THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERSONAL SELLING STRATEGIES IN MARKETING OF CAPITAL GOODS

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERSONAL SELLING STRATEGIES IN MARKETING OF CAPITAL GOODS

CASE STUDY OF ANAMCO LTD ENUGU

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PREFACE

This study of cusses on the effectiveness of personnel selling in the marketing of capital goods. It is necessitated by managerial uncertainty with regard to the cause of the aforementioned redirection in sales volumes and profitability in recent times. This managerial indecision created a room for its suspicion as to whether the sales force was effective or otherwise.In other to find an appropriate solution to the prevailing predicaments, a pilot survey was carried out and its result was organized in a report.

Chapter one contains a general discussion of the marketing concept and personal selling as a promotional tool. It went further to state the problem to be studied and why this study was carried out, the scope and limitation of the study and finally and hypothesis and the definition of terms.A number of past related literature examined by other studies as it relates to the effectiveness of personal selling in marketing of capital goods are highlighted in chapter two. Chapter three deals with the design of the study, the methods used in collecting relevant data. It also deals with way the questionnaires were distributed and treatment of data.        The data got, from the research survey were analyzed and interpreted. Also similar question on both questionnaires were compared in chapter four.       Finally, the summary of findings, conclusion on the research and recommendation made by the researcher are all in the chapter five.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

PERSONAL SELLING DEFINED

DEVELOPMENT AND ORIENTATION

PERSONAL SELLING PROCESS AND ITS APPLCIATION TO INDUSTRIAL SELLING

PERSONAL SELLING STRATEGIES IN MARKETING (OF CAPITAL GOODS)

IMPROTANCE OF PERSONAL SELLING RELATIONS TO OTHER PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES.

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF FINDING, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

SUMAMRY OF FINDINGS

RECOMMENDATION

CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

                                                        CHAPTER ONE

                                        

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

According to L.A. Rogers (1980) personal selling has become one of the vital promotional tools in marketing. He further buttresed the above proposition by stipulating that after all the theorists, planners must have had their moment and the predicaments associated with production, finance and labour have been resolved, then someone has to go out and knock at someone’s door and sell.

This revelation is apparently acceptable because a product cannot be produced at Enugu and is not available in place like Lagos where such product is highly needed. This is the significance behind the notion of sales contention that, they should investigate into the needs of consumers as well as filling them with satisfaction and maximize profit objectives.

A critical analysis of the above statement highlights the importance of the effectiveness of personal selling on the marketing of capital goods. A product may be of extremely high grade bu8t has no utility until it gets to the hands of prospective buyers, and the most appropriate route for passing products from manufacturing arena to the hands of potential buyers happens to be through personal selling.

Personal selling is dynamic, flexible and volatile. Traditionally, it is mainly associated with commercial transactions which has passed through distinct eras that are characterized as, the eras of the early traders – the American peddlers and the era of the professional sales people. The early traders exist in most ancient cities. Some of these earliest states based the primary portion of their nomies on trading with other communities. Trades typically have the ownership of the goods being sold, manufactured either by themselves or their immediate families. At times, they perform their marketing functions like, transportation, and storage, in addition to selling obligations.

The American peddlers of the colonial era enable them sell their goods to the then settlers. Most of these settlers were immigrants who view their respective jobs as one of the available means of getting a fresh start in a new country. Professional selling started shortly after the World War II. Under this seen, the economy switched from the previsions situation of sellers’ market to that of buyers’ market in which goods were plentiful in supply. Due to the industrial revolution of the 17th century which encourage the birth of a number of new companies of which capital goods companies were among.

The companies had varieties of products with moderate qualities. A s at the said era, many industries operated under the philosophy “that the customers will buy any product provided it can be supplied” goods had to be marketed mainly for the facts that consumers now have choices and the selling adopted a radical change to reject this new seen.

MB Anamco is a global and also a franchising company whose head quarter is a Germany with its subsidiary manufacturing plant located at Emene Industrial Layout here in Enugu State. It started its operation around 1980. As the company began to experience increase in productivity and sales volumes, it started opening sales branches in different states of the country. It has been a leading firm in the motor industry with transparent image.

Anambra Motor Company at its inception was not hing but a mere motor assembly plant, but the prevailing situation with the company has changed drastically from a mere assembly plant to a manufacturing company.

The progress and high demanded of the product is a partial brain behind the company’s elevation in product capacity in previous years, and this also created rooms for the absorption of more workers in the divergent department, thus helped to reduce the high rate of social menace that would have associated the situation of mess unemployment.

However, the aforementioned company, which hit her to had attained the peak in the motor manufacturing industry, has started experiencing a divindling ground in its sales volume and market share. According to an insider, this experience is accounted for by a number of recent, developments. Some of era, the incessant increase in the number of companies currently involved in the manufacturing and sales of different cars, buses, truck, etc, and besides the increase and efficient application of the divergent promotional tools.

Thus, the management of Anamco is not skeptical regarding the wonders of personal selling in the marketing of capital goods and that this promo tool could only justify its wonders in capital goods marketing, only when it is effective to this end, the management is interested in knowing of the sales force is effective or otherwise. This is the core of the study.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Anambra motor company has started experiencing a reduction in its sales volumes in recent times. This how sales volumes is caused by a keen competition that exist in the industry as regards the quality of the product, customer service and effective utilization of promo tools. This is a direct opposite of what the company sued to witness in the previous years.

The reason for the low sales volumes leading to other serious problems like reduced profitability, low market share, and reduction in the rate of promotion as well as that of employemtn is still unknown to the management of the company. However, the company’s management is seriously questioning the effectiveness of the sales force.

 

 

 

 

THE SPECIFIC PROBLEMS TO BE ADDRESSED ARE:

  • Is the ratio of sales to sales call high or low?
  • Is the ratio of sales expense to sales volumes high or low?

 

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Whatever the nature and structure of an organization, personal selling has been acknowledge as the bedrock of its success over cutthroat competition. Thus enabling the company to generate more foods for its operations.

The aforementioned fact is the primary reason behind the huge amount budget on regular bases into the sales departments. To this end, the objectives of the study are:

  • To verify of the ratio of sales expense to sales volume is high or low to warrant further budget into the activities of the sales force.
  • To see what can be done by management to change a situation of high cost of sales returns
  • To determine whether the ratio of sales calls to sales volume s is high or low.
  • To see how a situation of high sales calls to sales volumes can be reversed.

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FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS

This study is meant to verify the effectiveness of personal selling in the marketing of industrial (capital) goods. To this regards the following hypothesis are formulated:

H01:  The ratio of sales expense to sales volumes is not high

H02:  The ratio of sales calls to sales volumes is high

H03:  There is a low ratio between current and past performance.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

According to the public relations management of Anamco in Enugu office, the company has been and will continue to demonstrate its corporate and social responsibilities. This is in justification with Brown’s Contention of (1974). He said if a company is to continue ensuring its consumers patronage, that it has no other alternative than the maintenance of a clear cut competitive advantage, and managing the marketing mix in a manner that will ensure continuous customers’ satisfaction. Mercedes Benz Anamco has been and will continue to strive harder in the area of corporate social responsibilities.

 

TO THIS REGARD, THE SIGNFICANCE OF THIS STUDY IS TO FULFILL THE FOLLOWING

  • Make recommendation to the management of Anamco based on how to overcome the problems of low sales volume as well as that of high sales expenses to sales volume ratios.
  • It is also the primary view of the researcher that both current as well as potential researchers will finds this work of utmost importance with regard to directing and facilitating the bearing and solution to their problems.
  • The study will also be of help to other companies in the same industry with Anamco in their strife’s to surmount low sales volumes and profitability.

 

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SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study is very wide of it has to be carried out in all branches and all the departments in Nigeria. Thus, the study will cover only members of the sales departments, cost accounting sections as well as some members in the financial sector in Enugu State, which is located in the eastern part of the country. The findings may not reflect the situation in the whole branches, but by and large, what happens in Anamco Enugu can be said to apply to Lagos branches and others.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Like I have said before, Anamco is franchising motor manufacturing company with a lot of branches in most state of the federation as well as other part of the world.

To this end, the study ought to have taken a wider dimension to make it more meaningful. However, the researcher is compelled by the time constraints to restrict her findings to only Enugu branch. In the same vein, financial constraint has also played its role in reducing the assumed bread field of this study.

Finally, the non-chalet attitude of some of the respondents is another ground for the limitation of this finding. Some of the respondents were indifferent with regard to research question put before them and in most cases, they tend to shy away from each fundamental questions. This indeed has restricted these findings to very narrow areas.

 

DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms used in this study should be taken to mean the following:

MARKETING:          Marketing is defined as, a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they want and need through creating, offering and freely exchanging products of value with others.

PROMOTIONAL TOOSL:  Promotional tools include all activities or strategies involved in communicating with a target market of audience. It seeks to inform, educate, persuade and influence the target audience. These messages could be sent through advertising, personal public relations (the promo tools).

PERSONAL SELLING:      Personal selling is a face to face presentation of sales. It is a personal contact between the seller and the buyer for the purpose of making a sale. It is characterized by verbal exchange, gesture which allows for flexibility and adjustment of messages to suit buyers needs, interest and reactions.

CAPITAL (INDUSTRIAL) GOOD:           Capital goods are those goods that are technical in nature which is purchased on the basis of specifications for production of other goods or rendering further services.

 

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The impact of television advertising on consumer brand preference for soft drink in a competitive market.

The impact of television advertising on consumer brand preference for soft drink in a competitive market.

(a case study of 7up bottling company  nig. Plc, 9th mile corner enugu)

 

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Table of Contents

Chapter one

Introduction                                         1

  • Background of the study 5
  • Statement of problem 8
  • Purpose of the study 9
  • Significance of the study 10
  • Research questions 11
  • Hypotheses 12
  • Scope of the study 13
  • Definition of terms 13

 

Chapter two

  • Review of related literature 15
  • A brief introduction 15
  • Review of current literature 16
  • Summary of literature review 29

 

Chapter three

Methodology

3.0   brief introduction                                        31

  • Design of the study 31
  • Area of the study 32
  • Population of the study 32
  • Sample of the study 33
  • Instrument for data collection 35
  • Validation of the instrument 37
  • Distribution and retrieval of the instrument 38
  • Method of data analysis 38

 

Chapter four

Data presentation and analysis           40

Brief introduction of the chapter 40

  • Presentation and interpretation of data according

To research questions and hypothesis         40

  • Findings 60
  • Discussion of findings 62

 

 

 

Chapter five

5.0   summary, conclusion and recommendation       64

  • Summary of findings 64
  • Conclusion 67
  • Recommendations 69
  • Limitations of the study 71
  • Suggestion for further research 72

References                                                   73

Appendix a                                                  75

Appendix b                                                  76

 

 

 

 

List of tables

Table one:       age of the respondents

Table two:       sex of respondents

Table three:     educational qualification/level of respondents

Table four:       occupation of respondents

Table five:       contingency table

Table six:         chi-square

 

 

 

Abstract

This research work is designed to examine the impact of television advertising on consumer brand preference for soft drink in a competitive market, with particular reference to 7up bottling company nig. Plc, 9th mile corner, enugu. For the purpose of clarity, this project has been divided into five chapters and the information was gathered through both primary and secondary sources. The introduction was done in chapter one where objective of the study, the statement of the problem, the hypothesis, scope and the significant of the study was done. In chapter two, reviewed some related literature about the topic. In chapter three, the population of the study, the sample size, method of data collection and the data analysis is tool that was used in the research study were discussed. In chapter four, the analysis of data collection by the use of questionnaires and unstructured personal interview was used. The data was analysed using simple percentages and tested hypothesis by the use of chi-square (x2) the summary of the research finding, conclusion and recommendation based on the findings were therefore effective tool in appealing the target market.

 


Chapter one

Introduction

        The beginning of the twentieth century witnessed an outburst of advertising efforts the bottling companies. This outburst was necessitated by the desire to outsell the other in the consumer market, since soft drinks are competitive products. In order to maintain a stronghold of their various market segments, or even to widen an existing market, different advertising strategies erupted prominent among them are sales promotions, sales campaign, point of purchase displays, media advertising e.t.c.

This rampant use of various advertising strategies in eliciting consumers’ response has credited a stiff competition between the manufacturers of soft drinks of which 7up is one. Constant inundation of consumers with multifarious advertising slogans has even created confusion in the minds of helpless consumers on which products to buy or leave.

Pride and fewel in their book “marketing” explained that an advertisement may a times be informative, or entertaining yet it may fail to get the audience to purchase the product they were of the opinion that the ultimate effectiveness of advertisement is determined by its ability to cause product adoption and high purchases among the potential buyers.

The extent of patronage of any advertised product does not entirely depend on the effectiveness of the advertising strategies. It might sometimes, depend on extraneous factors like economic status of the prospects, belief system, culture, climate, level of education e.t.c. For instance, it will be an exercise in facility to advertise liquor in a predominantly moslem state of kaduna and zamfara. This is because the consumption of liquor is against their islamic belief system.

Similarly, advertising of such luxury goods like vacuum, cleaner, tv set, electric cooker to a predominantly nomadic population will be a wasteful venture. In the above cases, values and economic status respectively play vital roles in changing the people’s behaviour towards accepting advertised product(s).

Advertising is a communication between sellers and buyers with the sole aim of changing the attitude of buyers. From the above definition, it could be deduced that advertising is communication especially from the producers to the target market about a product or organization with the hope of creating awareness, interest, desire and a patronage of the product.

Erickson (1962) defined advertising as “truth well told”. The american marketing (ama) said that advertising is “any paid non personal presentation and promotion of ideas goods and services by an identified sponsor”.

This means that advertising messages are beamed at a group of people that are not personal in nature. Note worthy is the fact that an advertising channel is selected according to its suitability in researching the prospects. E.g. Newspapers and magazines advertisement may not be helpful in researching an illiterate segment. According to this research, the nigeria mineral water industries limited markets of 7up have used almost all the advertising channels mentioned above to reach their audience. However, in order to arrive at a satisfactory result, only television may be analyzed here as it affected 7up consumption.

 

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  • Background of the study

Nigeria mineral industry limited established in 1959 by the endc (eastern nigeria development cooperation) the company commenced production in 1960 with pepsi range of products. The productions operation of the company halted for three years due to nigeria / biafran war – (1967 – 1970). The company started operating in 1971 after restructuring with product of tango brand of soft drinks. In 1976, the company stopped the production of tango and changed over to sun sweats range of products. In 1987, nigeria bottling company (nbc) launched an aggressive sales promotion campaign on one of their product called sprite with their animal kingdom game. The 7up bottling company in 1989 came up, with “it is raining again” slogan, which came after the 1988 “naira ram” and the 7-up bottling company with the intention of maintaining its stronghold, increasing sales, penetrating into new markets and increasing shares of the entire market among the competing firms. In the animal kingdom game, the slogan my choice is clear – sprite! Rent the air and some incentives were provided to the buyers or consumers of sprite, this advertisement strategy seemed to have had an adverse effect on the 7-up brand of soft drink hence a greater segment of the market was thought to have been won by the nigeria bottling company. Consequently, the 7-up bottling company launched a counter attack in 1989 with the slogan. “the difference is clear” 7 – up.

With the above slogan, it appears as if buyers’ attention was shifted to the product. As a result, the competition between the nigerian bottling company and 7-up bottling company became so keen that both of them today engage in under use of various advertising strategy to market their products and return their customers. Some critics are of the opinion that acceptance of a product is a multi – step process and since promotion advertising is only one part of the marketing mix, single promotional activity can rarely cause an individual to buy a previously unfamiliar – product. However, it is generally believed that advertising is necessary in the product – adoption process. More especially now that there are several product manufacturing companies, with each jostling for attention. The awareness of the existence of such product can only be created through venous advertising strategies. In line with the aforestated, the nigeria mineral water industries limited markers of 7up soft drink in 2000 launched an extensive sales campaign titled “7up pop a top promotion”. The intention was to widen an existing 7up market through incentives. Consequently, the objective was realized as 7up recorded higher sales and increased preference after the advertisement and sales campaign.

 

  • Statement of the problem
  1. Low awareness about television advertising of 7up bottling company’s products.
  2. Low access of consumers to television facilities.
  • Wasteful advertising campaigns by bottling companies.
  1. Unhealthy rivalry amongst companies advertising their products.

 

  • Purpose of the study
  1. To ascertain of consumers are aware of the adverts of 7up bottling company.
  2. To find out if consumers have easily access to television facilities.
  • To ascertain if advertising campaigns by bottling companies are wasteful.
  1. To find out if there is unhealthy rivalry amongst bottling firms.

 

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  • Significance of the study

The presentation of vital information on the impact of television advertising on consumer preference will be very important in many aspects it will help to reveal some major advertising constrains that mediate against consumers preference for soft drink in a competitive market. When the effects are analyzed and comprehended, it will help the industrialists involve and other their related counter-parts to find the best way to avoid the following constraints:

  1. The information collected will tremendously enhance the students performance who intends to carryout research on the impact of television advertising on consumers preference for soft drink in a competitive market.
  2. The study will expose them to these role-played by television advertising in a completive market.
  3. The study will provide a strategic television which is consumer oriented and which is also aimed at generating, consumer preference. Consequently the company will be opportune to have a high profit margin.
  4. On the side of government, the study would help pin point to the long awaited method of promotion television advertisement.

 

  • Research questions
  1. Do consumers likely to prefer 7up brands of soft drinks?
  2. Has the nigerian mineral water industries limited, makers of 7up embarked on any of advert?
  • Did the advertisement increase the consumers demand for 7up?
  1. Does 7up been able to maintain its hold on the market at the advertisement or sale, campaign programmes?

 

  • Research hypothesis

Hypothesis one

Ho:   consumers do not prefer 7up to other brands of soft drinks.

Hi:   consumers prefer 7up to other brands of soft drinks

Ho:   7up has been able to maintain its hold on the market at the end of the advertisement or sales campaign programmes.

Hi:   7up has been able to maintain it holds on the market at the end of advertisement or sales campaign programmes.

 

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  • Scope of the study

A good research needs to be delimitated to a manageable scope. This research covers the impact of television advertisement on consumer preference for soft drink in a competitive market using 7up-bottling company, enugu.

 

  • Definition of terms

Advertising: any impersonal form of communication about ideas, goods or services that paid for by an identified sponsor.

Brand: a name, term, symbol, design or combination of these elements that feature as differentiating measure of goods or services from one seller to another seller offerings.

Campaign: an organized trend of promotional efforts built around a theme and designed to reach some goal.

Market segmentation: the process of dividing the total market into one or more parts (sub-markets or segments) each of which tends to be homogeneous in all significant aspects.

Consumer market: consists of buyers who use the product to satisfy personal or household need.

Product: a good, service or idea that offers a bundle of tangible and intangible attributes to satisfy consumers.

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THE ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN THE MARKETING OF HOSPITAL SERVICES (A CASE STUDY OF PARK-LANE HOSPITAL ENUGU)

THE ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN THE MARKETING OF HOSPITAL SERVICES

(A CASE STUDY OF PARK-LANE HOSPITAL ENUGU)

 

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PREFACE

Public relations as a marketing function is an extension of the societal marketing concept which focuses every marketing decision on customer satisfaction, and welfare of the firms larger public which is designed to enhances the image of the organization in the minds of its various public.

It is the aim of this research work of find out if hospitals do make use of public relations as one of their marketing strategy for customer satisfaction and enhancing the image of the organization in the minds of its public. This research work has five chapters.

Chapter one contains a general discussion of what public relation is all about as has been said by different authors. It went further to state the problems to be studied and why this study was carried out, the scope and limitation of the study, and finally, the proposition and the definition of terms.

For the literature review, a number of past related literature examined by other studies as it relates to the role of public relations in marketing of hospital services are highlighted also.

The third chapter, deals with the design of the study, the method used in collecting relevant data. It equally treat the way the questionnaires were distributed and the treatment of data.

In chapter four, the data got from the research survey were analyzed and interpreted. Also, similar questions on both questionnaires were compared.

Finally, chapter five contains the summary of finding conclusion on the research and recommendations made by the researcher.

For hospitals to enhance the image of their organization in the minds of its public, hospitals should put the recommendation made in this study into use for it will not only satisfy services offered to their customers but a continuous increase in the number of patients that do patronize their hospital and an increase in profit.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF HE STUDY

Before now, hike in 1960’s public relation practice was not popular, only a few Nigerians knew what public relation was, until the recent past when public relations practice and public relations programmes and activities were considered as the powerful tools for co-ordinating human and business image. The knowledge of public relation diffused fast in Nigerian society because of the economic, social and political programmes of activities were in a state of constant change.

Public relations as marketing function is an extension of the societal marketing concept which focuses every marketing decision on customer satisfaction, and welfare of the firm’s larger public. A relationship between a firm and its numerous public such as customers, employees, and the community at large, which is designed to enhance the image of the organization in the minds of its various public (Engle, Warshow and Kinnear P. 568).

Public relation can improve the image and reputation of a company which according to the institute of public relation as “the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain metal understanding between an organization and it’s public”. As a managerial function according to Philip Kotler (1997: P. 6.71) is involvement of a variety of programme designed to promoter and protect a company’s image or it’s individual product. “According to Canfield (1992: pg. 58) Public relation” is the management function which evaluates public attitude, identities, the policies and procedures of an individual or organization with public interest and executes program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance”.

Kam Affong equally defined public relation as “the process of assessing consumer wants, establishing communication and fostering good will so that consumer wants can be profitably statisfied from the foregoing the hospital management should be capable of assessing and analyzing the wants of their customers, information pass from the hospital to the customer, from customer back, thereby fostering the mutual understanding of both parties. Whether hospitals make use of effective public relations is yet a problem to be unrevealed.

A present women once came to deliver in one of our hospitals and asked the nurse on duty to take her to labour room because she is weak. The nurse replied in a harsh and hostile tore “if you like crawl to the labour room, after all she did not impregnant her”. Some doctors, nurses and staff are sometimes non chavant to patients welfare, harsh to patient, some hospital have recorded the greatest number of death, and some charging exorbitant price, some unqualified personnel, and some demand payment first before treatment. These and many other reasons may be accountable for the preference of one hospital over another. So, hospital management should be conscious of every thing they do because they depend on the public for their profit and should satisfy their consumers. There fore, the management should understand that public relation as a marketing promotional function if practice well will help them to guard their image jealously and maintain favourable relationship between the hospital and its public, there by creating good will for themselves.

“Public relations is too important in a firms total communication and promotional effort to permit it to be either negative and damaging or indifferent to the point where the public know little or what the company is doing, what it stands for and what it is trying to achieve”. (Rom Markins (1979:521) so the hospital should blow it’s trumpet very well “effectively”, and if poorly managed, will find it fruitless to get it’s good will no matter the promotional strategies it adopts. Once the consumer of their services finds out the doctor and nurses do not cater for their interest, they will give up their patronage to another hospital.

There should be constant communication among the doctors, nurses, paramedical staff, drug suppliers, patients and the public at large so that, the hospitals good deeds will get to the public and take the credit. The hospitals therefore need not advertise for patients or customers but there area other effective ways of making patients to come to your hospital and that is through public relations.

 

The historical background of the park lane hospital:  The hospital was established in 1930 as a nursing home for colonial masters and in 1952 blacks were allowed to be treated, because it was ment for the whites. In April 1967 during the Nigerian Civil War. It was converted into a general hospital and its expansion started in may at the same year and between 1978 and 1982, the surgical word, eye clinic, pediatric ward, plant house, mortuary and four new blocks of consulting rooms in the OPD were constructed and commissioned.

In 1985, a new phase of development with a 52 bed surgical ward, ante-natal clinic and a maternity ward. Also in August 1999, a school of nursing had been opened to train nurses for Enugu and other states, 5 bungalows were completed in preparation for the accreditation of the hospital for training of house officers. In September 2001, the premises was tarred, and the number of doctors had to be increased to 27 with about seven consultants in all aspect of medicine and in 2003 another building was elevated and yet to be completed and commissioned by the state government.

 

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ADMINISTRATION

The hospital is headed by a medical/chief executive under him are the following units:

  1. The medical doctors
  2. The laboratory unit
  3. The pharmacy unit
  4. The medical records unit
  5. The nursing division
  6. The x-ray unit
  7. The administration and other units

A new patient first goes to the receptionist of the hospital and obtained a card at prescribed fee with the card he/she goes to doctor on duty. After consultations, he/she goes to the dispensary of the pharmacy to buy the prescribed drugs.

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Public relation is in the service industry, and medical doctors, nurses and other paramedical staff which are been produced from our universities may or may not have taken some course in marketing, business administration, psychology and human relations to prepare them at least to identify consumers needs understanding them as hence satisfy them effectively. In this regard, blame for poor public relations practice have been placed on the inadequate training given to these doctors, nurses and other medical staffs.

It is also evident, that the consumers (patients) are becoming more and more knowledgeable, patients have often been complaining of inadequate attention, poor quality of medical services, unreasonable hospital charges and above all, sheer exploitation. Now patients (consumers) now resort to self medication, using of Natural herbs and even sworn never to approach any medical doctor or nurse for help. Our general hospital, has been accused of hoarding drugs and selling them in an open market for a higher profit margin. As a result of this, high incidence of death has been recorded in our hospital, increasing the country’s death rate. This situation has attracted the attention of the researcher who is bent among other things on finding out better ways of satisfying these consumer (patient) and hence improving the hospitals image through public relation.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The most outstanding hope of this study is that it’s findings will be of immense benefit to medical practitioners, students and others who may not have has a course in public relations. The findings are further anticipated to help the park lane general hospital and other practicing managers especially those who are in the hospitals and similar field in seeing the customer as the king. Also, the study will be of tremendous help to the general public, and to organizations in maintaining metal relationship between them and their numerous customers.

The study will also be of immense help to the government in caring out or executing any programme that will effect its people.

Also, the study will be of benefits to the customers in maintaining good relationship with the organizations that renders services to them. This will enhance understanding between the organization (hospital) and it’s customers.

Moreover, readers of this research will also benefit from it. This will help enlightening them on the roles and importance of public relation in our society.

The study will also be of immense value to the researcher because it will make her to know more of what she did not know before conducting the research work. The researcher will also use this work as a reference whenever the need arises.

 

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
  1. To find out the level of attention given to patients in our hospital.
  2. To examine the efforts which the hospitals are making to see that good relation is created and sustain between them and their patients.
  3. To find out whether the hospitals have good relationship with the publics.
  4. To create adequate awareness of this hospital.
  5. To ensure arouse interest of the consumers (patients)
  6. To stimulate or create action among the consumers (patients)
  7. To help in satisfaction of the consumer and thereby leading to profitability of the organization.

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SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study centers on one hospital “park lane general hospital at G.R.A. Enugu. However, the study was carried out in Enugu metropolis to enable the researcher get adequate infacts and come up with a dependable solution to the problem.

 

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The task of caring out this study was a difficult one. Much effort was putting, to make sure the study was carried out. However problems encountered during the study includes, lack of time, finance, and resources, cause by the adverse economic condition of the economy leading to limiting the study only in Enugu metropolis and can be apply to other specialist hospitals in Nigeria

 

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DEFINITION OF TERMS
PARAMEDICAL STAFF:

This refers to other staffs in the hospital apart from doctors and nurses that helps in running and providing services to their consumers (patients).

Societal marketing: according to )P. Kotler) is a management orientation aimed at generating customer satisfaction and long-run consumer and public welfare as the key to satisfying organizational goals and responsibilities.

It talks on satisfying customers and company needs, the organization must preserve and enhance the well being of the society.

 

MARKETING MIX

It is the term used to describe the combination of the four variable, which constitute the core of a company marketing system i.e. the price, product, promotional activities, and the distribution system (place).

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Small scale industries development problems and prospects.

Small scale industries development in anambra state: problems and prospects.

(a case study of awka and nnewi industrial areas)

 

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Table of Contents


Chapter one

Introduction

1.1   background of the study

1.2   statement of problem

1.3   purpose of the study

1.4   significant of the study

1.5   research questions

1.6   hypotheses

1.7   scope of the study

1.8   definition of terms

 

Chapter two

Literature review

2.1   brief introduction

2.2   review of current literature

2.3   summary of literature review

 

Chapter three

Methodology

Brief outline of the chapter

3.1   design of the study

3.2   area of the study

3.3   population of the study

3.4   sample of the study

3.5   instrument for data collection

3.6   validation of the instrument

3.7   distribution and retrieval of the instrument

3.8   method of data analysis

 

Chapter four

Presentation and analysis of data

Brief introduction of the chapter

4.1   presentation and interpretation of data according to research questions and hypothesis

4.2   findings

4.3   discussion of the findings

 

Chapter five

Summary, conclusion and recommendation

5.1   summary of findings

5.2   conclusion

5.3   recommendation

5.4   limitations of the study

5.5   suggestion for further studies

References

Appendix a – letter of request

Appendix b – questionnaire


List of tables

Table 1:   do you think that the provision of infrastructure, power supply, availability of land will solve the problem of industrial development.

Table 2:   do you agree that government creation enabling environment such as allowing the importation of raw materials and given tax holding to industries among the solutions to the problems?

Table 3:   do you think that find can be obtained in the following sources to finance industrial development, bank loan, government grants loan, borrowing from friends or relatives and personal savings?

Table 4:   do you agree that skilled manpower will be attracted due to availability of funds?

Table 5:   do you consider the rural set-up of the industries as one of the problems of lack of skilled manpower.

Table 6:   do you see lack of skilled manpower as one of the problems militating against the development of industries in your area?


Abstract

This research is aimed at small-scale industries development in anambra state: problems and prospects. Small-scale industries are those industries that are privately owned by its owners in a purely personalized way without a formalized management structure. Small-scale industries is needed for speedy growth and development especially for abilities to boost the larger industries, social infrastructure, agriculture etc. Small-scale enterprises is however faced with a lot of problems. It is against this background that this project is undertaken to take a critical look at small-scale industries in awka and nnewi. In chapter one which is the introduction, the researcher discussed the statement of the problem, purpose, significance of the study, research questions, hypothesis, scope and definition of terms. Chapter two death much on various literature review, problems and prospects and summary of the literature review. Chapter three reviewed the methodology of data collection. Chapter four shows how data was collected, presented the summary, conclusions, recommendations and references.

Finally, my opinion based on the findings of this project, small-scale business is the mainstay of the nigerian economy, providing almost seventy percent (70%) of employment to the society in the anambra state.

 

Chapter one

Introduction

        the dynamic role of small-scale industries as engine of growth in developing countries has long been recognized. According to ukeje (2004:108). It’s accelerative effect in achieving macro-economic objectives such as full employment, income distribution development of local technology, as well as diffusion of management skills and stimulation of indigenous entrepreneurship has been well documented in economic literature. Their importance has become such as to make them a pivotal focus of economic development.

that was exactly what nigeria did since the second national development (1974-1979) that is development jof industries, because they have seen the need to be self-reliance which will lead to genuine development and survival as well as improve the effective management of local resources, both human and materials.

development of small-scale industries was encouraged in the document found in the third and fourth national development plan, with the aids of providing empowerment opportunities, management of local resources, thereby recording rural urban migration. The above plans emphasized that paying attention to agriculture, manufacturing, education, manpower development, infrastructural facilities will improve the quality of life for average nigerians

 

1.1  background of the study

economic history of various developed countries have shown that industrial revolution has been the led by small-scale industries which are indeed the bedrock of an industrial growth.

nigeria as a developing nation is battling for her economic survival, which can however not be achieved without acquisition of industrial and technological power and enough manpower both skilled and unskilled to cope with the struggle.

nigeria economy has in the last two decades passed through various phases, starting from the oil boom in the seventies and followed by the era of unplanned and reckless spending our wealth. This is followed with the emergence of economic doom which has necessitated the introduction of austerity measures and structural adjustment programme (sap).

the industrial growth of the nation has no scientific approach. The planning in some measures did not analyze the backwardness in the economy. This is noted, as the various government did not provide adequate encouragement to industrial development of nation.

before our economic problems, foreign capital was cheap and the business of importing and selling of finished products was most profitable. These importers generated excess liquidity and invested their funds making in acquisition of landed property. Investment was merely neglected because of tortuous process of establishing in nigeria.

during the boom, therefore most industrial projects were sponsored by multinationals and the governments, small industries were neglected as there were little incentives in manufacturing at low level.

with the introduction of austerity measures and structural adjustment programme (sap) import trade business become more difficult as many commodities were banned or put on license with high import tariff to conserve foreign funds and encourage local manufacturers.

many businessmen therefore, started thinking of industrial ventures to produce their wares locally. Hence, the massive investment on small-scale business.

 

1.2  statement of the problem

  1. Insufficient finance
  2. Low technical base enabling environment and logic supply.
  • Lack of managerial expertise
  1. Communication difficulties
  2. Inadequate infrastructures.

 

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1.3  purpose of the study

  1. To increase the capital accumulation of the indigenous entrepreneurs in anambra state.
  2. To increase the dispersal of industries
  • To improve the technological skills and capabilities available in the state.
  1. To motivate inter-local government area relationship through industrial products patronage.
  2. To provide greater employment opportunities

 

1.4  significance of the study

  1. It will unveil some of the major problems facing the development of small-scale industries.
  2. To give the reader an overview of the problems, and the role developing small-scale industries play.
  • To benefit both economists and students who may like to carryout further research.
  1. The findings and recommendations will be of great value to the small-scale industries as a way of improving and reducing such problems.

 

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  • Research questions
  1. How much money did you start your business with?
  2. Do you think you have really progress if you compare your initial with the amount you have now?
  3. What type of business do you operate?
  4. Do people patronize your industry very often?
  5. How efficient are your staffs?
  6. Do you think there will be need to employ more people in your industry?

 

1.7  hypothesis

Ho:  insufficient finance does not affect the development of small-scale in anambra state.

H1:  insufficient finance affects the development of small-scale in anambra state.

 

Ho:  lack of managerial skills does not affect the growth of small-scale industries in anambra state.

H2:  lack of managerial skills affects the growth of small-scale industries in anambra state.

 

Ho:  inadequate infrastructures does not affect small-scale industrial development in the state.

H3:  inadequate infrastructures affects small-scale industrial development in the state.

 

Ho:  low technical base does not affect the development of small-scale.

H4:  low technical base affects the development of small-scale.

 

1.8  scope of the study

        this research work carried out in awka and nnewi in anambra state, which makes it suitable for carrying out marketing research work on small-scale industrial development.

 

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1.9  definition of terms

Small-scale:          central bank of nigeria (cbn) defines small-scale business as one which annual sales turnover is less than half a million naira.  

Finance:                the initial capital used to start and maintain a business.

Business:               any organization established for economic purpose.

Management:        the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the work done by members of an organization, utilizing available resources within the organization to achieve its main goal.

Development:       it has to do with the changes in positive direction in order to improve in a country.

Objectives:            it is goal that has a comparative short life span and specific measurable achievement.

Industry:               it is where raw materials are converted into finished goods, or it could be people and activities involved in producing a particular thing or services.

Manufacturing:       it refers to industries that produce goods in large quantity in factories.

Problem:               it is a difficult situation

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SALES PROMOTION AS A PANACEA FOR IMPROVED SALES THE NIGERIA BOLTING COMPANY EXPERIENCE

SALES PROMOTION AS A PANACEA FOR IMPROVED SALES THE NIGERIA BOTLLING COMPANY EXPERIENCE

(A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY PLC 9TH MILE CORNER) 

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ABSTRACT

 

This study treats or focused on sales promotion as a panacea for improved sales. The Nigeria Bottling company experience. Using NBC plc 9th mile corners as a case in point.The major problems investigated was to determine whether actually manufacturing companies derive benefits by engaging sales promotions and other business incentives.      The primary objectives of this study was to find out the extent through which sales promotion can be used to improve sales.

The review of other related literature which was necessary for this study was made.. out of a population of three hundred workers of NBC PLC one hundred and seventy one was chosen as the sample size. The sample size was determined using the Taro Yamani Formula.

Survey research method was used because of its reliability in generating results and analysis. The data for the study was collected through the use of questionnaire. Data were presented in tables while analysis were according to research questions, however, the major statistical tool for analysis include, simple percentage, mean score and bar chart.

From the analysis carried out, it was discovered that NBC PLC, Enugu benefits from engaging in sales promotion and other business incentives.

The finding also reveals that the level of response from the customers and consumers of NBC PLC sales promotion include; the size of promotion, the audience participation requirement, type of promotion and ease of getting the offer.

The researcher recommends that NBC PLC should engage in extra marketing strategy to stimulate consumer patronage and rate of turn over for its survive the present economic competition such as strategy is sales promotion.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the research problem
  • Purpose of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Research questions and hypothesis
  • Definition of term
  • Assumption
  • Scope and limitation of the study

References

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • The meaning of sales promotion
  • The objectives of sales promotion
  • Sales promotional tools and its implications
  • Advertising (the promotion effort)
  • Summary of related literature review.

References

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    • Research method
    • Research design
    • Area of study
    • Population of the study
    • Sample and sampling technique
    • Instrument of data collection
    • Validation of the instrument
    • Method of collection
    • Method of data analysis

Reference

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data presentation and analysis
    • Presentations of data

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Summary of findings
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation

Bibliography

Appendixes.

 

 

 CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION.

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Sales promotion is the activity that tends to educate, inform, persuade and induce prospective buyers, or consumers to patronize a particular product or services. Although advertising is seen as one of the sale products, colliers Encyclopedia volume 15 states that sales promotion covers various promotional techniques used by manufacturers and wholesales other than advertising and publicity.

Sales promotion also sanitizes and creates better awareness about a product or services with the intention of driving home the possible need and wants, such product or services can satisfy a consumer.

Operationally, sales promotion is an all marketing exercise or activity which are usually put together to principally create and ensure a steady increase in the demand for a particular product or service. Sales promotion which can also be called business promotion is also a principle factor that makes for desirable sales in any product or services. Historically, the use of sales promotion started effectively in Nigeria in the 18th century when the retailers displayed their product in triangular shop to attract consumers. Since then, various sales promotion strategies have been developed by business organizations and these had contributed in various ways to the success of their respective business.

However, some business entrepreneurs and merchant have also criticized sales promotion as a waste of money, arguing that as a statement, debunking the statement, has been a serious puzzle owing to the fact that the study which can prove the sales promotion can be used for improved sales in any business is not easily fetched. This is why the researcher has chosen to embark on a study that will bring to charity for improved sales, on a business venture especially as it regards improving sales.

Consequently, the researcher also intends to examine the difficulties associated with planning and executing a sales promotion capable of making their desired improvement.

In other words, this study will concentrate on determining the use of sales promotion as a panacea for improved sales, Nigeria bottling company PLC makers of coca-cola and other brands of soft drinks. Nigeria bottling company is subsidiary of leventis group of companies, which produces soft drink in Niger under franchise granted to it by coca-cola company of Atlanta USA. The late Ag Leventis in 1943 established AG Leventis and company (NIG)LTD. The main business then was testile trade, but by mere providence, the two brothers, Messers AG Leventis and L Leventis nurtured the company to a group of companies with business interest like wholesales, retailing through departmental stores etceteras. Others were manufacturing of soft drinks, glass and plastic products.

About five companies which the group of companies are quoted to the stock exchange market. Branches include Enugu, Onitsh, Lagos, Aba, Ibandan and other scattered all over Nigeria significantly the marketing philosophy of the NBC is to create and distribute to Nigerians consumers soft drink that offer satisfaction to the demanding population. Hence it is charged with the responsibility of establishing sales promotion that should propagate high sales.

 

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1.2     STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS

          The following problems are involved in this study

  1. Difficulties in the determination of whether actually manufacturing companies derive benefits by engaging sales promotion and business incentives.
  2. The impact of various departments towards the planning, design and execution of sale promotion.
  3. When of these promotional tolls do manufacturing companies use in planning design and execution of sales promotion as it relates to NBC PLC Enugu.
  4. Which factor influence the response of the consumer to a sale promotion/incentives programme.
  5. Which of these methods does the company use to advertise or determine the performance of sales promotion

 

1.3     THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The ultimate purpose of sales promotion is to increase and create better awareness about a product or services with the intentions of inducing the consumer to make more purchase which will at the same time, satisfy the consumers needs.

The primary objective of this study is to find out the extend through which sales promotion can be used for improved sales. The Nigeria bottling company experience.

Specifically, the study is intend to:

  1. To determine the benefits derived by companies engaging in sales promotion and business incentives.
  2. To find out the extent various departments contribute to the success of sales promotions.
  3. To identify the promotional tools manufacturing companies use in planning, design, and execution of sales promotion.
  4. To find out the factors that influence the responses of the consumer to a sales promotion.
  5. To know the extent advertising help to determine the performance sales promotion.

 

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is significantly carried out for the following reasons.

  1. The result of the study would help the management of NBC PLC Enugu in manufacturing increase return in investments to enable them remain strong in our competitive market.
  2. The result will go a long way to alleviate the problems associating with sales promotion in manufacturing companies
  3. This research study would also create a foundation that will facilitate the understanding of the need for sales promotion and its valuation.
  4. It is hoped that result of the study will encourage various departments in NBC PLC Enugu to help contribute data for planning and controlling of sales promotion.
  5. The result will help NBC to assess their overall performance for possible modification policy strategies and economic growth.
  6. The result will also help manufacturing companies review their organizational goals and sees the extent their objectives are been achieved.
  7. This study will definitely encourage manufacturing companies to sending their staffs to the course and workshop to acquire new skills and update their knowledge on sales promotion.
  8. This study will help include new ideas to the management on various methods that can influence consumers response to achieve an increase in return on investment and profit position of NBC PLC.
  9. This will also serve as work of reference to future researchers, while suggestions made in this study would serve as a rally point on formative evaluation of the best maximum and utilization of the best approach to planning, design and execution of sales promotion in NBC PLC Enugu.

 

1.5     RESEARCH QUESTION

          To guide this study five questions were formulated as follows

  1. What benefits can be derived by engaging in sales promotion
  2. To what extent do various department contributes to the success of sales promotion manufacturing company.
  3. To what extent do manufacturing companies use promotional tools in planning, design and execution of sales promotion.
  4. To what extend do many factors that influence the response opf the consumer to the success of the sales promotion.
  5. What is the extent various methods or means of advertising used, help in sales promotion.

 

1.7     DEFINITION OF TERMS

  1. SALES: Means the action or process of selling something or being sold
  2. PROMOTION: Advertising or some other activities by intended to increase the sales of a product ore services.
  3. PANACEA: An answer or cure for all troubles or problems
  4. IMPROVE: To achieve or product something of a letter standard or quality than some thing else.
  5. INCENTIVES: Something that incites rouses or encourages a person to do something either a work or a social service. It may be in form of honor, rewards and gift.
  6. SALES FORCE: A number of person or vehicle used by the firm to distribute and sell products in different outlets
  7. TOOLS: Instrumental whether tangible or intangible held and used by work man to achieve an organization goals or objectives
  8. COMPANY: This is a group of people working together or business or commercial purpose, a business organization.
  9. MANUFACTURING : This means the activity of making things by industrial process
  10. DEPARTMENT: A division of a large organization
  11. AWAARENESS: making something known to people
  12. CONSUMER: This is people who buys goods or used services.

1.8     ASSUMPTIONS

          Promotional activities are designed to break down brand loyalty

This is because sales promotion has an element of immediacy, which will being the consumer to go for a particular product. As Thomas cook of the Journal for marketing week put it: “No matter what ones marketing

 

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