Category Archives: Political Science Project Material Sample

Political Science Project Material Sample

EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT  (A CASE STUDY OF NEAP, ENUGU DISTRICT)

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ABSTRACT

The need and aspiration of individuals in an organization are of prime importance to employee.  The organization in the other hand sets defined objectives which it strives to accomplish through the employees.  The management thus tends to adapt appropriate managerial perspectives in order to fulfill the two set needs for mutual benefits.

This study attempts to find out the dominant factor on how employee participation in decision making in NEPA, Enugu District co-relates with its commitment to the organization.

In doing this, questionnaires were administered among the managers and staff of the organization.  During the period of data gathering, the establishment has a total work force of four hundred and seventy (470) staff.

The simple random sampling method was used because of its suitability.  After conducting the sampling method, eighty-two (82) employees were selected for this study. This number is made up five (5) managers, five (5) supervisors/officers, sixty seven (67) service staff and five (5) secretaries.  It should be noted that the formular which is used for this simple random sampling is the one propounded by Yamani.

Other methods of data collection used in this project work are oral interview and library research.

From the empirical data gathered, the study has shown that majority of workers in NEPA, Enugu.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                                           1

  • Background of the Study 1
  • Statement of Problems 3
  • Purpose of the Study 4
  • Research Questions 5
  • Significance of the Study 6
  • Scope/Limitation of the Study 8
  • Definition of Terms 9

CHAPTER TWO          

Review of Related Literature                                                                  12

  • The Concept of Employee Participation 12
  • Historical Review of NEPA 14
  • Degree of Employee Participation in Decision Making 17
  • Organization Commitment to Goal 18
  • Employee Participation: Theoretical Perspective 22
  • Participation as a Tool in Managing Change 22

References                                                                                   27

CHAPTER THREE

Methodology and Research Design                                                       28

  • Research Design                                                                       28
  • Area of Study 29
  • Population of the Study 29
  • Sample & Sampling Procedure/Technique 29
  • Instrument of Data Collection 30
  • Method of Data Collection 32
  • Method of Data Analysis 33

References                                                                                   34

CHAPTER FOUR

Data Presentation and Analysis                                                              35

CHAPTER FIVE

Findings, Conclusion & Recommendations                                           48

  • Findings 48
  • Recommendations 50
  • Conclusion 52

Bibliography                                                                                54

Questionnaire

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          Decision making is defined as the process of selecting among alternatives.  Decision making is implicitly aimed at picking on alternative solution, which when applied, can solve a given problem.  It involves three district stages, namely: intelligence stage which comprises attempt to identify and understand the nature of a solution.  The design stage which involves formulating and assessing alternatives.  And the choice phase which only entails selecting among possible alternatives.

In organization, particularly business organizations which NEPA is one, decision making is not properly carried out with the result that organizational goals and  objectives are not being effectively met.  Managers tend to formulate, assess and choose alternatives all alone without the contribution of their employees who have the duty of implementing whatever alternatives they have choosen.  The implication is that they disregard certain needs of the employees which must be fulfitted in the decision making process.  These needs include performing a worthwhile task, continual personal growth and enjoying self-fulfillment, sharing a in group effort, sharing in setting their objectives, sharing in rewards of their effort.  If managers allow employees to play a part in making decision that directly affect them, the employees will show more commitment to carry out the details of these decisions since the decision will generally suit their level of aspiration and this will go well with them.

This study will examine the extent of which employee participate in decision making, organizational commitment and favourable work attitude in NEPA district Enugu. Employee participation in decision making and organizational commitment have two key concepts in this study, which refers to managerial approach whereby workers or employees are allowed to take part in making decisions which affect them in an organization. Employee participation has been defined as mental and emotional involvement of persons in group situations that encourage them to contribute to group goals, objective and share responsibility for them.  It spots light on the degree of authority enjoyed by the employee in decision making process. It should be noted that management styles are as follows; autocratic, benevolent autocratic, consultative participative and radically participative.  The later organizational commitment represents an agreement on the part of the employees with the goals and objectives of the organization and a willingness to work towards these goals. But employees are more favourably disposed towards giving off very best as it concerns the overall aspiration of their organization.  The terms will however be more explained afterwards.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          The unending cry all over the country is that the average Nigeria workers commitment to his work and organization often feels indifferent and less concerned to the goals and objectives of the organization where his work is an unfortunate development that should worry the likes of those who genuinely love Nigeria and would love to see it properly

THE EFFECTS OF MILITANCY ON DEVELOPMENT OF THE NIGERIASTATE

THE EFFECTS OF MILITANCY ON DEVELOPMENT OF THE NIGERIASTATE

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ABSTRACT

For so many years, the Niger Delta Region has been oppressed by the Military and Civilian Government. This research work examines the effect of Militancy on the Development of the Nigeria states. It relied on secondary source such as books, journals, newspaper articles. It focuses on damage and the negativity as a result of the operation of the militant. Also attempt on how the crises can be solve. This is mainly by creating Jobs and equitable sharing of the resources. The research therefore recommends that the administration of YarAdua should as a matter of urgency create a welfare package people of Niger Delta by creating Jobs and building of industries in the region.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Niger Delta struggle has never ceased to throw up all kinds of character. The agitation for better treatment of this oil – bearing region has yielded the likes of Harold Dappa Biriye, Adako Boro, Henry Okah, better known as Jomo Abomo (Ademola, 2009. 30).With the arrest of Henry Okah, while on a mission to buy fire arms in Angola, Government Edpoemupolo, alia Tompolo, is easily the most dreaded and influential warlord in the Niger Delta region today (Ademola 2009).

The fear of Tompolo is the beginning of wisdom and even governors deters to him in the interest of peace (Ademola,2009).The criminality that reign in the Niger Delta in form of oil theft, kidnapping of expatriate oil workers, fellow Nigerians and Sabotage of oil installations has made Angola to overtake Nigeria as Africa’s biggest oil producer. (Tokunbo, 2009. 34).In the Niger Delta Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC) is the largest oil and gas; exploration and production in joint venture with Nigeria National Petroleum Co-operation holds 5%, Shell 30% and Agip 5%. The company, Shell Petroleum Development Company was granted an exploration license in1938, and discovered the first commercial oil field at Oloibiri in the Niger Delta in 1956 leading to the first export of oil in 1958. (Ogbe, 2006).

The Niger Deltans are people living in the coastal area of the country. This people are naturally blessed with mineral resources especially oil. The oil is supposedly to be blessing to the people in the region, but with what is happening now in the region, the reverse is the case. Violence and criminality in the Niger Delta has escalated since the country returned to democratic rule in 1999. Why because of marginalization.

The Niger Deltans are mostly farmers and fishermen. Since oil exploration began, damages have been done to the aquatic life of the plant, farm product and fish in the rivers as a result of oil spillages in the area. With this operation, the people of Niger Delta region mostly, those living in the creek have been affected and they are not finding it easy. Many of them are suffering from lack of food, no good road, no water even electricity, it was as a result of this that the people began to cry of “what is the meaning at this”? And marginalization in the Niger Delta areas, over 90% of the substance and revenue generation of the country is derived from the Niger Delta region (Adebanwi, 2001).

Unfortunately, many of them are living in abject poverty and cannot afford three square meals in a day. These issues of neglect have been on for decades, and this has put the Niger Delta region in depth crisis of monumental proportion. This crisis is manifested in various forms. Pipeline vandalization, killing and kidnapping.(Ademola 2009).Apparently, the issue of militancy in Niger Delta recently took serious effect since the inception of democratic rule since 1999. It was absolutely when the then government of Delta state started making emphasis on resource control; these actually opened the eyes of the boys. “That was the origin of the problem in Niger Delta” (Nwosu 2009).

The people of the Niger Delta are facing a lot of problems. The harm has been done with this entire concession thing, over the years, armed groups have emerged, a greater share of Nigeria oil wither for oil bearing communities in the region. Among the major groups is the Niger Delta people volunteer force (NDPVF) led by Alhaji Mujaahid Asari Dokunbo who was incarcerated and charged with treason under the administration of then president Olusegun Obasanjo (Nwosu, 2009)

1.1 Statement of Problems

The prevailing crises and war – like situation in the Niger Delta most especially in the creek has been so tensed that, one has to be very careful in analyzing the cause and effect. The militant operation in the Niger Delta has made thing not to be working out well and this has affected the nation economically, politically and socially (Ogbe, 2009).This observation remains

 

THE BOKO HARAM CHALLENGE AND SECURITY MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA

THE BOKO HARAM CHALLENGE AND SECURITYMANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

The Boko Haram insurgency poses a serious challenges to the management of security in Nigeria. This has become more worrisome as a result of   the fact that its activities threatens the integrity and  unity of the  Nigerian state. Curbing the menace of the sects has become a major sources of concern for government and citizens, scholars and  security experts. This has ignited this research, which aim to critically study the  group with a  view to  recommending  possible solutions to tackle it.

 

TABLE OF COTENTS

Cover page        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –   i

Title Page  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –   ii

Certification      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –   iii

Dedication         –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  iv

Acknowledgement     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –   v

Abstract    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  vii

Table of Content        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  viii

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

Background to the Study   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  1

Statement of the Problem  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  4

Objectives of the study      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  7

Research Questions  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 8

Significance of study –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 9

 

Scope of the study     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 9

Limitations of the study     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Literature Review      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  11

The Origin of Boko Haram and the Boko Haram crisis –       –  15

The Ideology Behind Boko Haram       –       –       –       –       –       –  18

Boko Haram and Nigeria’s Security Management        –       –       –  21

Theoretical Framework of Analysis     –       –       –       –       –       –  25

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLGY

Introduction      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 28

Research Design        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 28

Source of Data  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 28

Population of Study   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 29

Sample Size      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 30

Sampling Technique  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 30

Instrument of Data collection    –       –       –       –       –       –       – 30

Validity and Reliability of Instrument –       –       –       –       – 31

Statistical Technique of Data Analysis        –       –       –       –       – 32

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

Presentation and Analysis of Data      –       –       –       –       –       -33

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION, RESEARCH FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusion        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 47

Research Findings     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 48

Recommendations     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 50

Bibliography      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – 52

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

It is a common knowledge that Nigeria since her return to civil rule in 1999 faces some national security challenges across the six geo-political zones in the country. The spate of bomb blasts, kidnapping, pipeline vandalism and other forms of criminalities in recent times in various parts of the country are emerging trends of domestic terrorism. In fact, the high rate of kidnappings, armed robbery and political assassinations, are added dimensions to the security challenges, which are stretching the nation to its limits, sometimes constitute a great threat to the very  fabric of its existence. (Abimbola and Adesote 2012)

A number of analysts have variously attributed the disturbing trend to political dissatisfaction, ethnic and religious differences, perceived societal neglect and pervasive poverty among the people.

However, the outbreak of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria marked yet another phase in the recurring pattern that violent uprising, riots and disturbances have become in Nigeria. Given the heterogeneous nature of the Nigerian society, the religious sensitivity of Nigerians, and the prolonged military rule that ended with the advent of civil rule in 1999, the situation could perhaps not have been different. But what is alarming is the forceful attempt by religious fundamentalist to impose a religious ideology on a constitutionally recognized secular society (Nwogu 2012:43).

Boko Haram poses an enormous and complex threat to national security and not only has it been inimical to human security, economic development and political stability, it has also portends harmful ramifications for the corporate existence of Nigeria. Thus, it could be argued that it is the governments’ inability to efficiently address poverty and unemployment and other social malaise inimical to the good life that have combined to create an environment in which religious sects like the Boko Haram flourished. Some cases, the situations had gotten worse. There is massive poverty; lack of access to educational opportunities, unemployment and ignorance due to limited educational opportunities; and government corruption, including misuse of resources, by which the people were repulsed. (Usman 1987, Ale 2009)

In this direction, the maintenance of law and order in Nigeria has been very challenging to the extent that the ability to manage internal security by security agencies is being doubted by the citizenry. The government which is constitutionally charged to provide security and ensure the welfare of all persons within the polity has although, taken some steps to address these emerging trends of violence and suicide bombings that pose major challenges to security in Nigeria but these efforts have not proven effective. Security is said to mean the quality or state of being secured. It implies freedom from danger, freedom from fear or anxiety and freedom from the prospect of being laid off. Security from these perspective is holistic and encapsulates the total well being of a person in persons (Nwogu 2012)

It is against this background that this research is anchored to investigate the origin, ideology and activities of the dreaded Boko Haram sect and its effects on the management of security in Nigeria. The research will also examine the response of the Nigeria government to the threat posed by Boko Haram with a view to suggest possible solutions/strategies to address the scourge.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Currently, the issue of Boko Haram cannot be over-looked, particularly as it has become one of the greatest threats to government in Nigeria. The activities of the group threaten the fabrics of Nigeria and are capable of disintegrating the country.

It is pertinent to state that Boko Haram has taken a new dimension and has continued to improve on the methods of attacking their targets. It has advanced from the stages of assassination, gunpowder plot to that of bomb-planting explosive attacks, suicide bombing, sporadic shooting in busy areas, including schools, supermarkets, religious places and more recently kidnapping e.g. the kidnap incident of the Chibok school girls that attracted the attention of the international community.

THE POLICY OF PRIVATIZATION AND COMMERCIALIZATION OF PUBLIC ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL OF TELECOMMUNICATION

THE POLICY OF PRIVATIZATION AND COMMERCIALIZATION OF PUBLIC ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL OF TELECOMMUNICATION

COMPLETE MATERIAL IS N5,000.

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Account Name: 3059320631

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Abstract

It is because of social issues like economic inequalities, unemployment that made the state to interfere in economy of Nigeria. Government chose public sector as a means or medium for economic and social development due to poor managerial skill, weak technological base etc, this enhanced the zeal to establish various enterprise institutions in Nigeria. Then, due to inadequate capital and lack of finance, public enterprises in Nigeria are confronted with many problems by the employees, managers and political interference in affairs of public enterprises. The project title is the policy of privatization and commercialization of public enterprises in Nigeria: An appraisal of telecommunication. The problems are; is political interference and mismanagement of resources responsible for the poor performance of public enterprises in Nigeria? Could policy of privatization and commercialization enhance the efficiency of public enterprises? Structural-functional theory is used as suitable framework of analysis for the policy of privatization and commercialization of public enterprises in Nigeria. The researcher reviewed some relevant textbooks, also used the secondly method of data collection. He found out that privatization is seen as means to harness economy or as measure to increase efficiency of the public sector or organization. Also, the privatization and commercialization has improved the potential, the efficiency and service delivery in Nigeria by making telecommunication easily accessible and affordable. These are the recommendations; as the privatization is in the hands of few individuals government should ensure that before granting the license or opportunity, they should examine and select the competent people who will handle private enterprises and not people of questionable character. The only thing left is for government to hands – off from those enterprises as advocated in the current or present privatization and commercialization exercises.

 

Table of Contents

Titled Page        =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       i

Approval Page   =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       ii

Dedication         =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       iii

Acknowledgement     =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       iv

Abstract    =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       v

Table of Content        =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       vi

Chapter One: General Introduction

1.1    Background of the Study   =       =       =       =       =       =       1-4

1.2    Statement of Problem        =       =       =       =       =       =       4-6

1.3    Objective of the Study        =       =       =       =       =       =       6-7

1.4    Significance of the Study   =       =       =       =       =       =       7-7

1.5    Literature Review      =       =       =       =       =       =       =       7-18

1.6    Theoretical Framework      =       =       =       =       =       =       18-23

1.7    Hypothesis        =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       23-24

1.8    Method of Data Collection/Analysis   =       =       =       =       24-24

1.9    Scope of the Study    =       =       =       =       =       =       =       24-25

1.10  Definition of the Concepts          =       =       =       =       =       25-26

References        =      =       =      =       =       =       =       =       27-28

Chapter Two: Origin of Public Enterprises in Nigeria

2.1    Origin and Development of Public Enterprises in Nigeria     29-35

2.2    Justification for Public Enterprises    =       =       =       =       35-37

2.3    Financing and Control of Public Enterprises in Nigeria        37-42

2.4    Problems of Public Enterprises in Nigeria   =       =       =       42-44

References        =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       45-45

Chapter Three: Policy of Privatization in Nigeria

3.1    History and Development of Public Enterprises in Nigeria   46-49

3.2    Objectives and Forms of Privatization =       =       =       49-51

3.3    Necessary Conditions for Success of Privatization       =       51-55

3.4    Process of Commercialization in Nigeria     =       =       =       55-59

References        =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       60-60

Chapter Four: An Appraisal of Telecommunication

4.1    History of Telecommunication in Nigeria    =       =       =       61-64

4.2    Policy Objectives        =       =       =       =       =       =       =       64-66

4.3    The Structure of Nigeria’s Telecommunication Sector =       66-70

4.4    Privatization and Commercialization of

Telecommunication in Nigeria    =       =       =       =       =       70-73

References        =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       73-73

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1    Summary =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       74-76

5.2    Conclusion        =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       76-78

5.3    Recommendations     =       =       =       =       =       =       =       78-79

References        =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       80-80

Bibliography      =       =       =       =       =       =       =       =       81-83

 


Chapter One: General Introduction

1.1  Background of the Study

The importance for the establishment of public enterprises or corporations was felt in 19th Century and there after. There were a lot of upheavals in European society because of industrialization and urbanization. Social issues like unemployment and economic inequalities necessitated state intervention in economies. Britain is widely referred to as the father of public enterprises.

A good number of African Countries chose the public sector for economic and social development. This account for the reason why many more functions like industrial production, transport, social services, communication etc were assigned to the state in addition to its traditional functions like security, justice etc.

Despite the several exercises of Nigeria economic policies to promote agriculture, industries and other activities, government still depend on monoculture commodity (oil) which failed to provide good capital investment and development due to weak technological base, poor managerial skill etc. This promoted or enhanced the desire to establish various enterprises and massive establishment of government agencies and institutions. 1979 constitution of Nigeria described the official operating of these enterprises and public servants they managed as well as private enterprises. After reviewing the performance of the Nigeria Railway Corporation in 1967 the commission that carried out the exercise recommended that corporation should have an Executive Board whose Chairman would also be the Chief Executive.

The government enterprises require constant financial backing for the smooth running. Due to inadequate capital and lack of financial autonomy public enterprises in Nigeria are confronted with a lot of problems, by managers and employees, government interference, inadequate capital, technological limitation, and political interference in the affairs of public enterprises in Nigeria.

Since monoculture economy cannot meet the demand or generate large sum of revenue to run the economy or by public enterprises, the government seeking ways to reduce the rapid increase of bad economy by adopting policy to boost our economy.

Privatization and commercialization policies are adopted by federal government as a remedy to problems that emanated from public enterprises. There are economic policies which grant full autonomy to public enterprises so that they can operate without government subvention, control and interference which ultimately resulted in efficient provision of service and high productivity that contribute to national growth and development. Although, these two concepts have identical goals and purpose, that is provision of efficient services to the public, high productivity and profitability, yet, they are different in nature and character.

The Federal Government of Nigeria in (1988) through Decree No. 25 set up the Technical Committee on Privatization and Commercialization (TCPC). The TCPC was charged with the responsibility of privatization and commercializing some selected government enterprises. The main reason was to promote greater efficiency and productivity in the public enterprises.

 

1.2  Statement of Problem

Public enterprises were established by the Federal Government especially in the 1960s and early 1970s when the public sector was seen as a major contributor to economic growth and socio-political stability. The public enterprises of Nigeria set up by government to perform definite social and economic functions for the public.

The functions that informed the establishment of these public enterprises are to control the resources and raise funds for the provision of certain infrastructure facilities particularly in service requiring heavy financial investment e.g. Railway, Electricity, Telecommunication etc. also, to perform the function of generating