Category Archives: Office Technology Project Material Sample

Office Technology Project Material Sample

EXAMINATION OF JOLLOF RICE SERVED IN HOTELS FOR PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS

EXAMINATION OF JOLLOF RICE SERVED IN HOTELS FOR PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS

ABSTRACT

This project work is aimed at examination of jollof rice served in hotels for pathogenic organisms and to find out possible pathogenic organisms in the food. Samples were collected from the hotels and were brought to the laboratory for analysis. The sample were homogenized and serial dilution of the sample was made out using 5ml sterile pipette and test tubes. The dilution were the cultured on different media, macconkey agar, and Nutrient agar, discrete bacteria colonies were observed and  each colony was gram stained, the bacteria isolation were staphylococcus aureus, bacillus, Escherichia coli, these micro organism isolated are pathogenic and are toxin when ingested in contamination food.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Aim and objective

Significance of study

Hypothesis

Scope of study

Limitation of study

Delimitation

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review.                                                                           

Composition of rice and its requirement

Source of contamination

Pathogenic bacterial organism that are responsible for contamination of Jollof rice

Some micro organism responsible for jollof rice spoilage

Jollof  rice spoilage

Factors that influence  microbiological activity of food

Prevention of food pathogenic organisms

 

CHAPTER THREE

Material and methods

Sample collection

Media used and sterilization method

Isolation methods n

The serial dilution technique

Plating  and incubation condition

Gram reaction

 

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion

Conclusion

Recommendation.

References


CHAPTER ONE

 

  • INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The intention of food safely is to prevent food poisoning (the transmission of disease through food and to maintain the who lesomeness of the food product through all stages of processing, until it is finally extern. No one doubts the importance of food in our lives. All active living organisms must have a constant serviced of energy  this  energy may be supplied by materials a cell or organism has stored internally (e.g  our fat  or carbohydrate) or it may come from an external source in the environment food (Nutrition) supplies two major component of life, ENERGY and the chemical  building blood of life, (Bor).

 

 

Energy is required for the various enzymatic reaction that require an input of energy for the reaction, the catalyze for example the movement of the muscles on our legs during a race or in their intestine as we digest our intest meal on to draw air into lungs for breathing all requires energy.

Food  also supplies the structural material required for living organisms to make new macromolecules for repair of damage structure  or for new construction such as the manufacturing of off springs,. Apart from it vital function of substaing life, food is referred to as labours of pathogenic  organisms, if not prepared in a tidy and clean environment. This has been recognized as a problem in some restinants in Enugu, concerned with providing proper food for consumers.

 

 

Pathogenic organisms  exist in two major categories. INTOXICATIONS –INFECTION. Intoxication is a result of ingesting toxins produced by microbes that have grown on the food prior to it being eaten. Infection is the result of the food serving as a forniute that carries an infection pathogen deep into the juicy recesses of a body where it is able to gain a foot . generally food pathogenic organism results from contamination of food and the subsequent growth of food pathogenic organisms.

Food poisoning out breaks are of recognized by the sudden  on set of  illness with a shout period of    time among many individual who have eaten or drunk one or more food (Jollodf rice) in common. Single cases are difficult to identify unless in botulism for example there are distinct symptom. Food pathogenic organism may be one of the most common cause of actuate illness, yet cases and difficult to identify vnlesssas in Botulision for example

 

 

There are distant Symptom. Food pathogenic organism may be one of the most common causes of acute illness. Yet cases and outbreaks are generally under recognized and under-requited.   The number of bacterial present : food (jolloff rice) may be used to determined whether or not the food (jolloff rice ) has been handled correctly. Sources, Vehicles and Reuters of continuations

                  Man, Rawfoods, Insects, animals

Rodents, Dust, Soil.

 

 

 

Food or Head

Contact

Surfaces

         Heads

Equipment’s

Cloths.

Vehicles

 

 

                  High   Risk  Foods.

 

 

Fig I

Some disease that are spread by bacteria that enters the body in food (jolloff rice) can multiply at an amazing rate when they are provided with warmth and moisture, (especially at room temperature) Our food can become an ideal home for then. Clean food (jolloff rice ) can be contaminated by bacterial from four main sources.

*   The people present in the workplace and their clothing.

  • other food that is already contaminated.
  • Dirty kitchen or work premises
  • Insect and vermin.

Some time, harmful bacterial  pass directly from the source  of  high risk food, but usually they rely on other things to transfer them to food. These  things are called  vehicles. Ihekoronye A. I. And Ngoddy P.O (1979).

Indirect  contamination using an intermediate  vehicle is the most common e.g the movement  of bateria from the intestine of a food handler to food via their hands after using the toilet. Where contamination  is via for example a culting board, this is known is  cross contamination,  the path that bacteria use to more from the sources to the food is know is the Route.

The privation of pathogenic organism in food, in most cases of food poisoning chain of events takes place and if we are to reduce the incidence of illness, the chain must be broken.

 

Food poisoning bacteria
Multiply
 

Warmth

Give time and
High risk food
Contamination

 

THE FOOD POISONING CHAIR

There  are different ways of breaking the food poisoning chain.

*        Protecting food  (Jolloff rice) form contamination .

*        Preventing any bacteria present in food from multiply.

*        Destory those  bacteria that are present in the food. The problem of food sanitation.

  • Inspecting all food and washing fruit and vegetable before preparation.
  • Using good personal hygiene practice always.
  • Not coupling or sneezing over or around the food.
  • Keeping covered as much as possible in destroy those bacteria with in food (Jollof rice) An adequate cooking food ensuring that a minimum internal cooking temperature of 800c is reacted. The heating processing such as pasteurization sterilization or caming. A combination of a suitable temperature and sufficient time is always required to destroy bacteria. The time and temperature required depends on the particular organism (e.g spores of clostridium perfringen are much more heat resistant than salmonella bacteria).

In food safety programmes the hazard analysis critical control point (HACC?), this is recommended that every food business adopt the HACCP approach to identify all potential hazards and control them before they result in problems.

In setting up a HACCP system will involve the following

  • Set up a HACCP team of those people who fully understand the product.
  • Draw up flow chart that define all stages in the preparation process, from raw materials though to consumption or sale.
  • Identify all potential hazards (eg physical chemical bacterial) e.t.c
  • Identify the citial point consider preventive measures and decide which are needed to eliminate or reduce poetical hazard to acceptable levels.

 

  • AIM AND OBJECTIVE

This is to find out possible pathogenic organism found in food (Jollof rice) sold to Top Rink Hotel and presidential hotel to examine and identify micro organism (bacteria) associated with  Jollof rice (food) sample collected from these hotels in Enugu. And to determines the bacteria load growth.

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY.

The signifcance of the work is to enable us improve the hygiene of food (Jolloff rice) served and a good knowledge of a safe food handling practice suitable light colour protection clothing to be worn and it, will also enable  us to be aware of various pathogenic organism and the infection they transmit through   food (Jollof rice). As result of this the prevention of contamination of food is to be adlered to, this can be achieved by:

  • keeping high risk food at temperature that inhibits the growth of bacterial (i.e our of the damager Zone.) food should be kept below 40c in a refigecated unit an about 700c in a suitable warming unit.
  • Ensuing that during preparation food is in the danger zone for as short a time as possible high risk food must not be left sitting out at room temperature.
  • Using suitable preservation such as salt and sugar.
  • Using various packing method like gas flushing or vacuum packing.
    • hypothesis

Ho         Presence of non- pathogenic organism in the Jollof rice served.

H1         Presence of pathogen organism in the Jollof rice served.

 

  • SCOPE OF STUDY

This project work is based on the identification examination of pathogenic bacterial organism associated with (Jollof rice) served in the following hotels, Top rink and presidential hotel all in Enugu town and the cavsatire organism include  staphylococcus auvious, salmonella, clostridia per fringers, Escherichia coli, the modern problem to food satiation

 

  • LIMITATION OF STUDY

Examination and identification of pathogenic bacterial organism in top rank hotel and preidetial hotel all in Enugu town the food to be examined is only be limited to Jollof rice specifically.

 

  • DELIMITATION

Pathogenic organism to be studied is only restricted to bacterial organism and not viral protozoa, fungal organism

 

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Pathogenic organism are organism that are referred to as specific health hazard associated with gas to intestinal distribute resulting from the consumption of food containing toxins. The  victim suffering from abdominal pain and diarrheas with more vomiting than diarrheas usually manifest the illness, which when untreated in time result to the does not result to death it had  led to unnecessary expenses in seeking medical advice. This has now made me be interested on how we can  improve on our food lygiene to avoid contamination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The role of data preservation in enhancing the efficiency of secretarial function in the banking sector

The role of data preservation in enhancing the efficiency of secretarial function in the banking sector

in aguata north local government area of anambra state

 

Table of Contents

Chapter one

Introduction

 

Chapter two

Literature review                                                  10

 

Chapter three

Summary, conclusion and recommendations

Summary                                                             48

Conclusion                                                           50

Recommendation                                                 51

References                                                            55

Questionnaire                                                      57


 

Abstract

This research work was done to find out the role of data preservation in enhancing the efficiency of secretarial function in the banking sector in aguata local government area. In doing this, the researcher evaluated the various methods of data preservation, their advantages and disadvantages, and the functions of a secretary in an organization. It was equally revealed that users of the manual method face varying problems such as time wastage and monotony, while the computer users face constraints such as training and retraining and complexity. Although majority of the respondents use manual method, they preferred the computerized method. In view of this, it was concluded that the computerized method is the most effective method of data preservation. To this end, it was recommended that the computerized method should be introduced in the banks. It is believed that it the banks and other organizations involved in data preservation, which is an essential aspect of any organization, following this and other recommendations herein, it will enhance the efficiency of their secretarial functions as well as other functions in the organization.


 

Chapter one

Introduction

According to the advanced learner’s dictionary of current english, data is information prepared for and operates on a computer programme.

Also, ani, 2011 in her mimeograph on data processing, defines data as a collection of unprocessed items which on their own do not convey any meaning. Suffice it to say that data can be preserved in the computer as well as in other system.

The preservation of data is as old as man himself. In the earlier times, men were capable of storing information in their brains and passing them on from mouth to mouth. But the more authentic ones were data inscribed on stone tablets, on paper scrolls and even on walls, so that generations later can still make reference to them if properly preserved. However, there were limitations on how far one could rely on these methods of preserving data. As time progressed, the advent of various mechanisms for preserving data were developed.

In 2012, charles babbage, english, mathematician, invented a device called the punch-card which was designed to calculated and print mathematical tables. This innovation can equally be used as a memory or storage unit that can store data in the form of holes punched in cards.

However, the effectiveness of this machine was limited by slowness and mechanical operating difficulties. These restrictions were overcome by the next development in data preservation history-the invention of electronic computer.

In 2010, the first types of computer called univac (universal automatic computer) was delivered to a business enterprise. They were designed to handle vas quantities of data typical of business operations. This new method of increased speed, output and preservation, over the years, files and cabinets have been used to preserve data too.

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COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
GTBANK Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l ACCOUNT
NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank: Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment : Bank Name: GTBank

Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.

Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l

 Account Number:  0117780667. 

Swift Code: GTBINGLA  Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834. AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO 08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT. WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

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The secretary and the effective of new office technologies on record keeping management

The secretary and the effective of new office technologies on record keeping management

in institution of management and technology, enugu.

Abstract

A lot has been written by many authors about new office technologies and how they have immensely affected secretarial performance. This study was therefore conducted to find out the secretary and the effect of new office technologies on record keeping management in institute of management and technology, in enugu. As a result of this, research question were formulated as follows: –

  1. A) do the working environment of practicing secretaries have each of the new office equipment?
  2. B) are the available new office equipment being put into effective use?
  3. C) what factors influence the availability or lack of these new office equipment?
  4. D) how are the job performance of secretaries affected by these new office machines?

it was concluded that the acquisition of new office technologies could make secretaries more effective in the performance of their duties. Based on these findings, the following recommendations were made.

  1. A reasonable purchase of these machines should be make for the practicing secretaries in enugu.
  2. This establishment should be subsidized by the management to enable them purchase more of the machines.
  3. Stand-by generating plant should be purchased by these establishments that have power supply problems.

Chapter one

Introduction

        technological advancement has ushered in drastic changes in record keeping through the introduction of new office technologies and new methods of communication. Man is an embodiment of change, his life circle is marked with different stages of metamorphosis which when it finally actualizes, adulthood is made secretarial profession, an inseparable bed fellow of management no exception. The secretary has been defined as one entrusted with secrets or confidence of a superior, or employed to handle correspondence and manage, routine and detailed work for a superior. Also orisananya (1991) put it that, a secretary is a skilled and specialize type of employee in an establishment or part of it who is charged with some aspects of organizational functions in the unit including dealing with people’s correspondence and other business matters, with the above definitions, it can be deduced that the secretary is an important officer in any establishment and that the contribution and effectiveness of a secretary enhances the efficiency of an organization. This is the more reason that the secretary needs a proper training to be able to carry out her functions.

The training of an efficient and effective secretary should cover not any skills in shorthand and type-writing but also in other managerial skills. These skills should be backed up by appropriate demeanour and etiquette at all times. Evans (1980) noted that the secretary’s role will be supporting, but with the added requirement of technological knowledge will encompass data administration and information management, allowing the secretary to analysis complex situations and submit practical recommendation.

with the introduction of these new machines, people are trained to acquire new skill for operating them. It is therefore, noted that proper record keeping makes it easier for information to be retrieved for use with a lot of ease. This, of course, had tended to reduce the work lead of a secretary.

Even though a lot of charges have begun in technology, the question now is how to improve the secretary with the new office technologies for record keeping? The advantage of such purpose may be derive from the use of these new office technologies need not to be over-emphasized. Therefore, their presence and effective utilization is essential.

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COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
GTBANK Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l ACCOUNT
NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank: Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment : Bank Name: GTBank

Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.

Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l

 Account Number:  0117780667. 

Swift Code: GTBINGLA  Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834. AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO 08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT. WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

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The dearth of technological equipment and effect on secretarial job performance

The dearth of technological equipment and effect on secretarial job performance

on ministries in anambra state

 

Table of Contents

Chapter one

  • Introduction and background of study
    • Statement of problems
    • Purpose of study
    • Research question
    • Significance of study
    • Definition of terms

        chapter two

  • Review of literature
    • Evolution of computers
    • Introduction of computer
    • Misconceptions about computer
    • Hindrances to computer application in nigeria organization

Chapter three

  • Research methodology
    • Design of the study
    • Area of study
    • Population of the study
    • Sample of the study
    • Description of instrument used data collection
    • Validation of the instrument
    • Method of data analysis
    • Decision rule

Chapter four

  • Presentation data
    • Analysis of data
    • Discussion of the findings

 

Chapter five

5.0 summaries of findings, conclusion and  recommendation

  • Restatement of the problem
  • Summary of findings
  • Conclusion
  • Implications of the study
  • Recommendations
  • Limitations of study.
  • Limitation of study

References

Appendix i

Appendix ii


Abstract

The major purpose of this study is to find out the dearth of technological equipment and effect on secretarial job performance on ministries in anambra state. The population of the study consisted of 25 secretarial from all the seven ministries selected. Four research questions were formulated which guided the study. (11) eleven items structured questionnaire was developed with findings. It was concluded that the dearth of technological equipment should not be neglected in our institutions of learning in order to create practical exposure, and to our offices. It was recommended that technological equipment should not be neglected by any worker or secretary. Training and retraining of the secretary should be encouraged to enable them meet the standard expected of the organization.

  chapter one

Introduction

Background of the study

we strongly said that, the office is the center of all the activities of any organization. It is from the office that instruction are sent to the different component units of an organization.

reports from these components are received, collected, and interpreted for policy formation. Therefore, in every aspect of the world, the office is concerned with information, management and collective collection, processing and arranging same for onward transmission to the management for use. Furthermore, the office is also involved in the presentation and retrieval of such information as required by the organization for it’s service.

from the above, if should be obvious that the handling of information in the selected ministries is carried out by the secretary and other clerical staff. In carrying out the arduous task of information management, the office personnel, notably that secretary uses some equipment to facilitate the handling of information from manual to the highly electronic computerized technological, equipment.

some of these equipment are: typewriter (manual and electrical), duplicating machine, stamping, electronic, stencil, scanner, dictating, addressing, shredding photocopying, computer etc.

today, the information technology has helped to design and provide highly sophisticated and models of the equipment. The highly development helps to enhance the efficiency and facilitate the labourious and strenuous functions of the secretary thereby reducing physical exertion and fatigue. These items of equipment have also gone long way in improving the productivity of the secretary particularly and the organization in general effect, technological equipment has made a lot of effectiveness in the business world. This effect is also reflected on the functions of the secretarial staff.

from the foregoing, the researcher feels that the importance of these equipment in the overall efficiency and productivity of any office is no longer in doubt. Dearth of technological equipment make clerical and secretarial job cumbersome, time consuming, physical exerting, mental intriguing and doubtful inefficiency.

 

Statement of the problem

every establishment has its main functions of the office as administration. This implies, by definitions management and transmission of information. The secretarial staff using different forms and management of technological equipment to perform this complex of information management. Some of them are manual and they are easy to handle, others are expensive, complex and computerized gadgets that require immense or great skill to manipulate.

since these equipments facilitate secretarial job and enhance the performance in selected ministries, like personnel, type of service rendered and the working environment among others of an organization, use some of these equipment.

 

Purpose of the study

the purpose of this research is to identify the strategies of the dearth of technological equipment in the selected ministries.

  1. Identify the causes of dearth of technological equipment in selected ministries in anambra state.
  2. Determine the strategies and the process of resolving the problems.
  3. Find out the effect of the dearth of technological equipment among the ministries.

Research question

  1. What are the causes of the dearth of technological equipment in ministries?
  2. What are the effects of the dearth of technological equipment?
  3. What are the strategies for resolving the problems of the dearth of the technological equipment?

 

Significance of the study

it will generate the life of using the technological equipment on ministries in anambra state.

the findings of this study will significantly contribute tot the re-examining and implementation of these technological equipment.

through these findings, the selected ministries will improve on their workflow during their day-to-day activities in the organization.

it will enable the individual to attain better job satisfaction through the use of these technological equipment.

 

Definition of terms

certain words and expressions have been used commutatively in this paper. Below is the list of the meanings of such words and expressions as applied to this paper.

Office equipment: this can either be manual or electronic. The efficiency and productivity of an organization depends on the types of equipment has.

Electronic: this comprises the use of machines that can only be operated by electrically. It implies electrical impulses in the performance of the tasks.     

Download our android mobile app for more materials

ORDER NOW

COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
GTBANK Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l ACCOUNT
NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank: Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment : Bank Name: GTBank

Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.

Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l

 Account Number:  0117780667. 

Swift Code: GTBINGLA  Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834. AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO 08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT. WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

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Problems and prospects of small and medium enterprises in nigeria.

Problems and prospects of small and medium enterprises in nigeria.

a case study of nnewi north l.g.a anambra state.

 

Table of Contents

Chapter one

Introduction

1.1  background of the study                             1

1.2   statement of the problem                            3

1.3   purpose of the study                                    5

1.4   significance of the study                              6

1.5   research question                                        7

1.6   scope of the study                                       9

1.7   definition of the terms                                 9

 

Capter two

Literature review

Summary of literature review

 

Chapter three

Methodology

  • Design of the study                                       36
  • Area of the study 36
  • Population of the study 37
  • Sample of the study 37
  • Instrument for data collection 37
  • Validation of the instrument 38
  • Distribution and retrieval of instrument 38
  • Method of data analysis 38

 

Chapter four

Data presentation and analysis

 

Chapter five

Summary, conclusions and recommendations

  • Summary of the findings 57
  • Conclusion 58
  • Recommendations 59
  • Limitations of the study 61
  • Suggestion for further studies 62

References                                                   63

Appendices                                                  65

 

Abstract

The major purpose of this study is to determine factors influencing small and medium enterprises in nigeria. To determines the extent finance house strick condition have affected the development of small and medium enterprise in nigeria and also assess the extent poor financing has affected small and medium business operations. This study will help small and medium enterprise to assess and appraise their role in solving the problems of unemployment in nigeria. It will guide the compliance with government monetary policy. It will also equally server as a guideline to researchers who may wish to decide with this study in the future. The following findings were made is the course of analyzing the data. There has been a phenomenal growth in the number of small and medium ventures for past few years. The nature and dimension of small and medium enterprise in nnewi north made profit of about n5000 daily. The following recommendations are made in the belief that they will promote and stabilize small and medium enterprise of implemented. To overcome the problem of financial constraints, the government should re-introduce the small business credit scheme to that beneficiaries can use them to run the small and medium enterprise.

 

Chapter 1

1.1  introduction

Background of the study

In recent years, particularly since the adoption of the economic laicism programme in nigeria in 1986, there has been a decisive switch emphasis from the grandiose, capital intensive, large scale industries project based on the philosophy of import substitution to small scale industries with immense potentials for developing domestic linkages for rapid – sustainable industrial development. Apart from their potential for ensuring a self reliant industrialization, interms of ability to rely largely on local raw materials small scale enterprises are also in a better position to boost employ raw materials, small and medium enterprises are also in a better position to boost employment, guarantee a more even distribution of industrial development in the country industry the rural areas and facilitate the growth of non-oil exports.

in nigeria the definition of small and medium enterprises also varies from time to time and according to institutions for instance, the central bank of nigeria’s (cbn) monetary policy circular no: 27 of 1988 define small and medium enterprises in (exchange general commerce) as enterprises in which total investment (including land and working capital) did not exceed n500,000 and or the annual turn-over did not exceed n12 million small and medium enterprises is one of the modern strategies under develop countries are employing to break into the “league” of developed countries fasua (2006) categorized business that fall under small scale as follows firewood, supply plantain production restaurant services small scale poultry raising, operating a nursery for children home laundry services and host of others. Business grouped under medium scale according to fasusa are soap production, commercial poultry profession appractes (law, accountancy, education) food and beverage production among others.

Consequently, both the federal and state government and recently local government, have stepped up efforts to promote the development of small scale enterprises through increased incentive scheme including enhanced budgetary allocations for technical assistance programmes new lending schemes and credits institutions for technical assistance programmes new lending scheme and credit institutions such as the national economic reconstruction found (nerfound), world bank assisted small and medium enterprises loan scheme (smes), nigeria export and import bank (nexim), the people’s bank of nigeria (pbn) and the community bank have also emerged at both the national and local levels to boost the flow of development finance of small scale enterprises which have so far depended largely on personal funds and credit from informal sources for both their investments and working capital.

Unfortunately, all these formal credit scheme have not been able to adequately redress the fundamental problems which have constrained small scale enterprises access to credit. The low credit rating of this class of enterprises is attributable largely to their weak capital base high mortality rate, low productivity and shortage of managerial skills. Indeed, the problems of weak capital base and poor access to finance appear to have developed into some vicious circle, leading to slow growth stagnation and even rapid demise of the small scale enterprises. The impact of all existing credit scheme interms of providing for meaningful and sustained development among the small scale enterprises had medium enterprises to serve the expected role of catalyst for rapid industrial development there is need for a more innovative strategy for improved access to development finance for the small and medium enterprises that would address their inability to provide collateral securities for loans formal credit institutions.

 

Brief history of nnewi north local government area

        nnewi is the second largest city in anambra state in south eastern nigeria. Nnewi as a metropolitan city encompasses two local government areas nnewi north and nnewi south. Nnewi north is commonly referred to as nnewi central and comprises four autonomous quarters, otolo, uruagu, umudiro and nnewi-ichi. Nnewi north also include ichi an autonomous neighbouring town.

as of 2006, nnewi has an estimated population of 391,227 according to the nigerian census. The city spans over, 1,076.9 square miles (2,789 km²) in anambra state. Nnewi metropolitan area and its satellite town is a home to nearly 2.5 million residents. As of figures as the largest inland town of all other in the eastern state.

 

1.2  statement of the problem

        small and medium enterprises are mostly managed by owners and relations. The financing in most cases in normally provided by the owners. The owners fail to realize the importance of external source of capital in order affect expansion in the business. In most cases, by the owner member of the family and friends in most cases. In another development small and medium enterprises experience difficulties in raising equity capital from the finance houses or individuals.

even when the finance house agrees to provide equity capital, the conditions are always dreadful. All the result to inadequate capital available to the sector and thus lead to poor financing, this leads to poor financing. This is the have of most collage industries in nigeria. About 80% of small and medium enterprises are stifled because of this problem of poor financing and other problems associated with it (chukwuemeka, 2006). The problems that emanated from poor financing include:

  1. Lack of competent management which is the consequence of inability of owners to employ the services of experts.
  2. Use of obsolete equipment and methods of production because of owner’s inability to access new technology.
  3. Excessive competition which resulted from sales which is a consequence of poor finance to cope with increased competitors in the industry. In view of the above, the researcher decided to investigate poor financing to the organization.

 

  • Purpose of the study

        the specific purposes of the study are: –

  1. To determine factors influencing small and medium enterprise in nigeria.
  2. To determining the extent finance house strict conditions have affected the development of small and medium enterprise in nigeria.
  3. To assess the extent poor financing has affected small and medium business operations in nigeria.
    • Significance of the study
  4. This study will help small and medium enterprises to access and appraise their role in solving the problems of unemployment in nigeria.
  5. It will equally serve as a guideline to researchers who may wish to decide with this study in the future.
  6. It will also help small and medium enterprise to make sufficient preparation in their request for the credit assistance.
  7. It will guide the entrepreneurs in making credit demands that are compliance with government monetary policy.
  8. The last but not the least it will help the entrepreneurs to displayed competence in preparing justification for their project. It is rear to see most of them coming up with cash projections, projected balance sheets.

 

  • Research questions
  1. What extent does the nnewi north l.g.a affect the operation of small and medium enterprise?
  2. What are the factors responsible for phenomenal growth of small and medium enterprise in nnewi north?
  3. What are the feelings of the customers on small and medium enterprise in nnewi north?
  4. What are the problems of setting up small and medium enterprise?
  5. What are the problems of managing small and medium enterprise in study area?
  6. What are the future prospects of small and medium enterprise?

 

  • Scope of the study

the study focuses on the problems and prospects of small and medium enterprises in nigeria using nnewi north as a case study.

the study intends specifically to investigate the problems and prospects of small and medium enterprises in nigeria the strategies adopted by them to survive.

 

  • Definition of terms

Management: is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively, management comprises, planning organizing, staffing, leading or directing and controlling.

Organization: is a group of one or more people or entities or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal.

Resourcing: encompasses the development and manipulation of human resources, financial resources technological resources and natural resources.

Export: this term export is derived from the conceptual meaning as to ship the goods and services out of the port of a country.

the seller of such goods and services is referred to as an “exporter” who is based in the country of export whereas the overseas based buyer is referred to as an “importer”. In international trade “exports” refers to selling goods and services produced in the home country to other markets.

Economic growth: it means designed to give a project in the science of products distribution and consumption of goods condition of a country as to material prosperity.

Small scale industry: any industry with capital not exceeding n750,000 including capital but exchanging cost of land.

Sole proprietorship: is a business owned and conducted by one person presumably assisted by one or more persons for intakes wife and children.

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