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Nursing Science Research Sample

THE EFFECTS OF SOCIO ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTE NATAL CLINIC IN AMUKPE COMMUNITY, SAPELE,L.G.A

THE EFFECTS OF SOCIO ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTE NATAL CLINIC IN AMUKPE COMMUNITY, SAPELE,L.G.A

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CHAPTER ONE

Background of the Study

Nigeria still has an extremely high maternal mortality ratio 704 per 1000000 live births implying that with about 2.4 million live births annually, some 170000 Nigerian women die as a result of complication associated with pregnancy and child birth (Adelakan, Alimi, Anyawale and Afonja, 2005).Women are more likely to suffer from nutritional deficiency than men for several reasons, including their reproductive biology, low social status, poverty and lack of education. In addition, socio-cultural traditions and disparities in household work patterns can also increase women’s chance of being malnourished (Ransom IE, Elder KL, 2003).

During pregnancy a woman  needs good nutritional status for a healthy outcome. Women who have a poor nutritional status at conception are at higher risk of disease and death; their health depends greatly on the availability of food, and they may be unable to cope with their increased nutrient needs during pregnancy in situations of food insecurity. Women’s nutrient needs increase during pregnancy and lactation. Some of the increased nutrient requirements protect maternal health while others affect birth outcome and infant health. If their requirements are not met, the consequences can be serious for women and their infants (Freedom from Hunger, 2003). Under nutrition and poor health from preventable causes disproportionately affect the well-being of millions of people in the developing world. Factors at individual, household and community level, or a combination of these factors, may contribute to poor nutrition and health status (Ronsmans C, Collin S, Filippi V, 2008).  In particular, malnutrition among women is likely to have a major impact on their own health as well as their children’s health. More than 3.5 million women and children under age five in developing countries die each year due to the underlying cause of under nutrition (Ronsmans et al, 2008).

Poverty influences to a great extent the nutritional status of women especially pregnant women. According to Adelakaan e tal (2005), data on mother’s energy intake indicated poverty levels higher than presented in the world bank poverty assessment (world Bank, 2003).

A study in Ibadan by Maclean (2002) on pregnancy and food taboos, it was discovered that pregnant women were warned not to eat large plantains with cleft so as not to have babies with rigid skulls. In Ile-Ife, many traditional healers discourage pregnant women from eating snails or okra soup, as these would harm the babies. Chiwuzie and Okolocha, (2007) discovered that many pregnant women were advised not take milk and egg during their pregnancy that it lead to their babies growing up to be a thief.

Thus the researcher is keen to determine the effects of socio economic factors on the nutritional status of pregnant women attending Ante natal clinic in Amukpe community, Sapele,L.G.A

 

Statement of problem

Maternal complications during pregnancy has been of the major challenge faced by most pregnant women as a result of poor nutrition, thus most pregnant women are posed with various risks and complications during pregnancy. The condition may be caused by a variety of reasons. The affluent society that we are a part of is very concerned with the thinness of women; thus, many women starve themselves or undergo feed diets to maintain this image. Some women suffer from psychological eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia. Age will influence the woman’s dietary practices; if the pregnant woman is an adolescent, she will probably consume many “Fast foods” which will not provide adequate nutrients and the eating of native chalk and drink of alcohol. Thus the researcher is keen on determining the socio economic factors and effect on the nutritional status of pregnant women attending Ante natal clinic in Amukpe community, Sapele,L.G.A.

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INVESTIGATING NURSING STUDENT PERFORMANCE OF DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY

INVESTIGATING NURSING STUDENT PERFORMANCE OF DELTA STATE UNIVERSITYINVESTIGATING NURSING STUDENT PERFORMANCE OF DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY

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CHAPTER ONE   

1:0    INTRODUCTIONS

Academic performance according to the Cambridge university reporter (2003) is frequently defined in terms of examination performance. Mac-farlance (2002) defined academic performance as the ability of student to cope with their studies as well as how various tasks assigned to them by their instructors are accomplished, it include the ability to study and remember facts and to be able to express such knowledge gained either verbally or in writing (Mac-farlace 2002).

Students academic gain and learning performance is affected by numerous factors including gender, age, parental social economic status, medium of teaching, workload of course of study, student-teacher relationship, school background, academic environment, teaching aids and infrastructures e.t.c.

1:1    BACKGROUND OF STUDY

A major challenge facing higher education institutions around the world is how to achieve quality outcome for students in an increasingly globalized and competitive environment (Harvey and Kamvounias 2008). Education is a reciprocal process, during which the learners acquire knowledge, ability and self thought (University of Wisconsin

2001). Nursing education is designed to educate and train nursing students to become competent and qualified professional Nurses (Mellish, Brink and Paton 2009). In order to provide skilled nursing care, professional Nurses must be educated and trained to make certain skill and be knowledgeable about the science of nursing. (Mellish et al., 2009.)

According to Leufer (2007) nursing student need the appropriate knowledge and skill to enable them to deliver safe and competent care to their patient, according to Mellish et al.,

(2009) students enter the nursing programmes with different expectations of what is to be

learnt, different intellectual skills, types and  level of motivation and different interest.

Furthermore, professional Nurses can also come from different culture, backgrounds, consequently, professional Nurse education, who are responsible for educating and training these students have a challenging task.

Many researcher conducted detailed studies on factors contributing to student performance at different study level. Geiser and Santelices (2007), Acato (2006) and Swart

(1999) all argue that admission points which are a reflection of the previous performance influence future academic performance. Graetz (1995) said that one’s educational success depends very strongly on social economic status of the parents. Considine and Zappala (2002) argue that families where the parent are advantaged socially, educationally, and economically foster a high level of achievement in their children, this is because students from high social economic background are well exposed to scholastic materials which aid their intelligence. Sentanu (2003), Kwesigh (2002) and Portes and Macleod (1996) as cited in

Cosidine and Zappla (2002) all argue that type of school a child attends influences academic achievement.

Mr Mabuda, a director in nursing, states that nursing as a profession is still faced with a number of challenges which ranges from education and training, coaching and mentoring, limited facilities for clinical placement of students and the nursing shortage (professional

Nurses update September 2008), these challenges inevitably influence the academic performance of students and ultimately threaten the nursing profession.

The typical learning environment, comprises of the number of student in the classroom, the academic environment, teaching strategies and the perception of the impact of group size on the learning experience (leufer 2007) the learning environment, plays an important role in captivating the student interest and in maintaining it. It is therefore important to consider how nursing students experience learning in a large class environment

(leufer 2007) this would provide information such as:

  • Are student distracted by such large number
  • Do student feel assertive enough to interact or ask questions.

Large group learning suggests that there is a relationship between class size and participation level, which then affect the learning experience of student (leufer 2007). Furthermore, the recruitment of more students without providing adequate infrastructure, many logistical problem have been encountered for example, inadequate sound system, control of attendance, ventilation increasing noise level, these problems create further problems such as difficulty in managing the group which results in late commencing of lecture. According to leufer (2007) all these has impact on the academic performance of students.

Motivation plays a fundamental role in learning (Glynn, Anltman and Owen 2005) increase in enthusiasm and motivation which may result in better academic performance, similarly the lack of inspiration would result in a lack in motivation, resulting in poor performance outcome (Leufer 2007).

Baybel et al.(2005) state that there are many factors that adversely affect nursing educational performance like inadequate infrastructure, inefficient use of technologies and educational techniques, student teachers relationship.

 

 

1:2    STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND IT’S SIGNIFICANCE.

Academic performance which is measured by the examination results is one of the major goals of a school, Hoyle (1986) argued that school are established with the aim of impacting knowledge and skills to these who go through then and behind all this is the idea of enhancing good academic performance. It has be noted that while some student perform highly well, others do not perform well, concern is base on those who do not perform well because if this poor performance goes unchecked the reputation of nursing science department in Delta State University will be lost.

It is not yet known why some student fail to attain the standard expected of them, there is lack of sufficient research in the case of nursing student in Delta State University as to what factors affect academic performance of the student.

This research will therefore help to establish the factors affecting academic performance of undergraduate students of nursing science

 

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PERCEPTION OF POST-NATAL MOTHER ABOUT MIDWIVES ATTITUDE DURING LABOUR AT CENTRAL HOSPITAL SAPELE, DELTA STATE

PERCEPTION OF POST-NATAL MOTHER ABOUT MIDWIVES ATTITUDE DURING LABOUR AT CENTRAL HOSPITAL SAPELE, DELTA STATE

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CHAPTER ONE

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..1

Purpose/Aim of the study…………………………………………………………………………………3

Statement of Problem………………………………………………………………….3

Research questions…………………………………………………………..…………3

Broad objectives of the Study……………………………………………..………….3

Scope of the study ………………………………………………………………………………………….4

Significance of the Study…………………………………..………………………….4

Operational definition of Terms…………………………..……………………………………5

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review…………………………………………………………………….7

CHAPTER THREE

Methodology………………………………………………………………….……..32

Research design……………………………………………………………………..32

Research setting……………………………………………………………………..32

Research population…………………………………..………………………………32

Sampling techniques …………………………………..……………………………..33

Instrument of data collection…………………………..……………………………..33

Validity of the instrument……………………………………………………………………………….33

Method of data collection…………………………………..………………………..33

Method of Data analysis……………………………………..………………………34

Ethical consideration………………………………………….……………………..34

Limitation of study……………………………………………………………………………………….34

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………………36

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion of findings……………………………………………….………………55

Implication of study to nursing…………………………………….…………………60

Summary…………………………………………………………………………….60

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………..61

Recommendation…………………………………………………………………….61

Suggestion for further studies……………………………….………….………..….62

References…………………………………………………………………………   63

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Demographic data

Table 2:      Percentage distribution showing the Relationship

between the Midwives and Respondents            –           –                       36

Table 3:      Percentage distribution showing how women were receiveduring Labour         –                   –                            –           –           –           —–                                          39

Table 4:      Percentage distribution according to the response on whether the midwives were with them throughout labour                                                                     40

Table 5:      Percentage distribution according to those that were given any information during labour to re-enforce what    they already knew about labour       –         41

Table 6: Percentage distribution showing how the midwives attended to the Respondents needs in labour –                                                                                        42

Table 7: Percentage distribution showing the respondents Respowhat the midwives did when they needed their husband                                                  43

Table 8: Percentage distribution showing the attitude of midwives to
them when they were in pains – – – – –                          44
Table 9: Percentage distribution showing respondents view
if midwives were friendly and empathetic
while discharging their duties – – – – –                         45
Table 9: Percentage distribution showing how the friendly
attitude of midwives helped women to cope with labour.46-
Table 10: Percentage distribution according to whether
midwives answered them when they called for help – –     47
Table 11: Percentage distribution showing the respondents
impression of midwives attitude during labour – – –         48
Table 12: Percentage distribution showing the respondents description
of midwives attitude towards them – – – –                        49
Table 13: Percentage distribution showing how best the respondents
think midwives can improve their services – –                 50

 

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this research work is to ascertain perception of postnatal mothers about midwives attitude during labour at Central Hospital Sapele, Delta State. This study is of great importance because the attitude of midwives to women during labour will affect them either positively or negatively invariably affecting the outcome of labour and also influence their decision to patronize the health facility or not during their subsequent pregnancies. The objectives of this study include the following; to find out the level of relationship that exists between the client and midwife during labour, to find out if midwives are kind and empathetic while discharging their duties and to know how mothers perceived the attitude of midwives during labour. The significance of this study is to provide information to improve the attitude of midwives towards women in labour. It will also make midwives to rise up to their responsibilities of caring for the woman in labour. The non-experimental survey research was used and a convenient method of non-probability sampling technique was used to select samples for study, questionnaire was used for data collection. (120) questionnaires were distributed, same retrieved. The data collected were analyzed using frequency table and all information obtained were recorded. The findings revealed that postnatal mothers have good perception about midwives attitude during labour. In conclusion, the researcher suggested that similar studies should be conducted in remote villages where there is high rate of maternal mortality so as to discover the reason why women do not patronize the hospital for delivery.

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

World Health Organization (2007) estimated that over half a million women in developing countries die each year from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth, leaving at least one million children motherless and so one feasible way of reducing this mortality rate is to improve the quality of maternal services.In Nigeria with a population of 140 million people with women of child bearing age constituting about 31 million, only about 40% of the deliveries are attended to by trained midwives (Midwives Serves Scheme, 2009).

 

Every pregnant woman looks forward to the day she will deliver. Women throughout the ages have depended upon a skilled person usually woman to be with them during labour.In the practice of safe delivery therefore, the midwife is expected to be courteous, patient and attend to client’s/patient’s need immediately when taking delivery. McCrea, Wright and Murphy-Black (2008) examined the influence of midwives’ approaches on the care given to women for pain relief during labour and their findings revealed that the midwives approach had a positive influence on the women’s experience of labour pain.

Myles (2009), defined labour as the expulsion of the foetus, placenta and membranes through the birth canal. Labour is a very stressful life experience of women and so the attitude of midwives during labour will either affect them positively or negatively. The emotions of the woman in labour greatly influence her reaction to discomfort and pains and are the contributing factor in determining the amount of physical and mental exhaustion she will experience, hence the whole process of childbearing should be handled with sensitivity and compassion. The midwife needs to appreciate what the woman is thinking and suffering from so as to give adequate care to her therefore communication between the client in labour and the midwife is of utmost importance because explanation of what is happening during labour will go a long way in relieving client’s stress during labour.

Statistics worldwide show that about 130 million women gives birth in the hospital attended to by trained midwives each year (Valarie, 2007), also (Lucia, 2010) states that midwives negative attitude to women in labour influence their decision about where to give birth. Women are most likely to labour best where they feel, safe and private, with midwives who they feel safe with and not a midwife whose attitude will affect them negatively.

A midwife according to (ICM) international definition is a person who having been admitted to a midwifery education programme duly recognized in the country where it is located and have successfully completed the prescribed course of study in midwifery and has acquired the requisite qualification to be registered and legally licensed to practice.Nigerian is spending the stipulated number of years in training recommended by the NMCN’. The midwife must be able to give the necessary supervision, care and advice to women during pregnancy, labour and the post-partum period, to competently conduct deliveries independently and to care for the newborn infant.

Purpose/aim of the study

The study was carried out to explore the perception of postnatal mothers about midwives attitude during labour at Central Hospital, Sapele Delta State.

Statement of the problem

Childbirth is said to be a universally celebrated event, an occasion for dancing, gifts, yet for many women in labour each day in Sub-Sahara Africa particularly in Nigeria, it is not so because of midwives attitude

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ALTITUDE OF MEN TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING AND IMPLICATION FOR THEIR INVOLVEMENT IN OGHARA-EFE COMMUNITY

ALTITUDE OF MEN TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING AND IMPLICATION FOR THEIR INVOLVEMENT IN OGHARA-EFE COMMUNITY

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                                                  ABSTRACT

Family planning is a very important matter because it has a role to play the in family and the development of the country at large. Failure to target men in health intervention has weakened the impact of the reproduction health programme. This prompted the research to undertake a study on the attitude of men towards family planning and the implication for their involvement. The rationale for this study is based on the fact that men hardly face to plan their family, putting the health of their wives at risk. In carrying out the research 10% of the target population of 208.4 was used, using stratified random sampling technique. Questionnaire was distributed and findings were analyzed using simple percentage, tables, pie chat. It was found out that the attitude of men in Oghara – efe community towards family planning is fair, also the result of the data implies that family planning would be more effective if men are actively involved.

Conclusively it is recommended that adequate health education as regards to issue bordering on family planning should be provided by nurse, especially to men and ensures that they are also actively involved.

Also extension research should be carried out to provide varieties of contraceptives for males.

Word count:        200  

CHAPTER ONE

Background of the Study         –         –         –         –         –         –         –    1

Statement of the Problem        –         –         –         –         –         –         –    4

Objective of the Study    –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –    5

Significance of the Study          –         –         –         –         –         –         –    5

Research Questions        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –    6

Research Hypothesis      –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –      7

Delimitation / Scope of the Study     –         –         –         –         –         7

Limitation of the Study  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         7

Operational Definition of terms         –         –         –         –         –         8

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review –         –        –         –         –         –         –         –         10

Definition    –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         12

Aims and Objectives of Family Planning      –         –         –         –         12

Principles of family Planning    –         –         –         –         –         –         13

Classification and Types of Family Planning Methods     –         –         13

Highlight of some of the most commonly used methods           –         17

Family Planning Method –         –         –         –         –         –         –         19

Advantages –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         19

Some Side Effects Contraceptives have on Human Body-        –         20

Some of the Misconceptions of Family Planning    –         –         –         21

Reasons for not Accepting Family Planning –         –         –         –         22

Reasons for utilizing Contraceptives –         –         –         –         –         22

Economic Reason  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         23

Pleasure Reason   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         23

Mankind Dominion Reason      –         –         –         –         –         –         23

Eugenic Reasons  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         23

Health Reasons     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         24

Demographic Motives (Reasons)         –         –         –         –         –         25

Method of Family Planning For Males          –         –         –         –         26

Factors Responsible for the Negative Attitude of Males

towards Family Planning          –         –         –         –         –         29

Ways of Improving Fathers Altitudes Towards Family Planning         32

Conceptual/ Theoretical Framework –         –         –         –         –         36

Implications for the Involvement of Men in Family Planning    –         38

Empirical Researches     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         40

 

CHAPTER THREE

Research Design   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         43

Study Setting        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         43

Target Population –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         44

Study Population –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         44

Samples and Sampling Techniques   –         –         –         –         –         45

Instruments for Date Collection        –         –         –         –         –         46

Validity/ Reliability of Instrument     –         –         –         –         –         47

Method of Data Collection        –         –         –         –         –         –         47

Method of Date Analysis –         –         –         –         –         –         –         48

Ethical Considerations   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         48

CHAPTER FOUR

Results        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         49

Presentation of results   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         49

Testing of Hypothesis     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         67

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion of Findings    –         –         –         –         –         –         –         72

Discussion of findings and demographic data       –         –         –         72

Relationship to other research study –         –         –         –         –         74

Implication of Nursing    –         –         –         –         –         –         –         75

Summary and conclusion        –         –         –         –         –         –         77

Recommendation/ suggestion for further study   –         –         –         78

References –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         80

Appendix     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         83

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The issue of family planning all over the world has attracted attention due to it important in decision making about population growth and development issues. Uncontrolled birth is a major contributing factor of an increase in the world’s population, particularly in Nigeria. Statistics shows that the population of the world was about one billion in 1859 in 1930, the population had doubled (two billion) in 1976, the total population was said to be four billion. Today, it is more than six billion, with Nigeria having a population of over 162 million, thus being the largest country in Africa and the 7th in the world map (United States Census Buxau, 2010). Life is a precious gift that every individual hunger for and in an attempt to grab this gift, our health must be maintained.

There are so many problems that have been found to result from poor family planning method. Some of these problems include: Over population, criminal abortion, child dumping, increased child morbidity and mortality, as well as increases material morbidity and mortality rates. Over population as one of the consequences of poor family planning has succeeded in causing a lot of harm to individuals, families, society and the nation at large.

Maternal mortality and child mortality have been found to occur due to poor family planning practice, according to the statement of the WHO (World Health Organization) and United Nation Education, Scientific Children’s Organization (UNESCO) in 1991) that over three million children and two hundred thousand women die each year and also women’s health and action research (2004) had showed rates of child and maternal mortality and morbidity  rate in the world due to poor altitude towards Ante-natal care in which family planning is one of the objectives. The President of Nigeria, his Excellency, Goodluck Ebele Jonathan was quoted in Vanguard newspaper on June 28, 2012saying “Nigeria families should have only the children they can afford. To ensure this order was followed , a new planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN) was created. He said it may be time for birth control legislation.

Family planning, until recently, a very sensitive subject in Africa, is now very increasingly accepted as a necessary ingredient of socio-economic development. It is now thought to be an important health measure that contributes to the health of parents, children and the entire nation. Because of the great effect over population has on socio-economic status, education and health in general, a full understanding of this phenomenon and the  major factors governing it are essential, thus the need to adopt family as a means of checking the escalating  birthrate cannot be over emphasized. Unfortunately, this idea is not adequately emphasized on, especially in the rural areas, where it was observed that they g=have a high regard for large families and children are seen as a blessing from God. They believed that the more children a man has, the more hands to help with work especially on the farm. It is also believed that children give status to a women and security in old age. In Oghara-efe Community in Delta State, it was observed that husband often make sexual demands with little or no consideration for material health and the children’s survival. They compound their wives potential mortality rate by either not allowing her to seek family planning, advice or will not seek it as a collection responsibility. This present mentality in Oghara-efe community and its consequent socio-economic, educational and health effect on the villagers makes it important for this study to be carried out.

Statement of the Problem

Most fathers shy away from sharing the responsibility of family planning with their wives therefore, leaving the burden on her alone to bear. Although in Urban town, most father have started having good perception of family planning, but in rural areas like Oghara-efe community, the fathers still have a wrong perception towards family planning.

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A STUDY ON THE KNOWLEDGE AND ACCEPTANCE ON MEN TOWARDS VASECTOMY AS A METHOD OF CONTRACEPTIVE AMONG MALE STAFF AT CENTRAL HOSPITAL, AGBOR

A STUDY ON THE KNOWLEDGE AND ACCEPTANCE ON MEN TOWARDS VASECTOMY AS A METHOD OF CONTRACEPTIVE AMONG MALE STAFF AT CENTRAL HOSPITAL, AGBOR

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CHAPTER ONE—————————————————————————1

INTRODUCTION————————————————————————–1

Background of study———————————————————————-1

Aim/purpose of study———————————————————————2

Statement of problem———————————————————————2

Research question————————————————————————–3

Broad objective of the study————————————————————–3

Specific objective————————————————————————–3

Scope of study / delimitation ————————————————————-3

Significance of study———————————————————————-4

Operational definition of terms———————————————————4

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review—————————————————————————5

Conceptual framework——————————————————————-11

Hypothesis ——————————————————————————–16

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Research design————————————————————————-17

Research site and setting—————————————————————-17

Target population ———————————————————————–18

Sample and sampling techniques——————————————————18

Instrument for data collection———————————————————-18

Validity/reliability of instrument——————————————————18

Method of data collection————————————————————–19

Procedure for data analysis————————————————————-19

Ethical consideration——————————————————————–19

Limitation of study———————————————————————-19

 

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT———————————————————————————–21

Data analysis and interpretation———————————————————21

Testing of hypothesis———————————————————————-31

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS———————————————————-34

Discussion of findings———————————————————————34

Nursing implication————————————————————————35

Summary————————————————————————————35

Conclusion ———————————————————————————36

Recommendation—————————————————————————36

References ———————————————————————————37

Appendix ———————————————————————————-42

 

                                                      ABSTRACT

This study was on the knowledge and acceptance on men towards vasectomy as a method of contraceptive among male staff at central hospital, Agbor150 questionnaires were administered and 120 were retrieved successfully and analysed. Closed ended structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the researcher to knowledge and acceptance on men towards vasectomy as a method of contraceptive. The data analysed were incorporated in frequency tables with their percentages after which the tables were elucidated on. 70 (58.33%) said they have heard of vasectomy while 50 (41.67%) has never heard of vasectomy before, 15 (12.5%) said they have thought of choosing vasectomy as a method of contraceptive while 105 (87.5%) did not accept it, 105 (87.5%) said their religious believe was not in support of it while 15 (12.50%) did not see anything wrong with vasectomy. The hypothetical statements was tested using chi-square and a level of significance of 0.05 with a theoretical value of 55.07 which was  higher than the computed value which made the null hypothesis to be accepted . The data analyzed were compared with the empirical works for similarities and dissimilarities and reasons for dissimilarities were discussed. It was recommended that the hospital administration should organize seminar and workshop on vasectomy to enhance the knowledge of men on the acceptance of vasectomy as a method of contraceptive also the government should create more awareness on vasectomy via Mass media (Radio, Television, Newspaper).

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background of study


Vasectomy is unique among the array of modern methods of contraception as it enables the male partner to take primary responsibility for fertility control, (Kincaid, 2006). Its availability broadens the choice of methods for family planning users and contributes to promoting male involvement in family planning, (NCPD, 2004). Furthermore, vasectomy is highly effective in preventing pregnancy independent of subsequent behavior modification by the vasectomized man and the non scalpel vasectomy procedure is convenient and safe for the client and simple to perform, (FHI, 2002). While sterilization is the most widely used family planning method worldwide, in most settings the number of women sterilized for contraceptive purposes far exceeds the number of men, (NCPD, 2004).The lowest rates of sterilization in the world are found in Africa where fewer than three percent of married women of reproductive age rely on sterilization to avoid pregnancy and male sterilization is negligible, (Ross and Frankenberg, 2003). Male attitudes are often blamed for the underutilization of vasectomy method, (Wilkinson , 2006).Frequently cited examples of attitudes which discourage the use of vasectomy include men’s lack of interest in or responsibility for avoiding pregnancy, the association of vasectomy with castration, and fear of the procedure, (FHI,2012). However, some advocates of vasectomy believe more than negative attitudes among potential male adopters underlie the low levels of use, (Liskin, Benoit, and Blackburn, 2012).

The use of vasectomy in the world varies significantly by region and country. Almost three-fourths of the 37 million couples who use vasectomy† live in Asia, with China and India alone accounting for more than two-thirds of this total, (NCPD, 2004). Four and one-half million men in the developing world outside of these two countries use vasectomy. Vasectomy use in Latin America has increased four-fold in the past 10 years.

Prevalence remains less than 1% in most of the region, with the exception of Brazil, 14 Colombia, 19 Guatemala, 7 and Mexico, 12 where programs benefited from donor support in the 1980s and early 1990s, (FHI, 2012). Vasectomy rates in almost all of Africa are 0.1% or less, although vasectomy services have been introduced within a number of Sub-Saharan African countries, such as Kenya, Ghana, Malawi, and Tanzania, (NCPD, 2004). Still, vasectomy has been adopted by at least some men in every country where it has been introduced. Vasectomy, which can be provided in a variety of primary care settings, has a potentially important role to play in helping individuals and programs meet the ever-growing family planning and reproductive health needs outlined above, especially as donor support declines and national family planning programs increasingly need to focus on cost-effective services and methods, (Ross and Frankenberg, 2003).Vasectomies, or male sterilization, are a highly underutilized method of family planning, although they are safer, simpler, less expensive and equally as effective as female sterilization. Throughout the world, vasectomies are one of the least used and least known methods of contraception.  In Asia, it is 8 times more common, while in Latin America and the Caribbean it is 15 times more common. The rates of male sterilization in sub-Saharan Africa are too low for an accurate comparison. Worldwide, approximately 43 million couples rely on vasectomy, while approximately 210 million couples rely on female sterilization as their method of family planning.

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