Category Archives: Statistic Project Material With Abstract

Statistic Project Material With Abstract

A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING (I.T) ON HND I STUDENTS. (A CASE STUDY OF ONE DEPARTMENT IN EACH OF THE SCHOOLS ON FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEKEDE OWERRI)

A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING (I.T) ON HND I STUDENTS.

(A CASE STUDY OF ONE DEPARTMENT IN EACH OF THE SCHOOLS ON FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEKEDE OWERRI)

 

 

ABSTRACT

This research was carried out to study the effects of Industrial Training on HND I students, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri.

The study used a primary data collected by means of mail questionnaire of 15 questions. A sample size of 206 students out of a population of 425 students determined by Yamani’s approach was used for this study which was selected by means of stratified random sampling.

It was noticed from the data analysis that students strongly support Industrial Training and that the performance of HND I students depend on the Industrial Training, showing that the positive effects of the one-year Industrial Training on HND I students are greater than those of the negative effects.

Conclusively, the research recommended some crucial matters that demand the attention of the government, the institution and the students.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION      

  • Overview Of The Study –      –      –      –      –
  • Statement Of Problem –      –      –      –      –
  • Aims And Objective – –      –      –      –      –
  • Significance Of The Study –      –      –      –
  • Scope Of The Study –      –      –      –      –      –
  • Limitation Of The Study – –      –      –      –

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introductions  –      –      –      –      –      –      –

2.2. Review of Positive Effects of –      –      –      –

Industrial Training  –      –      –      –      –      –

2.3  Review of the Negative Effects of

Industrial Training –      –      –      –      –      –

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Data Collection       –      –      –      –      –      –      –

3.2 Method of Sampling       –      –      –      –      –      –

3.3 Method of Data Analysis        –      –      –      –      –

3.3.1 Multiple Bar Chart and Pie Chart   –      –      –

3.3.2 Chi-Square Test for Independence       –      –      –

3.3.3 Central Tendency- The Mean.       –      –      –      –

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis      –      –      –

4.2  Presentations of Data    –      –      –      –      –

4.2.1 Implications of Result   –      –      –      –      –

4.3  Central Tendencies –The Mean.     –      –      –

4.4 Test of Independence     –      –      –      –      –

4.5 Summary of Result        –      –      –      –      –      –

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Summaries of Findings   –      –      –      –      –

5.2  Conclusions    –      –      –      –      –      –      –

5.3 Recommendations  –      –      –      –      –      –      Bibliography    –      –       –      –      –      –      –

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY.

It is an indisputable fact that education is a no do without in the development of a nation’s economy. But a perfect and complete education is achieved when ones head, heart and hands are trained. Meanwhile among all these, the most important is the training of the hands because with that of the head and heart but without the one of hands, one cannot display. Secondly, it is what the nation needs to develop its economy to a state of self-reliance, independence on foreign expertise and be industrialized which is the heart cry of every nation.

But what go on in the tertiary institutions are the training of ht head and heart. Thus the introductions of industrial training (I.T) which will help actualize the training of the hands and make the students competent enough in facing the tasks ahead.

Moreover, industrial training (I.T) participation has become a necessary pre-condition for the award of diploma in the polytechnic set up.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

Not until dissatisfaction and doubt is raised and solution needed, a problem is not said to be recognized.

There has been this wrong motives and lack of interest recognized among students who are due for one-year industrial training, consequently upon the like and dislike they have for it. This is due to the positive and negative effects they have found this I.T to have on them.

Therefore the emergence of this study- the effects of Industrial Training (I.T) on HND I students (a finding on whether the positive effects are greater than the negative effects or otherwise)

 

 

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

In the course of this study, I intend to achieve the following:

  1. Find out what the students feel about the one-year industrial training (I.T).
  2. Find out whether the positive effects of one-year industrial training are greater than those of its negative.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.

This study will be beneficial to the students, industries, institution, government and society.

If the study shows that the positive effects are greater than the negative effects, then the students will go for I.T with right motives thereby being useful to the industries, representing the institution well (even in future), fulfilling the desire of the government and meeting the needs of the poor masses (society).

But if otherwise, then it should be looked into whether to scrap it and provide an alternative measure or not.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.

For the effectiveness of this study, I have wished to carryout this research in one department in each of the schools of the institution – Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri.

That is, the population consists of:

  • One department in School of Industrial and Applied Sciences.
  • One department is School of Engineering Technology.
  • One department in School of Environmental Technology
  • One department in School of Business.

The period considered in the study is 2007/2008 academic session.

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Some weaknesses tried to hinder me form carrying out this study. But with more effort, I was able to do my best.

The difficulties resulted from financial constraints, material limitation (i.e. unavailability of materials) and lack of time

 

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COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

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Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

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TIME SERIES ANALYSIS ON THE RATE OF TYPHOID FEVER CASES IN ABIA STATE FROM 2001-2010 (A CASE STUDY OF ABSUTH)

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS ON THE RATE OF TYPHOID FEVER CASES IN ABIA STATE FROM 2001-2010 (A CASE STUDY OF ABSUTH)

ABSTRACT

This research work is concerned with the time series analysis on the rate of typhoid fever cases in Abia state from 2001-2010, with Abaia state university teaching hospital Aba as a case study. This survey was carried out using time series analysis to ascertain whether there is a significant increase in the seasonal variation in the reported cases of typhoid fever. Finally, following the inferences drawn from the data collected for the survey, it was discovered that there was a strong seasonal variation in some quarter of the period under review, which can be attributed to some certain factors like raining season. Prevention and control measures were recommended for fighting/combating this problem on the rate of typhoid fever cases in our society.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      1

1.1  Background of study      –      –      –      –      –      1

1.2  Statement of problem    –      –      –      –      –      3

1.3  Aims and objectives       –      –      –      –      –      3

1.4  Significance of study      –      –      –      –      –      4

1.5  Scope of the study –      –      –      –      –      –      5

1.6  Statement of Hypothesis       –      –      –      –      –      5

1.7  Limitations of the study –      –      –      –      –      6

1.8  Definition of terms        –      –      –      –      –      –      6

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  Literature review    –      –      –      –      –      –      8

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  Data collection       –      –      –      –      –      –      26

3.1  Sources of data      –      –      –      –      –      –      26

3.2  Method of data analysis –      –      –      –      –      26

3.3  presentations of data     –      –      –      –      –      30

3.4  Validation of instrument        –      –      –      –      –      32

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Analysis of data –      –      –      –      –      –      34
  • Interpretation of result –      –      —    –      –      47

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation       –      59

5.1  Summary of findings      –      –      –      –      –      59

5.2  Conclusion      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      61

5.3  Recommendation    –      –      –      –      –      –      62

References      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      64                     

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Typhoid Fever is a world wide disease which creates a very serious public healthy problem. In many under develop countries; the word health organization (WHO) estimated that about one person out of ever hundred (100) is suffering from typhoid fever. The also identify typhoid as a serious public health problem which incidence is highest in children and young adults between 5-19 years old.

Typhoid fever is a systematic disease caused by dissemination of salmonella typhoid or salmonella paratyphoid mainly characterized by fever was called because of it’s common similarity to typhus. It was clearly defined pathologically as a unique disease of it’s own, it is a common world wide illness, transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the faces of an infected person, which contain the bacterium salmonella enterica. The bacteria then perforate through the intestinal wall and are phagocytosed by macrophages.

According to medial dictionary (Budelka, K.G. 1971), which reveals the typhoid fever as an infection which is usually spread by contamination of food, milk or water supply with salmonella typhi (S. typhil), either directly by sewage or indirectly by flies or by faulty personal hygiene. Symptomless carries harbouring the germ in the gall bladder and excreting it in their stools are the main sources of  out breaks of disease in this country. The average incubation period is 10-14 days. A progressive fedric illness marks the onset of disease which develops as the germ invades tymphoid tissues, including that of the small intestine (peyers patches) to profuse diarrhocal (pea soup) stools which may become frankly haemorrhagic, ultimate recovery usually begins at the end of the third week. A rose coloured rash may appear on the upper abdomen and back at the end of the first week.

 

1.2  STATE OF PROBLEM

Over the last decade, there has been alarming increase in the rate of recorded cases of typhoid fever in our various hospitals especially in Abia state. This has led to a very serious questions on the minds of the citizenry in particular and the professionals in our medical field in general. Ordinary, since typhoid fever is generally associated with a lot of symptoms such as fever headache, cough etc. these however make it a complicated disease with a very serious economic and social effect on the victims. This study seeks to find the prevalent rate of typhoid fever and suggest possible solutions in preventing it.

1.3  AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The following are the aims and objectives of this study.

  • To estimate the trend of the disease (typhoid fever) whether it is increasing or decreasing for this period of 2001-2010.
  • To estimate the seasonal variation of the recorded cases of typhoid fever from 2001-2010.
  • To predict rate of prevalent in future.

1.4  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This project is significant in the sense that health problem imposed by typhoid fever in this part of the world makes it a serious health issue that requires adequate attention and care. This research work will be of great significance in the following ways:

–      This study will help the hospital management, the state government and the general public to know the particular months or quarter of the year that were mostly affected by typhoid fever in order to carryout enlightenment campaign towards reducing the incidence of the disease.

–      If the trend of reported cases of typhoid fever is found to be on increase, it will enable the hospital management to put intensify effort towards applying more preventive measures in order to combat the disease.

1.5  STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

Ho:  There is no significant increase in the trend of recorded cases of typhoid fever from 2001-2010

Hi:  There is significant increase in the trend of recorded cases of typhoid fever from 2001-2010.

Ho:  There is no seasonal variation in the recorded cases of typhoid fever from 2001-2010

Hi:  There is seasonal variation in the recorded cases of typhoid fever from 2001-2010.

1.6  SCOPE OF STUDY

This study is designed to cover Aba, the commercial city of Abia state. Aba is a city and a big trading center in Abia state. It will also cover a period of ten (10) years (2001-2010).

1.7  LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The major limitation to this research work was basically on the collection of data and information is regarded as confidential, besides there was inadequate asses to the data due to reluctant attitude of the hospital medical record department to release the data on time as well as the limited available literature which the researcher was able to lay her hands on after much time wasted.

1.8  DEFINITION OF TERMS

ANOREXIA:   Lack of appetite for food.

SALMONELLA TYPH: This is a bacteria that causes typhoid fever.

PASBARISATION: This is heating milk to a high temperature for a very short time.

PREVALENCE: Is a measure of the frequency of existing disease at a given time.

SALMONELLAE: A tribe of schizomycetes.

SCHIZOMYESTES:      A class of vegetable organisms which usually contain no photosynthetic pigmen and reproduce by fusion.

  CONTAGIOUS:    Is when a disease or infection can

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

THE APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL IN PLASTIC PRODUCING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF ADAOBI PLASTIC NIG LTD ABA)

THE APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL IN PLASTIC PRODUCING INDUSTRY                                       (A CASE STUDY OF ADAOBI PLASTIC NIG LTD ABA)

 

ABSTRACT

For any organization to achieve its objectives of profit maximization, it is required that its products must be of high quality, so as to satisfy its customers and be able to compete with any other product in the market. To obtain quality products therefore, some control measures such as quality control method are needed in production process of any organization. This research work centres on the application of statistical quality control in plastic production to ensure that the quality of plastic produced does not deviate from the set standards.

­_

Data was collected on weight of plastics produced from proper recorded information, by the means of secondary method of data collection. Analysis was carried out using mean chart and range charge The charts were simultaneously used in the analysis to investigate process average weight and the individual variability. It is observed that the process is under control, since the weight of the plastics falls within the specification limits.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction                                                            1

1.1 Background of the study                                           5

1.2 History of ADAOBI PLASTIC NIG LTD                                 6

1.3 Objective of the study                                              7

1.4 Significance of the study                                           8

1.5 Research questions                                                  8

1.6 Scope of the study                                                   9

1.7 Limitation of the study                                             9

1.8 Definition of terms                                                   10

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review                                                      11

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Introduction                                                            16

3.1 Method of data collection                                          16

3.2 Problem of data collection                                                17

3.3 Method of analysis                                                   17

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Presentation and analysis of data                               22

4.1 Analysis of data on weight of plastic

Jerry can (in gram) in appendix I                                22

4.2 Analysis of data on weight of plastic

Hangers (in gram)                                                    23

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Summary, findings, conclusion and recommendation    34

5.1  Summary                                                              34

5.2  Findings                                                                35

5.3 Conclusion                                                              36

5.4 Recommendation                                                     36

Reference                                                                     38

Appendix                                                                             39


CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The idea of using statistical quality control in production setting has its beginning in 1924 by Walter Shewhart of the Bell Telephone Laboratory.

All organization that produce goods and services for the entire populace, always aim at producing and providing such goods that are acceptable by consumers.

Quality control in recent times has become a necessary tool operation to all organization, whose goal is to excel and remain in business. This is apparent because the quality of a product or services is the measure of the ability of a product or service, to fulfill or satisfy consumers implicit expectation or explicit requirement.

However, the American Standard Institute defines quality control as, the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on it the ability to satisfy a given need. Thus to obtain the desired quality, it becomes imperative to control all the factor that will impart the necessary or needed quality on the product or service.

In addition, the objective of quality control is to provide quality that is satisfactory in the term of safety, adequacy, reliability and economy, particularly in this period of advancement in industrial development, which much emphasis is put on standard for products.

In some industries measurement, inspection and testing are done frequently by people or with devices to ascertain that the required quality is sent into the market.

Statistical quality control method enables us to obtain maximum benefit out of production and inspection at lowest cost. It is one of the most useful economic applications of the theory of sampling and is significant in industries.

Furthermore, it is apparent of the danger associated with dependent on mono-cultural type of economy which is characterized in most of the developing countries since worldwide out glut of 1982, it has become totally clear that the petroleum oil is a major export commodity cannot salvage the entire economy of the country. Thus, concerted effort has to be made for diversification; this entails generating foreign exchange.

This could only be done effectively by making our locally manufactured product more competitive in terms of quality and price hence, the need for a dynamic quality control system is needed.

A total quality control system fundamentally involves the specification of what is required, product designed to meet the specification. The inspection to guarantee the conformity with standard, with at the back of our mind, we know that production being defined as the process of manufacturing goods and services for human consumptions is incomplete until the said products reaches the final consumer. In this context reaching the final consumer here implies the consumer accepting the product.

Thus the importance of quality control cannot be over stressed here since it is clear that a consumer can only accept a product whose quality is high. Thus the factors which should be given due attention in pursuance of sound productivity include provision of suitable work environment in research development.

In addition, among the numerous merits of quality control in the industry include the following:

  1. It brings about great improvement in quality and productivity
  2. Provides information concerning quality of products
  3. Leads to efficiency and is less costly
  4. Leads to greater profit

Despite all these advantages there are also problems associated with quality control which includes:

  1. Absence of trained personnel
  2. Insufficiency of quality raw materials
  • Inadequate records of statistical information

However, when these problems are effectively taken care of, the quality control plastic industry such as ADAOBI PLASTIC NIG LTD requires the use of statistical quality control techniques for the assessed of the quality of its products.

 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Plastic are “one of the greatest innovation of the millennium” (on the cover of new week) and have certainly proved their reputation to be true. It has been one of the most used material in recent times.

Based on the fact that the quality of plastic determines its durability and marketing.

Today competition is high on the usage of plastic. In Nigeria most people like, researchers will like to see plastic improvement. To survive these ADAOBI PLASTIC NIG LTD has to meet the requirement by improving in the quality of the materials and services used in its production as well as reducing wastage and operational cost.

 

1.2 HISTORY OF ADAOBI PLASTIC NIG LTD

Adaobi Nigeria Limited was incorporated in Nigeria on the 28th June 1979 as a private company.

The company was on incorporation engages in the business of importation and distribution of plastic product, polythene bags, sheets and wrappers. Having acquired vast experience in polythene marketing the company decided to own manufacturing outfit. It commence in the production of polythene product in the year 1984.

The company manufactures agro-polythene sheet and convenience shopping bags. Its products are used both within and outside the country especially within ECOWAS states and Cameroons.

Decisions of having another factory to supplement the existing one, the company in the year 2000 commenced the construction of a solid mineral processing plant. It went into production in the year 2001. The chemical plant is primarily engaged in the processing of solid minerals.

Recognizing the vital role information plays in business growth and the impetus. It has received in recent times, reducing the world to a global village, the company in 2002 veered into info-tech services in addition to other businesses.

In the year 2007 the company diversified further on her range of products in plastic division, which include production of hard plastic, blow and injection moulding, downsizing on soft filin products. This diversion brought into the company’s range of product like jerry cans and hangers which include 20 litres, 25 litres and 50litres jerry can. All these things were done in order to meet everyday need of the people.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

  1. To maintain the quality of product and to keep the quality of the product from dropping below the desired level during production.
  2. To offer useful suggestions to the company under study towards the improvement of quality control.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The importance of this study aimed, that in the long run the finding will reveal the benefits of statistical quality control in a production process.

Also, it is hoped that this study will serve as a clue to manufacturers while producing for consumers to:

  1. Enable goods produced to meet specifications
  2. Enable manufacturers to accept only standard quality material during production
  • Help the company in maximizing profit
  1. Enhance customer’s satisfaction

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. Do the finished product confirm to the set standard.
  2. Is the company incurring unnecessary wastage?
  3. What are the company standard in plastic production?
  4. Could the irregular and inadequate supply of quality control of plastic material reduce the production in industry?
  5. How the company would maintain a steady standard?

These are questions that pose problem to the researcher.

 

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study covers quality control problem and its possible solutions to the manufacturing industries.

It concentrates on the process and operation of ADAOBI PLASTIC NIG LTD.

 

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research will concentrate on the process and operations of ADAOBI PLASTICS. It will limit its scope to the quality control techniques used by this firm. This project work is limited to a particular area to ensure accuracy of data collected and such should be restricted to just a production firm to avoid  misappropriation.

 

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Quality: This is the degree of a given product confirms to specification and standard.

Control: This is the means of regulating and keeping in order or check.

Quality control: A mechanism to maintain and control the quality of manufactured goods to ensure the conformity of the product with standard.

Production: This is the process of manufacturing goods and services for human consumption.

Inspection: This is a means of examining in a process or finished parts to…

 

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13. Unity Bank:
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14. Zenith Bank:
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15. Diamond Bank
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E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

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A STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL IN THE BAKER INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF HIGHLIFE BAKERY EMENE ENUGU)

A STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL IN THE BAKER INDUSTRY

(A CASE STUDY OF HIGHLIFE BAKERY EMENE ENUGU)

 

ABSTRACT

          The thesis of “statistical quality control on the production of Bread” emphasizes on the application of statistical techniques in the creation of goods statistical techniques in the creation of goods and services which is of utmost important to humanity.  Everyday, human being makes use of manufactured products for their daily consumption and livelihood.  This consumers are ignorant of the processes the food had gone trough before consumption.  They are also ignorant of how the raw materials were collected, how they are processed, they are only involved at last stage of the production which is the eventual resulted output from the raw materials.

Therefore, it is of immense important that trails and correction of errors are following continuously in the production process in a firm such that when errors and short comings are corrected, it will provide an area for a reliable but standardized quality of output thereby enhancing the products as well as giving the desirable quality of products to the entire members of the society.

In this research work, there is every tendency to illustrate this desirable impact of quality control in production of bread.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                                      1

1.1     Background of the study                                                         1

1.2     Statement of the problems                                             3

1.3     Aims/objectives of the study                                          5

1.4     Limitation of the study                                                  6

1.5     Definition of terms                                                                  7

CHAPTER TWO

The Review Of The Related Literature                                    11

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology                                                            25

3.1     Steps to consider when constructing

acceptance sampling secheme                                        37

3.2     The role of statistics in production industry                           38

CHAPTER FOUR

Data analysis and presentation                                                         39

4.1     Method of data collection                                              39

4.2     Summary/interpretation of results                                 59

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion                                                                              61

5.1     Summary of the study                                                   61

5.2     Findings                                                                         63

5.3     Conclusion                                                                     64

5.4     Recommendation                                                           65

Bibliography                                                                  67

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          Production as the term entails creation of goods and services which is important to humanity.  The concept of statistical study encompasses the whole activities involved in the process of collection, organisation, analyzing, presentation and interpretation of the numerical data collected.  Quality control comprise the system of inspection analysis and action applied to a manufacturing operation in inspecting a small portion of product anvently produced.

In modern day industries, the complexities of industrial production and management has proved it necessary that the management must be supplied with statistical data of those concerning output, cost of raw materials etc, in order to achieve greater effectiveness in the combination of these factors used in production.

The statistical concept which involves the systematic collective of numerical data and the scientific method of drawing conclusion, inference to result on the basis of the collected information.  This two processes correspond to the main branches of statistics which are descriptive and inferential statistics respectively and which made them applicable to all human endeavours.

Therefore the introduction of quality control as a statistical technique will enable firms to avoid shortcoming in the running and executive of function in such organisation.

          The standard of the product of an industry depends on it’s quality, most production firms encounter some problems in the quality levels of their products.  Before production starts a decision is necessary so as to know what is to be made.  Next comes the actual manufacturing of the product.  Finally it must be determined whether the product manufactured is what was intended.  It is convenient to think of all matters related to quality of manufacturing product in terms of these function of specification production, and inspection.

Although the introduction of process inspection is some time a by product, it should be noted that a direct object of statistical quality control is to provides a new tool that makes process inspection more effective.  The information obtained by process inspection – either conducted by roving inspections or by machine operators themselves is often misused to make too frequent machine adjustments.

Therefore the use of statistical quality control is based on.     Whether to continue production, to stop production and look for an assignable cause of defect.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          Product standardization of an industry depends on it’s quality.  Some problems are being encountered during production in the quality level of their products.  Before product starts, a decision is necessary so as to know what is to be made or produce. After that comes the actual manufacturing of the products than manufacture red is as following.

In examining the theoretical process of bread or bakery.  There is the obvious involvement of measurement of quantities and the mixing of proportionate quantities of raw materials and even the timing of the process.

Therefore the use of statistical quality control is based on

  1. Whether to continued production or
  2. To s top production and look for an assignable cause of detects.

Here it should be noted that a treat object of statistical quality control is to provide a better ways to improve product quality.  The issues of acceptance of raw material and manufactured product will meet bias judgement if a statistical standard is not, used in the judgement of acceptance and rejection of manufactured products.  Some questions came to my mind.  Do some of these manufactured bakery bread that consumers buy conform to the set standard for them?

 

1.3     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

          The study of quality control has given a lot of impact in modern day industries.  This is due to scientific method under which it is being used in achieving the desired good in the quality standard of output produced.  When we talk about quality control in the industries. Will say the degree to which a product meets the requirement of the customers.  There are many aims and objectives while it should be embraced, and some of these reasons are.

To construct statistical quality control chart for the key raw materials in use to maintain process assessment of both men and machine finally to output stage.

To construct statistical quality control for the product of highlife bakery Emene to revealed some practical problems that may arise is the control of Bakery Industries.

To also suggest better ways of improving product quality in Highlife Bakery.

 

1.4     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

          In the course of this study, I encounter many problems and moralization from some industries and other things I intended to study on.   Thus I made sure I fought tooth and nail to see that win or achieved my goal.  Some of this problems encounter are:

  1. Problems in time schedule: I encountered problems of deferred appointment.  Both where I collected my data and where I collected the materials I sued in writing.
  2. Expenses encountered during the collection of these data both transportation and other miscellaneous expenses too numerous to mention.
  3. Insufficient materials: There was not enough statistical quality control test book in school library.  This required me going from one library to the other and also some organisation like standard organisation of Nigeria to collect material to write on.
  4. Companies turned me down due to the suspicious nature of the job. They refused to allow me enter their production section, may be on the process of the research, secrets in their product might made public.

By going to Highlife Bakery Company to collect those data needed and ask them question for the workers or production manager.

 

1.5     DEFINITION OF TERMS

  1. CONTROL CHART: This is a graphical display of actual measurement of a quality characteristics on a chart showing limits which reflect the process capability on the characteristics
  2. QUALITY CONTROL: This is the degree to which a product meets the requirement of the customer
  3. PROCESS CONTROL: This is a method of statistical quality control used during production while the production is being made.
  4. SPECIFICATION LIMITS: These are those variation that exist within a specified standard.  This include the upper and lower control limit which provides the basis for the acceptance or rejection of input material and the finished goods.
  5. PROCESS VARIABILITY: This is those differences among process existing within the specified unit.
  6. RECTIFICATION: This is 100% inspection of a lot or batch reflected so as to remove all the defective and replace them.
  7. SPECIFICATION: A specification is a set of standard to which a process is to conform to difference unit.
  8. ATTRIBUTE: A qualitative characteristics of an items
  9. QUALITY: Degree of selective excellence good attribute.
  10. Control charts is a chart on which the quality control characteristics be of a product being analyzed are plotted in sequence as a function of time
  11. DEFECTIVE: This is a standard that the goods have run short of expectation.
  12. PRODUCTION: Putting together of some material or effort to reach object.
  13. STANDARD SPECIFICATION: A specification adopted for use by a trade associate.
  14. TOLERANCE: Is the variability allowed is a process line.
  15. STATISTICAL TOLERANCE LIMITS: The limits computed from the results of a sample test between which under a given assumptions.
  16. STATISTICS: A branch of science which has to do with data collection which represents fact.
  17. QUALITY DESIGN: It deals with measure of the excellence of the design in relation to the customer’s requirement.
  18. ASSURANCE: Which is the provision of evidence is proof that requirement have been met.

19.     ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING:        Is a tool for the quality

 

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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
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Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

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Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

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A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE IMPACT OF STUDENT’S ATTITUDE TOWARDS ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT

A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE IMPACT OF STUDENT’S ATTITUDE TOWARDS ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT

 

ABSTRACT

 

The study is an empirical work that attempted to investigate the background of analysis of impact of students disposition in business attitudes within the context of their educational endeavour and personal behaviours are explored within the individual concept of interest. The study analyzed and compared the differences in entrepreneurial potential and perception about entrepreneurship by graduating students of Delta Polytechnic. Scholars were consulted to determine their contributions to the body of knowledge within the confines of research study. The total research population was 3804 with a sample size of 370 as the respondents using stratified research design to achieve the objectives of the study and primary data collected by means of closed-ended questionnaire as instrument. The statement of hypothesis to be tested: H1: An individual student’s course of study has significant positive impact on students’ tendency to be an entrepreneur; H0: An individual course of study has no significant impact on a students’ choice of being an entrepreneur. Frequency distribution tables were used for the analysis of data collected while the hypothesis was tested using the Chi-square (X2) and the effect of each variable on the sample subjects. The study revealed that entrepreneurship practice is never restricted to one particular descriptive but applies to all aspects of human endeavour and also contributes to human and economic development of a nation. Recommendations as to the roles of individual and stakeholders were put forward particularly that the governments at all levels need to cerate a favourable business climate to boost entrepreneurial development in Nigeria.

 

CHAPTER ONE:

1.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1-2

1.1     Background of the study         –        –        –        –        –        2-5

1.2     Statement of the problem        –        –        –        –        –        5-6

1.3     Objectives of the study  –        –        –        –        –        7

1.4     Significance of the study         –        –        –        –        –        7-8

1.5     Research questions        –        –        –        –        –        –        8-9

1.6     Statement of hypothesis          –        –        –        –        –        9

1.7     Delimitation / scope of the study      –        –        –        –        9-10

1.8     Definition of terms         –        –        –        –        –        –        10-12

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        13

2.1     Historical perspective of research area       –        –        –        13-15

2.2     Conceptual definition of entrepreneurship –        –        15-18

2.3     Concept of entrepreneurship and entrepreneur    –        18-20

2.4     The process of entrepreneurship       –        –        –        –        20-22

2.5     Concept of development         –        –        –        –        –        23-24

2.6     Meaning of entrepreneurship development –        –        24

2.7     Factors influencing entrepreneurship development in the 21st century       –        –        –          –        –        –        –        25-30

2.8     Characteristics and skills of an entrepreneur       –        31

2.8.1  Entrepreneurial characteristics          –        –        –        –        31-34

2.8.2  Entrepreneurial skills     –        –        –        –        –        –        34-35

2.8.3  What is entrepreneurial spirit  –        –        –        –        35-36

2.9     Dynamics of the brain as the seat of entrepreneurial empowerment –        –        –        –          –        –        –        36-37

2.10   Functions of entrepreneurship –        –        –        –        37-39

2.11   Benefits of entrepreneurship   –        –        –        –        40-42

2.12   Factors determining the extent of entrepreneurship       42-43

2.13   Factors influencing the development of the individual entrepreneur –        –        –        –          –        –        –        44-46

2.14   The role of marketing in entrepreneurship development in Nigeria  –        –        –        –          –        –        –        –        46-48

2.15    Challenges of entrepreneurship development in Nigeria          46-48

2.16   The role of entrepreneurship in the development of enterprises       –        –        –        –          –        –        –        50-51

2.17   The role of government towards entrepreneurship development in Nigeria         –        –          –        –        –        51-56

2.18   The role of entrepreneurship in economic development 56-59

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        60

3.1     Area of study       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        60

3.2     Research design    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        60

3.3     Justification for its adoption   –        –        –        –        60

3.4     Population of the study –        –        –        –        –        61

3.5     Sample size and sampling techniques         –        –        –        61

3.6     Justification for sampling section     –        –        –        –        61-62

3.7     Methods of data collection      –        –        –        –        –        62

3.8     Instruments used in data collection   –        –        –        62

3.9     Method used in presentation and analysis of data collected (Data analysis techniques)          –        –        –        –        –        63

3.10   Limitations –        –        –        –        –        –        –        63

 

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        64

4.1     Respondents characteristics and classification     –        64

4.2     Presentation and analysis of data     –        –        –        65-72

4.3     Answer to research questions and or test hypothesis    72-76

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        77

5.1     Summary    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        77-78

5.2     Conclusion –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        79-80

5.3     Recommendations         –        –        –        –        –        –        80-82

Bibliography

Appendixes


CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Entrepreneurship  has been recognised as the determinant or pivotal element of economic growth and development (Kidane and Harvey,

2009: Nafukko and Muyia, 2010 and Kavitha et al, 2013). This is because Entrepreneurship leads to the creation of small and medium scale businesses,providing employment opportunities, income generation, uplifting of standard of living, and utilization of human, material and financial resources of a country in the right direction. Many countries have placed intensive and frantic efforts and programmes towards development of Entrepreneurship. Because of the importance and role of Entrepreneurship in the economy, the federal government of Nigeria through national universities commission introduced  Entrepreneurship education course under general studies programmes which is mandatory for all undergraduate students in the country. It is believed that it will facilitate the development of favourable attitude towards Entrepreneurship and its education. Similarly,the federal government has established Entrepreneurship study centres in all the federal universities in the country in order to facilitate towards development of

entrepreneurs. According to federal government through the Ministry of Education in conjunction National Universities Commission (2011) has approved the establishment of Entrepreneurship Study Centres (ESCs) in all federal own Universities in the country. The establishment of the  centres is to be funded by Educational Trust Fund (ETF).The ministry has also approved the establishment of

project implementation committee to fast track the establishment and development of entrepreneurship education in the universities (NBF News, 2011). The primary role of the centre is stimulation of

entrepreneurial competencies among students, staff and the community. The Entrepreneurship Study Centre is expected to: Develop and offer courses, seminars, workshops and conferences to advance and propagate entrepreneurship, Offer a 2-credit units course to semifinal/ final-year students, Provide entrepreneurial clinical services in entrepreneurship to students, staff and members of the public, Serve as a National Centre for the training and development of experts in entrepreneurship, Promote research and experimentation in entrepreneurship.

The rate of unemployment among school graduates is quite alarming in Nigeria. As part of measures to ameliorate the growing ugly situation, government at all levels (federal, state and local) are putting in place measures to encourage self-reliance, creativity and innovation drive through entrepreneurship development in Nigeria. To understand entrepreneurship and development is to discover why Nigeria is described as a developing economy. Developing economy explains the extent by which men and women should contribute to develop workable ways or strategies in order to achieve economic growth and development. It revitalizes the dominant potentialities of every youth in providing job employment for others rather than seeking out for employment. It also assists to underscore the responsibilities of the government in fostering an environment of growth for entrepreneurial initiatives. It further opens avenues for the government to develop the right strategies especially in addressing poverty in the country (Erlinda D, 2011).

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

It is envisaged that government at all levels will have to put in place all necessary infrastructures to promote the growth and development of small and medium scale enterprises (SME) in the country to enable Nigeria attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) target set by the United Nations by the year 2012 and Nigeria vision 20-20-20. A vibrant SMSE sector is critical in the realization of MDGs objective. Experts have observed that Nigeria may not likely meet the MDGs target by reducing poverty by 50% by the year 2015 considering the present status of SMSE operations in Nigeria. It is universally accepted that Micro (Small) and Medium Scale Enterprises are the engine of development of any nation. A nation’s rate of development is determined by the number of SMEs in the country. Statistical studies have shown that 40 – 50% SMEs in most advanced countries of the world are owned by graduates or those who passed through Colleges. Given this facts in Nigeria, the opposite seems to be the case (Business Day Newspaper 9th Jan., 2007, pg. 13). Scholars have divergent views on who is an entrepreneur and who is not. While the first school of through is of the opinion the entrepreneurs can be made (taught through formal classes) the other group however are of the opinion that entrepreneurs are born (an inheritance). They argued further that entrepreneurs possess special qualities and must have the right attitude and disposition towards entrepreneurship.

This development is likely to inculcate in students the right aptitude and attitudes to starting their won business and by implicating making them a better entrepreneur. Considering the fact that the key factors that give rise to enterprise are personal, sociological and environmental factors. For quite some time now by statistical analysis, over 3 millions Nigerians in a given year become qualified to form the labour market largely from both Universities and Polytechnics but, regrettably, not more than 10% of this population are likely to gain employment to join the formal sector. The International Labour Organization collaborated this very poor level graduates, employment yearly (Bugaje, Hamalai & Indabawa, 2002). Indeed, it is obvious that with the level of development and attendant threats in Nigeria, the possibility of government having the capability of leveraging poverty and meeting the United Nation target on MDGs 2012 is remote. Inspite of the Federal Government of Nigeria’s effort towards setting up institutions such as National Poverty Alleviation Programme (NAPEP), Small and Medium Scale Enterprises Development Agency (SMEDAN), National Directorate of Employment (NDE), National Economic Reconstruction Fund (NERFUND) and other relevant programmes with other world bodies and NGOs, the piece of entrepreneurship development is still low when compared with other developing countries with developed nation taking the lead. Thus, this research work is an attempt to investigate the individual characteristics of graduating students with a view to understand whether some students are more likely to take to entrepreneurship than others irrespective of their course of study. Attempt will be therefore be made to understand the possible influence of a students course of study in their desire to start a business of their own.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Substantially, governments of Nigeria (federal, state and local) are making effort to promote the development of small and medium scale enterprises and other related programmes in support but then, much is still desired interms of commitment of funds, mobilization, minimization of corruption and performance evaluation mechanisms and above all leveraging on the macro environmental operations variables (Mawoli, M.A. and Aliyu, A.N, 2010). Nigeria still falls far short of the economic and social progress required to impact the well being of average Nigerian given that over half of the population lives on less than one dollar a day (Otah, Erlinda, 2011). Nigeria is also one of the top three countries in the world that has the largest population of poor people. Nigeria remains off-track on achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) including the goal of having the number of people who live in extreme poverty. The enormity of the challenge is corroborated by Nigeria’s low score on the Human Development Index (HDI), an index that means the average achievement of a country in terms of the welfare and quality of life of its people. It was reported that Nigeria is one that has the highest infant mortality rate in Africa and indeed worse than those of Ghana, Burkina Faso and Benin. In education, the quality of schooling is adversely affected by large class sizes, lack of teaching materials and equipment, and lack of qualified teachers, etc. Doing business in Nigeria is hampered by poor access to infrastructure and insecurity of lives and property, political instability in some quarters. The supply of electricity is often unreliable thereby distorting business climate. According to World Bank / IFC business ranking 2008, Nigeria ranked an aggregate 125 out of the 183 economies assessed (Erlinda D. 2011).

 

 

 

 

 

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The research work is designed to achieve the following specific objectives:

  1. i) To reveal the impact of students attitudes towards entrepreneurship development.
  2. ii) To identify the reasons for the slow pace of entrepreneurship growth and development in Nigeria.

iii)     To identify the environmental factors influencing individual entrepreneurial spirit.

  1. iv) To reveal the extent to which government is contributing to entrepreneurship development.
  2. v) To identify the roles of entrepreneurship towards the development of Nigerian economy.

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

the research study would serve as a reference library to so many students of marketing in their quest for further investigation on the subject matter.

Thirdly, the study reveals the inherent prepositions or benefits of being self employed as against being an employee throughout one’s life.

This is so because the concept ideally promotes creativity and drivers of innovation thereby bringing to bear informed decisions and generation of great investment potentials.

Fourthly, the general public stands to benefit from the study as an emerging field but critical to socio-economic development of any nation and host of others.

1.5     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions would be used to achieving the stated objectives:

  1. i) What are the factors responsible for the slow pace of entrepreneurship development in Nigeria?
  2. ii) What are the likely impact of students attitude towards their individual entrepreneurial disposition?

iii)     What are the environmental factors influencing individual entrepreneurial spirit?

  1. iv) To what extent is the government contributing towards entrepreneurship development?
  2. v) What is the role of entrepreneurship toward the development of Nigerian economy?

1.6     STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

The following research hypothesis was used in achieving the stated objectives:

H1:     An individual student’s course of study has significant positive impact on a students’ tendency to be an entrepreneur.

H0:     An individual course of study has no significant impact on a student’s choice f being an entrepreneur?

 

1.7     DELIMITATION / SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study covers the indepth analysis of the target student’s psycho-variables, personality and background of individual to determine their disposition for self employment irrespective of their course of study.

 

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

This is all about defining some of the concepts within the confines of the subject matter:

  1. Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurship is the process of ideation, conceptualization, enterprise creation, commercialization and business growth.
  2. Development: It is the process of unfolding and realization of man’s creative potential that enables him to improve his material conditions and living through the use of resources available to him.
  • Economic Growth: It shows or it’s the ability of the country to satisfy the needs and wants of their people.
  1. Value Creation: This is the process of making products and providing services that customers find consistently useful and profitable to providers
  2. An Entrepreneur: The individual who possess the drive, ambition, foresight and imagination to break through traditional barriers, overcome social inertia, and transform theory into practice
  3. Entrepreneurship Development: A process of advancing or improving the entrepreneurial ability of an individual by means of the re-orientation and reorganization of the entire economic and social systems
  • Creativity: The ability to process information in such a way that the result is new, original and meaningful.
  • Innovation: The ability of an entrepreneur to develop new products, new technology, new distribution outlets and supply modification for enhanced services.
  1. Marketing: As a social and management process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering and exchanging products of value with others.
  2. Marketing Mix: This refers to all elements of an organization strategies, tactics, programmes and techniques which are designed in relation to available resources to meet marketing objectives and ultimately the needs and wants of the customers.
  3. Advertising: It is a non-personal form of communication, involving persuasion and promotion of ideas, goods or services through paid media under identified sponsorship.

Public Relations: It is a non-personal

 

 

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