers, and to highlight unharnessed opportunities for policy improvement that would allow for sustained and improved regulation of the sachet water industry.

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

The biological assessment of water bodies has helped a lot in relating the presence and the concentration of certain minerals and ions to the condition of the water. This research has been embarked upon by many researchers both corporate and individuals and has till date succeeded in providing the bases for acceptance and resulting of certain water sources. These works have all been polished and there is now a strong belief that the degree perfection of a particular water is relative, considering its context of purposes. These standards depends on the properties of the water which automatically affects mineral concentration. These properties or characteristics can be physical or chemical.

 

1.1.1        PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER

pH: This is described as the general measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the water sample. The pH of water on a scale of 0 to 14, is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration, water contains both ions and OH ins. Pure distilled water contains equal number of H and OH ions and is considered to be natural (pH7), neither basic nor acidic (Mitihell et al 2007). Acidity measures the amount of base required to neutralize a given sample to a specific point, this certainly changes the quality of the water (APHA, 1999). Alkalinity is due to the presence of carbonates (CO32-) and bicarbonates (HCO3), (Frederic et al 2006). The level of alkalinity of water depends on the location of the sample sources. Rain water can be used to determine the solubility of chemical form of most substances, for example, hydroxides of many metals are insoluble, therefore the higher the pH, the less metal available in water (Frank, 2005). It has been noted that alkaline water are noted that alkaline water are not typical of Africa (Holden et al 2006). The pH may be determined by either electronic or calorimetric methods. The glass electrode H, meter is the most widely used method and it is quick and accurate. The color of the solution does not affect results, but accurate figures cannot be obtained if the water is oily.

 

1.1.1.2    TEMPERATURES

Temperature is significant because biochemical reactions eg. uptake of oxygen by bacterial proceed more rapidly at a high temperature. Temperature also affect the solubility of oxygen in water, with less oxygen available for aquatic life at higher temperatures. This means that aquatic life is more vulnerable during the summer period when the flows are low and water temperature are high. Elevated temperatures can occur where thermal discharges form power stations and this can lead to thermal pollution.

 

1.1.1.3    TURBIDITY

Turbidity may be used as an estimate of undissolved substances in the sample. It may be measured by visual comparison with the standards or photo-metrically using spectrophotometer (standard methods for examination of waters and waste waters 1999). Water turbidity is as a result of the pressure of suspended) material which could be organic in that water. The materials include industrial waters, agricultural wastes, microbial growth, erosion products, presence of human organs inputs.

 

1.1.1.4    CONDUCTIVITY

Conductivity is a measure of the amount of material dissolved in water. Conductivity generally increases over the length of a river but an unusual increase in conductivity can indicate the presence of polluting water. Conductivity is the reciprocal of the resistance offered by a solution with platinum electrode immersed in it each 1cm square, 11cm apart. It is usually denoted by the symbol K and defined by the geometry of the cell and RI the resistance in ohms. I is now a standard practice to express Nmho/cm. Sometimes the result will be shown as Ns. Conductivity varies with temperature and also with the nature of the ions and their concentration in the sample. Tests have shown that near neutrality, the effect of different ions at the same equivalent can give a raid and useful indication of the total ionic strength of water samples. Measurements are generally carried out using a conductivity meter at either 200C or 2500C. Values for natural water generally fall between the range of 85-120NSCM-1.

 

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER

1.2   Total Hardness: Total hardness in natural water are mainly due to the presence of calcium and magnesium salts and bicarbonate formed by reactions in the soil and rock through which the water percolates. Water with low alkalinity or hardness may be susceptible to pH reduction by “acid rain”, these can prevent the immediate formation of lather with soap and the formation of scale in pipes and fittings of hot water systems (Alpha 1999, Tebbutt 2002). Hard water can be softened on a larger scale by adding just enough line to precipitate the calcium as carbonate to remove the calcium salt.

 

1.1.2.2    INORGANIC NUTRIENTS

Nitrates: Nitrates is one of the inorganic nutrients in water it occurs as nitrate in water. Nitrate is known to be an important plant nutrient, thus it is used often as a fertilizer and is found in high concentration rare exceed 10mgll and are frequency less than 1mgll especially during periods of high primary production. Elevated concentrations in indicative of the influences of man such the use of nitrate fertilizer, septic tank failure and the vulnerability of the aquifer to infiltration be surface drainage. High level of nitrate greater than 20mglc may heat hazard to juvenile mammals (Lind, 2004). Nitrate level have been shown to be at the range of 0.4 – 0.55mglc in Africa water (Holden, 1960). Most sachet water in Nigeria, Aba to be precise have a nitrate range of 0.002 – 0.003mglc.

Nitrate is the reduced form of nitrite. This is common digestive systems. Nitrate is known to attack hemoglobin, producing methamoglobin this form of complex losses its oxygen carrying capacity in the red blood cell. The nitrate can come from nitrate drinking water or from food.

Phosphorus is usually present in water as phosphate. They are usually formed when metallic atoms replace. Some or all of the hydrogen in phosphoric acid. This is usually in small amount, except when there has been human course enrichment of water. (Dugan et al, 2004). The main sources of phosphates in ground water and surface water include fertilizers, sewage, detergents and rain water which enter the centre mainly as a result of surface runoff and blank erosion. The amount of phosphates that water can hold without becoming polluted varies in a stream draining into a lake, the phosphates should not exceed 0.025mgll. A stream not flowing into a lake should not exceed 0.025mgll, excess phosphate concentration can lead to eutrophication process, by inner algal growth. Generally the water lower the total phosphates value of water, the better. Total phosphorus includes organic phosphates. While organic phosphates comprise the ions bonded to soil practices, and those present in laundry detergents (polyphosphates) (Parreira, 2005).

Rocks and many other geological land marks have also proved to be very good sources of some element that are of great marine and aquatic values. These rocks formed as a result of sedimentation of carcasses of organisms over a long period of time and through the deposition of molten margin which on its own house these elements.

Calcium (Ca) is known to be present in water as a result of some runoff from these rocks. Such rock as limestone, gypsum and dolomite, provide a very high concentration of calcium, to water bodies. These concentration ranges from 40.00mgll (Lind, 2003). It known to have a very high aquatic productivity. Suort as bone tissues in fishes and nollus shells and also function in bone calcification in humans. It is very important in bone maintenance (David, et al, 2000) and also in regulation of nerve and muscle function (Robert, et al 2003).

Magnesium (Mg) which is mostly produced from runoff from igneous and carbonate rocks. It is very important in water hardness, just as calcium. It is important as a nutrient in plants where it aids growth and production of some porphyrings eg. Chlorophyll (Wetzel et al 2004, David et al 2005). It also has a very important function in humans where it is involved as constituents of bones, teeth; and also acts as an enzymes co-factor (Robert, et al 205).

 

1.1.2.3    CATION

Sodium is another important element which is also a macronutrient. It is found in high concentration in igneous rocks and in Africa water (Gaudet, et al 206). In humans, it is the principal cation in extra cellular fluid; regulates plasma volume, acid base balance, nerve and muscle function etc. (Robert, et al 2006). It has a very low concentration in sachet water in Aba.

 

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

The aim of this project was to access the physico-chemical properties of sachet water sold in Aba, Abia State.

 

INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE MARKERS IN MALARIAL INFECTED MICE RECEIVING PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS TREATMENT

INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE MARKERS IN MALARIAL INFECTED MICE RECEIVING PHYLLANTHUS  AMARUS  TREATMENT

ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH TECH. PROJECT TOPICS

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

Phyllanthus amarus has been consistently reported as a rich herb having medicinal value and ethnomedical importance. It has been used to eliminate gallstone, malaria and some other aliments, but the effect of its use on changes in ocular glucose, proteins and lipids — analytes that influence intraocular pressure, has not been fully documented. So, in this study, the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllanthus amarus on the levels of ocular glucose, proteins and lipids was investigated using homogenized ocular tissue of experimental mice. Forty five (45) adult mice weighing between 22-27g were randomly divided into 9 groups  and used for the study. Group 1: normal control (uninfected and untreated mice) Group 2: malaria control (mice infected with plasmodium berghei and untreated) Group 3: parasitized (infected with P. Berghei treated with 100mg/kg P. amarus) Group 4: parasitized (infected with P. Berghei treated with 200mg/kg P. amarus) Group 5: parasitized (infected with P. Berghei treated with 300mg/kg P. amarus)

Group 6: parasitized (infected with P. Berghei treated with 5mg/kg chloroquine)

Group 7: uninfected but treated with 100mg/kg P .amarus Group 8: uninfected but treated with 200mg/kg P. amarus Group 9: uninfected but treated with 300mg/kg P. amarus .Each group was treated for

7days and on the 8th day the animals were scarificed under chloroform anaesthesia after an overnight fast. The mice eyes were carefully excised, rinsed in cold normal saline and prepared for the biochemical analysis of glucose, proteins and lipids using standard methods. Results show that Phyllanthus amarus administration (irrespective of dose) did not significantly (p>0.05) alter ocular glucose and protein levels, but increased (p<0.05) lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) concentrations when compared with control values. The altered ocular lipid homeostasis may have some biochemical implications and clinical significance. This should be validated in further studies.

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: glucose in the serum of p. berghei infected and uninfected mice treated with phyllanthus amarus leaf extract.    ———————————————————        25

Table 2: changes in blood cholesterol and triglyceride induced by plasmodium berghei infected mice    ——————————————————————————–       26

Table 3:  changes in blood albumin and total protein induced by p. berghei infected mice    —————————————————————————————————        27

Cover         ——————————————————————–      i

Title            ——————————————————————–    ii

Certification   —————————————————————-     iii

Dedication      ————————————————————–       iv

Acknowledgement   ——————————————————         v

Abstract         —————————————————————       vi

List of Tables   ————————————————————-     vii

Table of contents   ——————————————————-       viii

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION ———————————————————————–      1

1.1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY    ——————————————————-      1

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM    ——————————————————-        3

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY    ————————————————————-        4

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY    ——————————————————–        4

1.5 HYPOTHESIS    ————————————————————————–     5

1.6 BRIEF REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE    ———————————     5

1.7 BIOMAKERS   —————————————————————————-    5

1.8 RETINOPATHY    ————————————————————————   6

1.9 MUSCULAR ODEMA   —————————————————————–    6

1.10 WHAT IS MALARIA?    ———————————————————    7

1.11 CAUSES OF MALARIA       ———————————————————–     8

1.12 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA         ———————————————-     8

1.13 GLOBAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MALARIA..   ——        9

1.14TRANSMISSION AND LIFE CYCLE OF PLASMODIUM PARASITE   —–      11

1.15 LIFE CIRCLE OF PLASMODIUM PARASITE   ———————————–    12

CHAPTER TWO   ——————————————————————————    14

  1. 0MATERIALS AND METHOD ——————————————————– 14

2.1 MATERIALS    —————————————————————————–    14

2.2 METHODS    ——————————————————————————–   14

2.2.1 ANIMALS CARE AND HANDLING    ———————————————    14

2.2.2 ANIMAL GROUPING AND INOCULATION WITH PLASMODIUM BERGHEI    —————————————————————————————————–     15

2.2.3 ANIMAL SACRIFICE AND COLLECTION OF SPECIMEN    —————-     16

2.2.4 ANALYSIS OF SPECIMEN   ———————————————————-   16

 

2.3 GLUCOSE ESTIMATION    ———————————————————–    16

2.3.1 REACTION PRINCIPLE    ———————————————————-     16

2.3.2 PROCEDURE    ———————————————————————–     17

 

2.4 TOTAL CHOLESTEROL ESTIMATION    ——————————————   17

2.4.1 PRINCIPLE    ————————————————————————–     17

2.4.2 EQUATION    ————————————————————————–    17

2.4.3 PROCEDURE    ————————————————————————    18

2.4.4 CALCULATION    ———————————————————————   19

 

2.5. TRIGLYCERIDE ESTIMATION    —————————————————    19

2.5.1 PRINCIPLE    ————————————————————————–     19

2.5.2 EQUATION    —————————————————————————   20

2.5.3 PROCEDURE    ———————————————————————–     20

2.5.4 CALCULATION    ——————————————————————–    21

 

2.6 TOTAL PROTEIN ———————————————————————-     21

2.6.1 PRINCIPLE    ————————————————————————–     21

2.6.2 PROCEDURE    ———————————————————————–     21

2.6.3 CALCULATION    ——————————————————————–     22

 

2.7 ALBUMIN ———————————————————————————–22

2.7.1 PRINCIPLE    ————————————————————————–      22

2.7.2 PROCEDURE    ———————————————————————–      23

2.7.3 CALCULATION    ——————————————————————–     23

2.7.4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ————————————————————– 24

CHAPTER THREE    —————————————————————————   25

3.0 RESULTS    ———————————————————————————-   25

CHAPTER FOUR    —————————————————————————–   28

4.0 DICUSSION    ——————————————————————————    28

4.1 CONCLUSION    —————————————————————————– 29

REFERENCES   —————————————————————————30

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

1.1.1. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Nature can be considered as the ultimate chemist, about 80% of the world inhabitants still depend on natural products that have inspired chemists and physicians for years because of their rich structural diversity and complexity considerable advances have been obtained for the understanding of natural product biosynthesis in the recent decades.

Malaria, a mosquito borne infectious disease is endemic in the tropical and sub tropical regions of the world (Ahimanah et al., 2000). It is a deadly disease which lowers life expectancy and a major cause of infant mortality in highly endemic areas (WHO, 2011).

Malaria infection in humans and animals is caused by the Plasmodium. Several species of Plasmodium have the ability to cause malaria in animals, including rodents (mice). These parasites are not direct practical concern to man or his domestic animals. The interest of these parasites is that they are practical model organism in the laboratory for the experimental study of human malaria.

Plasmodium berghei is considered a comparable genetic model to human There is a high degree of genetic conservation this up to 99% (pennachio, 2003) and it is well established that mice also exhibit natural differences in susceptibility to malaria infection (Greenberg et al., 1954). P. berghei is transmitted by Anopheles mosquito and it infects the liver after being injected into the blood stream by the bite of the infected female mosquito. After a few days of development and multiplication, these parasites leave the liver and invade erythrocyte (red blood cells). The multiplication causes Anemia and damage essential organs in the body. P. berghei infection also affects the brain and can cause cerebral complications in laboratory mice.

The plant, phyllanthus schumach (Euphorbiaceac) is commonly known as bhuirali Usually occurs in Asain, Maharashitra, Burma, Nicobar, Islands malesia and America. Phyllanthus amarus schumach is a native to Americans (van Holthoon, 1999). Phyllanthus amarus is small, erect, annual herb that grows 30-40cm in height which is indigenous to the rain forests of the Amazon and other tropical areas throughout the world including America, India and Nigeria. The Spanish name of the plant, chanca piedra, means stone breaker, wind breaker, gulf leaf flower or gala of wind (Celia, A.  et al., 2006).

Phyllanthus amarus is an Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen, it plays an important role in Ayurvedia, an Indian system of medicine and it is used to treat jaundice, gastropathy, diarrhea, dysentery, fevers, scabies, gential, infections, ulcers, and wounds (Patel et al., 2011).

The different plant parts are ethnobotanically used in various diseases and disorders. For example, the leaves are used as expectorant and diaphoretic and the fruits as carminative, laxative, astringent. Diuretic and tonic to the liver. The juice or extract of its thinner roots and young leaves are taken internally to stimulate the kidney. Heyne recorded its uses in the Dutch  Indies (Indonesia) for stomach, aches, gonorrhoea and children cough (Karuna,  et al., 2009).

Research have shown that the plant has demonstrated anti-viral property against hepatitis B virus (Boeira  et al., 2 011), hepatoprotective (Amin,  et al., 2013), anticarcinogenic (Rajeshkumar,  et al., 2002), antimutagenics, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory (Obidike,  et al., 2010), anti-diabetics (Okoli, et al., 2011) and antilipidermic (Khanna,  et al.,  2002) activities.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Since malaria has been speculated to alter biochemical functions of organs of the body such as brain, liver, heart, and spleen, this research is designed to know if such biochemical alternations also include changes in the intraocular pressure markers in experimental mice. Phyllanthus amarus is a medicinal herb used for the treatment of several diseases including malarial infection. In southern Nigeria the utilization of Phyllanthus amarus is popular but whether it improves or disturbs

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CLUB SIDE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEM

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CLUB SIDE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEM

(CASE STUDY OF ENUGU RANGERS MANAGEMENT BOARD)

 

 

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ABSTRACT

Nigeria is a seller loving country as football is being played all levels in a curbside there are venous farms representing various clubs in Nigeria. Club scale is a team sports played by eleven (ii) players (male or females) a earth such side of the opposites team. One of each team must be the goal keeper. Usually the gave may not, if are side or both presents less than ii players. The players. Seek to advance a round reflected leather or (rubber ball) forwards and between an opponents goal post and under crossbar ,, by either ticking scribbling or pushing it with any part of the body except curbside as gave which are played on national and international levels and have their governing bodies. They are usually played according to the rules loud down by the governing bodies they include sclera, Basket ball, hard ball volley ball etc. base on these sports and gone above, we Base on now discuss the following sport chibside as followers.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Over view
  • The aim of study
  • Statement of problem
    • Purpose of Study
  • justification of work
  • Limitation of Study
  • Methodology

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Description and Analysis of the Existing System
  • Method of Data Collection used.
    • Interview method.
    • Reference to written text
  • Input Analysis
  • Process Analysis
  • Output Analysis
  • Problem of the Existing System
  • Justification for the new System

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Design of the New system

  • Output Specification and Design
  • Input Specification and Design
  • File Design
  • Procedure Chart
  • System Flowchart
  • System Requirement

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Implementation of the new System

  • Program Design
  • Program Flowchart
  • Pseudo code
  • Source Using

 

CHAPTER SIX

Documentation

 

CHAPTER SEVEN

Recommendation Conclusion and

References

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

  • OVER VIEW

Club scale is originated from Sunland in 1848. the advocate of foot ball met in Cambridge to drown up list of rules which because know as the Cambridge rules thus meeting was not sufficient that some school of through favour carrying the ball as permitted by Ref by. This result was favoured. In 1863 this group formed a football association called London football association. This body Exited until the formation of the federation of international football (FIFH) in 1904.

latest project materials and topics

  • AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

The aims and objectives of the study are as follow

  1. Develop of gave software for the club
  2. To unite the youths of the country after.
  • To fish out hidden sports men and women that will represent the country at international competitions.
  1. Any hosting state builds every sports faculty needed for all sports. This helps to develop sports from state to state competition is held every two years.

 

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

There are specific offences by a player is panelized by. The evolved of a direct free fuk to the opposing scale in club during the of competition in league. If the offence is committed in a player is awarded planarity to the opponent the offence are changing an opponent violently. Holding and pushing of opponent by had

 

 

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