Category Archives: Microbiology Project Topics Sample

Microbiology Project Topics Sample

PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA IN THE URINE OF CARITAS UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA IN THE URINE OF CARITAS UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

Download our android mobile app for more materials

ORDER NOW

COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Host Link Global Services Ltd
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0138924237
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 


ABSTRACT.

 

In order to access the prevalence and sensitivity pattern of urinary pathogens, 60 midstream urine samples from students of Caritas University were investigated using cultural methods. Samples were examined microscopically and cultured in blood agar and Macckonkey agar. Disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic testing. Of the 60 urine samples 48 yielded significant growth with a prevalence rate of 80%. It was observed that females were more infected than the males with a prevalence rate of 56.70% and 43.30% respectively under the ages of 18-25yrs. Escherichia coli was the most predominant. The isolates were very sensitive to Gentamycin, Nitrofurantoin and Ofloxacin which were the (most sensitive) and the most resistant were Tetracycline, Cortrimozol, Cephalexin and Ampicillin. Therefore, Nitrofurantoin, Gentamycin, Ofloxacin were strongly recommended for the treatment of UTI as indicated in the study.

 

 

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

 

 

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE!!!

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CHAPATER ONE

 

1.0                 Introduction———————————————————- 1

 

1.1                  Aims and objectives of the study——————————— 3

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.0                 Literature review—————————————————–4

 

2.1                 Microorganisms found in urine and their etiology————–4

 

2.1.1              Bacteria————————————————————— 4

 

2.1.2               Viruses—————————————————————-5

 

 

2.1.3              Fungi——————————————————————-6

 

2.1.4                Protozoa————————————————————–6

 

2.2.1               Entry of bacteria into the urinary tract—————————-7

 

2.2.2              Routes of bacteria infection—————————————–7

 

2.2.3              Symptoms of UTI—————————————————-8

 

2.2.4              Diagnosis————————————————————–9

 

2.2.5              Treatment————————————————————-10

 

2.2.5.1          Aims of treatment of UTI——————————————10

 

2.2.5.2          Future strategies in treatment of bacteria/UTI——————-11

 

2.2.6              Prevention and control———————————————-12

 

2.3.0              Antimicrobial resistance——————————————–12

 

2.3.1              Mechanisms of drug resistance————————————14

 

2.3.1.1          Drug- inactivating enzyme——————————————14

 

2.3.1.2          Alteration in the target molecule———————————–14

 

2.3.1.3          Decrease uptake of the drugs—————————————14

 

2.3.1.4          Increased elimination of the drugs———————————15

 

2.3.2              Conditions influencing the effectiveness of drugs————–15

 

 

2.3.2.1          Population size—————————————————– 16

 

2.3.2.2          Population composition——————————————–16

 

2.3.2.3          Concentration and intensity of antimicrobial agent————- 16

 

2.3.2.4          Duration of exposure————————————————17

 

2.3.2.5          Temperature———————————————————-17

 

2.3.3              Actions of antimicrobial drugs————————————-17

 

2.3.3.1            Inhibition of cell synthesis—————————– ———–17

 

2.3.3.2          Inhibition of cell membrane————————————– 18

 

2.3.3.3          Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis—————————– 18

 

2.3.3.4          Inhibition of essential metabolites——————————-18

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

3.0                  Materials and methods——————————————– 19

 

3.1                  Sample collection  ————————————————- 19

 

3.1.2              Antimicrobial susceptibility test———————————-20

 

3.1.3              Urinalysis test——————————————————–21

 

3.2                  Gram staining——————————————————– 21

 

3.3                  Biochemical test—————————————————–22

 

 

9

 

3.3.1              Catalase test———————————————————- 22

 

3.3.2              Coagulase test——————————————————– 23

 

3.3.3              Motility test———————————————————- 23

 

3.3.4              Methyl test———————————————————– 24

 

3.3.5              Urease test———————————————————— 25

 

3.3.6              Indole test———————————————————— 25

 

3.3.7              Citrate utilization test———————————————– 26

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

4.0                  Result —————————————————————– 27

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

5.1                  Discussion———————————————————— 31

 

5.2                  Conclusion———————————————————– 32

 

5.3                  Recommendation—————————————————-33

 

References

 

Appendix I

 

Appendix II

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 1:        Sex distribution of cases and prevalence rates—————— 28

 

Table 2:          Bacterial isolates of positive cases with prevalence rate——28

 

Table 3:          The Sensitivity/Resistivity patterns of bacterial isolates—– 29

 

Table 4:        Biochemical test results——————————————– 41

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES:

 

Fig.1:             Oxidase test———————————————————–42

 

Fig.2:              Urease test———————————————————– 42

 

Fig.3 :          MacConkey culture plate ——————————————-42

 

Fig. 4 :          Catalase test ———————————————————-42

 

Fig. 5 :          Indole test ————————————————————42

 

Fig.6:              Simmons citrate test————————————————42

 

Fig.7:              Methyl red test ——————————————————42

 

Fig.8:              Vp test—————————————————————-42

 

Fig.9 :           Coagulase test ——————————————————-42

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Gram negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain their crystal violet dye in the gram staining protocol. They are differentiated by their cell wall structure. The following characteristics are displayed by gram negative bacteria as follows

 

Cytoplasmic membrane

 

 

Thin peptidoglycan layer(much thinner than gram positive)

 

 

Outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharide outside the peptidoglycan layer

 

Porin exists in the outer membrane, which acts like pores

 

 

There is a space between the layer of peptidoglycan and the secondary cell membrane, called the periplasmic space

 

If present, flagella have four (4) supporting rings instead of two

 

 

No techoic acid or lipopolysaccharide

 

 

Some examples of gram negative bacteria include; Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Pseudomonas species, Klebsiella species, Proteus species, Helicobacter species, Mosoxella species, Cyanobacteria species, Spirochetes species. They also constitute a serious problem in urinary tract infections in many parts of the world. Appropriate antimicrobial treatments are often critical to decreasing morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients having the infections caused by the pathogens. Gram negative bacteria are non-spore forming bacilli that grow rapidly on ordinary laboratory media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. It has been estimated that symptomatic urinary tract infects (UTI) occurs in as many as 7million visits to emergency units and 100,000 hospitalised annually. UTI has been the most common hospital acquired infections, accounting for as many as 35% of nosocomial infection. It is the second most common cause of bacteraemia in hospitalised patients (Nacem, 2000). UTI is known to occur in all populations but has a particular impact on females of all ages and males at two extremes of life, immuno-compromised patients and anyone with function or structural abnormalities of the urinary and excretory system.

 

 

UTI is known to be the microbial invasion of any of the tissues of the urinary tract reaching from the renal cortex to the urethrameatus (Nicolle, 2000). It is also known to be the presence in two consecutive urine samples of greater than 100rods (105 ) organisms per ml of a single bacterial strain in the urinary tract. UTI can be categorized in ascending or descending. Infections which are confined to the urethral or the bladder are ascending and referred to as uretitis or cystitis respectively. On the other hand, the pathogens spread from one or other infected body site to the kidney down along the ureter to the bladder. Such descending UTI cause severe kidney infection, a condition called pyelonephritis (Parsons, 1958). This is potentially more serious; infections to the urethra are called urethritis and to the prostrate gland are called prostitis. This classification is the presence or absence of symptoms, reoccurrence or absence or presence of complicating factors which are host factors facilitating establishment and maintenance of bacteraemia or worsening the prognosis of UTI`s engaging the kidney.

 

Majority of pathogens are gram negative species with predominance of members of Enterobacteriace (Neu, 1992). Escherichia coli accounts for majority of urinary tract infections in young women but other gram negative

15

 

 

rods of different genera such as proteus species and pseudomonas aeruginosa an aerobic gram negative rod is also troublesome. As a urinary tract pathogens because of its resistance to antimicrobial medicine make it difficult to treat successfully (Nester et al. 1998).

 

Antibiotics are used for the control of bacterial infections in human. Generally, gram negative bacteria are sensitive to many antimicrobial agents but strains from different patients and carriers differ in the pattern and degrees of sensitivity to different drugs. Increasing antimicrobials resistance in bacterial pathogen is a worldwide concern. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among urinary tract infectious agents is also increasing (Mathai et al. 2001 : Karaloswsky et al. 2001) and its treatment has become more complicated due to increasing resistance and empirical therapy leading to treatment failures of most associated with gram negative bacteria (Blondeau et al. 1999). The present study investigated the pattern of gram negative uropathogens and their antimicrobial resistance pattern among the clinical isolates to the commercially available antibiotics that are often prescribed in urinary tract infectious cases

 

 

 

 

 

 

16

 

1.1  Aims and objectives

 

 

To find out the prevalence of gram negative organisms in the urinary tract among caritas university students.

 

To investigate their antibiotic sensitivity pattern to enable formulation of drugs

Share This:

BIOCONTROL POTENTIAL OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISOLATED FROM SOIL SAMPLES AGAINST LARVA OF MOSQUITO

BIOCONTROL POTENTIAL OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISOLATED FROM SOIL SAMPLES AGAINST LARVA OF MOSQUITO

 

Download our android mobile app for more materials

ORDER NOW

COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Host Link Global Services Ltd
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0138924237
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

ABSTRACT

A major challenge for achieving successful mosquito control is overcoming insecticide resistance. Bacillus thuringiensis which is one of the most effective biolarvacide for control of species of mosquitoes and monitoring of larval susceptibility is essential to avoid resistance development. Mosquito larvacidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis was assessed by isolating them from ecologically different soil habitats in and around Warri metropolis. The isolate organisms were confirmed as Bacillus thuringiensis based on biochemical characterization and microscopic observation. The larvacidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates was tested against the larval of mosquito by using the standard cup bioassay. The isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis showed a significant level of variation in their larvacidal activity.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page: – i
Certification: ii
Dedication: iii
Acknowledgement: iv
Abstract:  – v
Table of contents: vi
List of tables: viii

 

CHAPTER ONE:
1.0 Introduction:   – 1
1.1 Crystal composition and morphology: – 3
1.2 General characteristics of Bacillus thuringlensis: 4
1.3 Classification of Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies: – 5
1.4 Ecology and prevalence of Bacillus thuringrensis: – 5
1.5 Other pathogenic factors of Bacillus thuringiensis: – 7
1.6 Morphological properties of Bacillus thuringiensis: – 8

 

CHAPTER TWO:
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW-  – 10
2.1    Mode of action on target organism: 10

 

 

2.2 Mechanism of action of Bacillus thuringensis formulation: 12
2.3 General application of Bacillus thuringiensis: 13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE:
3.0 Material and method: 15
3.1 Soil sample collection: 15
3.2 Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis: 16
3.3 Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from soil: – 16
3.4 Sample staining:   – 17
3.5 Biochemical identification: 18

 

  • Materials and method of Bacillus theringiensis against

 

mosquito lava: 19
3.7 Catalase test: 20
3.8 Oxidase enzyme activity: – 20
3.9 Sugar test: 20
3.10 Methyl red test 21
3.11 Indole test 22

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR:
4.0 Result of sample collection and isolation: 23
4.1 Colony morphology of Bacillus isolates: 24

 

viii

 

 

4.2 Biochemical test: 25
4.3 Bioassay:   – 27

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE:
Discussion: – 28
Conclusion: – 28
Recommendations: 29
References: – 31
Appendix: 1 – 35
Appendix:  2 38

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: 24
Table 2: 25
Table 3: 26

 

ix

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

i

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

Bacillus thuringrensis (Bt) is a well known and widely studied bacterium which is known for its use in pest management. Today it is the most successful commercial xenobiotic with its worldwide application when compared with the chemical pesticides; Bacillus thuringiensis has the advantages of being biologically degradable, selectively active on pests and less likely to cause resistance. Safety of Bacillus thuringiensis formulations for humans, beneficial animals and plants explains the replacement of chemical pesticides in many countries with these environmentally friendly pest control agents.

 

Bacillus thuringiensis was first isolated by the Japanese Scientist Ishiwata (1901) from skilkworm larvae, bombyxmori, exhibiting sotto disease. After 10 years, Berliner (1911) isolated the square gram (+) positive, spore-forming, rod shaped soil bacterium from disease flour moth larvae, Anngasta Kachmiccalla, in the Thuringia region of the Germany and named it as

 

Bacillus thuringiensis.

 

 

 

In the early 1930s Bacillus thuringiensis was used against Ostrinianubilis, the European corn borer. The first commercial product was available in 1938 in France, with the trade name sporeine (Weiser, 1986). It was Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies Kurstaki that was used for the control of the insect

 

xii

 

 

(Lepidopteran) pests in agriculture and forestry (Luthy & Ebersold, 1981). New commercial products arrived in 1980s after the discovering of subspecies thuringiensis opened the gate for black fly and mosquito larvae control.

 

Like all organisms, insect are susceptible to infection by pathogenic microorganisms, many of these infections agents have a narrow host range and therefore, do not cause uncontrolled destruction of beneficial insects and are not toxic to vertebrates. Bacillus thuringiensis is a major microorganism, which shows entamopathogenic activity (Glazer & Nikaido, 1995, Schnepf, et al. 1998) which forms parasporal crystals during the stationary phase of its growth cycle.

 

Most  Bacillus  thuringiensis  preparations  available  on  the  market  contain

 

spores with parasporal inclusion bodies composed of δ–endotoxins. In commercial production, the crystals and spores obtained from fermentation are concentrated and formulated for spray on application according to conventional Agriculture practices (Baum, Kakefuda, & Gawron-Burke, 1996). There are many strains of Bacillus thuringiensis having insecticidal activity against insect order (eg Lepidoptera, Diptera, Homoptera, Mollaphage, Coloptera). Only a few of them have been commercially developed.

 

xiii

 

 

Bacillus thuringiensis insecticides are divided into three groups, group one has been used for the control of lepidopterans. These groups of insecticides are formulated with Bacillus thuringiensis Subspecies. Kurstaki, group two contains thesandiego and tenebrionis strains of Bacillus thuringiensisand has been applied for the control of certain celopterans and their larvae. Group three contains the Israelensis strains of Bacillus thuringiensis which has been used to control black flies and mosquitoes.

 

CRYSTAL COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGY

 

 

 

The existence of parasporal inclusions in Bt was first noted I 1915 (Berliner 1915) but their protein composition was not delineated until the 1950s (Angus 1954). Hannay (1953) detected the crystalline fine structure that is a property of most of the parasporal inclusion. Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies can synthesize more than one inclusion, which may contain different ICPs. ICPs have been called data endotoxins; however since the term endotoxin usually refers to toxin associated with the other membranes of gram-negative bacteria, comprising a core lipopoly saccharide. Depending on their ICP composition, the crystals have various forms (bipyramidal, cuboidal, flat rhomboid, or a composition with two or more crystal types. A partial correlation between crystal morphology, ICP composition, and bioactivity against target insects has been established (Bulla et al.1977). Hofte and Whitely, 1989, Lynch and Baumman, 1985).

 

xiv

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BACILLUS THURINGLENSIS

 

 

 

Bacillus thuringiensis is a member of the genes Bacillus and like the other members of the taxon, has the ability to form endospores that are resistant to inactivation by heat, desiccation and organic solvent. The spore formation of the organism varies from terminal to subterminal in sporangia that are not swollen, therefore, Bacillus thuringiensis resembles other members of Bacillus species in morphology and shape (Stahly, Andrews, & Yousten, 1991). The organism is gram-positive and facultitative anaerobes. The shape of the cells of the organism is rod. The size when grown in standard liquid media varies 3 –5um.

 

The most distinguishing features of Bacillus thuringiensis from other closely related Bacillus species. (eg Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus. cereus) is the presence of the parasporal crystal body that is near to the spore outside the exosporangium during the endospore formation, whic

Share This:

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HONEY ON Staphylococcus aureusEscherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogen ISOLATED FROM WOUND

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HONEY ON Staphylococcus aureusEscherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogen ISOLATED FROM WOUND

Download our android mobile app for more materials

ORDER NOW

COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Host Link Global Services Ltd
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0138924237
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Aims and objectives 3
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

v

 

2.1 Wound infection 8
2.2 Definition of honey 9
2.3 Local test for honey 13
2.4 Classification of honey 14
2.5 Preservation of honey 16
2.6 Properties and active ingredient of honey 17
2.7 Mode of action of some antibacterial substance
present in honey 20
2.8 Clinical conditions for treatment with honey 22
2.9 Honey as an antimicrobial agent 24
2.10 Practical consideration for the clinical use of honey 27
2.11 Adverse reaction of honey 28
2.12 Research on honey 29

 

 

 

 

 

 

vi

 

CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Source of Sample 32
3.2 Sources of honey 32
3.3 Identification of organisms 32
3.4 Gram Staining 33
3.5 Indole test 34
3.6 Catalase test 34
3.7 Coagulase test 35
3.8 Antibacterial sensitivity test 35
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Result 37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

vii

 

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Discussion 40
5.2 Conclusion 42
5.3 Recommendation 43
REFERENCE 44
Appendix 1 51
Appendix 2 54

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

viii

 

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 – Composition of honey 13
Table 2 – Result of Biochemical tests 25
Table 3 – Inhibition of honey from Enugu North (Nsukka) 26
Table 4 – Inhibition of honey from Enugu South (Ugwuaji) 26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ix

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

Antibacterial activity of honey obtained from two different locations in Delta State (Abraka & Obiaru) Nigeria on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogens isolated from wound was studied. Agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the honey on the test microorganisms. The result revealed that the two honey samples have heavy antibacterial activities against the test organisms and zones of inhibition were obtained showing high antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity increased with increase in the concentrations and honey from Abraka produced a high antibacterial activity (clearer zone) on staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli at all concentration and moderately for streptococcus pyogens. The use of honey as a therapeutic substance has been rediscovered by the medical profession on more recent times, and it is gaining acceptance as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of ulcers and bed sores, and other infections resulting from burns and wounds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

 

1.0 Introduction

 

 

Infections and other health related problems have been of great concern to human beings and chemotherapy is the main approach in the treatment of such conditions. Investigation into the microbial flora of wound began in the late 19th century and since then; improvements in techniques have facilitated the recovery, identification and enumeration of a wide variety of microbial species. Most wounds support relatively stable polymicrobial communities (Bowkler, et.al; 2001) often without signs of clinical infection (Hansson,et al; 1993).

 

However, potential pathogens may be present and the delicate balance between colonized wound and an infected wound depends on the interplay of complex host and microbial influences (Emmerson, 1998). The development of wound infection has deleterious effect on

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

patients by causing increased pain, discomfort, inconveniences and can lead to life threatening conditions or even death.

 

Major challenges encountered with antibiotics in clinical use are resistance to antibiotics which leads eventually to failure of the treatment (Blair 2004). Infectious diseases are known to be treated with herbal remedies throughout the history of mankind; even today, natural substances continue to play a major role in primary health care as therapeutic remedies in many developing countries (Jonathan, et.al; 2007). Over the years, there have been reports of the production of more potent antibiotics e.g. third and fourth generation of cephalosporin by pharmaceutical companies which are not readily available and expensive. Problems of various antibiotics include low efficacy, side effect which has lead investigations into natural and potent antibacterial seeming to be the right step to take. The invasion of pathogenic organism is on the rise as a result, effects are been made to develop antibacterial agent from natural sources for better

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

therapeutic effect (Gills, 1992). The therapies have drawn the interest of both public and medicinal communities. Current research has been focused on herbal and aromatherapy product. However, a number of their product such as honey has shown therapeutic promise.

 

The presence in honey of various inhibins as described by (Doid and Dzaio, 1937) has been reported by several investigators. Honey was used to treat infected wound as long as 2000 years ago before bacterial were discovered to be the cause of infection in c.50 AD,

 

Dioscorides described honeyandhollow as be ulcers” 1959)(Gunther,.Morerecently,honey has been reported to

 

have an inhibitory effect to around 60 species of bacterial including aerobes and anaerobes, Gram positive and Gram negative (Molan, 1992). The current prevalence of the therapeutic use of ancient remedies, include honey committee on science and technology.

 

1.1 Aims and objectives.

 

 

  1. To determine antibacterial potential of honey.

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

  1. To investigate the mechanism of antibacterial action of honey.

 

To determ

Share This:

BACTERIAL EXAMINATION OF SPOILT “EGUSI” SOUP

BACTERIAL EXAMINATION OF SPOILT “EGUSI” SOUP

Download our android mobile app for more materials

ORDER NOW

COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Host Link Global Services Ltd
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0138924237
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 3
1.3 Objective of the Study – – – – – – – 3
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 4
1.5 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – 4
1.6 Limitations of the Study – – – – — – – 4
1.7 Definition of Terms – – – – – – – 5
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review – – – – – – — – 6
2.1 A brief history on Melon (Egusi) seed – – – – 6
2.2 Types of Melon – – – – – – – – – 7
2.3 Nutritional value of Melon seeds – – – – – 10
2.4 Drying methods and storability of “Egusi” – – – 12
2.5 Reciepe for “Egusi” soup – – – – – – 14
2.5.1 Ingredients – – – – – – – – – 14
2.5.2 Preparation of “Egusi” soup – – – – – – 14
2.6 Spoilage of individual components of the soup – – – 15
2.6.1 Fish spoilage – – – – – – – – – 16
2.6.2 Meat spoilage – – – – – – – – – 16
2.6.3 Spoilage of Vegetables – – – – – – – 17
2.6.4 Spoilage of “Egusi” – – – – – – – 18
2.7 Factors influencing growth of Microorganisms in foods. – 19
2.7.1 Intrinsic factors – – – – – – – – 20
2.7.2 Extrinsic factors – – – – – – – – – 24
2.8 The effects of spoilt foods (“Egusi” soup) on human – – 26

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and methods – – – – – – – 30
3.1 Materials and Apparati (see appendix I) – – – –
3.2 Collection of the “Egusi” soup samples – – — – 30
3.3 Preparation of Media – – – – – – – 30
3.4 Sterilization of Materials – – – – – – 31
3.5 Preparation o the “Egusi” soup sample for culturing – – 32
3.6 Inoculation and Incubation – – – – – – – 33
3.7 Identification of Bacterial growth – – – – – – 35
3.8 Gram staining procedure – – – – – – 35
3.9 Microscopic Examination- – – – – – – 36
3.10 Biochemical Tests – – – – – – – 36
3.10.1 Catalase Test – – – – – – – – 36
3.10.2 Lactose Fermentation Test – – – – – – 37
3.10.3 Citrate Utilization Test – – – – – – 37
3.10.4 Proteolysis – – – – – – – – 38
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results – – – – – – – – – – 39

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussions, Conclusion and Recommendation – – 42
5.1 Discussions – – – – – – – – – 42
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 44
5.3 Recommendation – – – – – – – – 45
References – – – – – – – – 46
Appendences – – – – – – – – 50
LISTS OF TABLES
Table 1: Types and characterization of some melon – – – 9
Table 2: Nutritional contents of melon seeds – – – 11
Table 3: Composition of melon seeds dried by different methods – 13
Table 4: Bacterial food poisoning: incubation period and duration of illness. – – – – – – – – 28
Table 5: Bacterial growth based on colony characteristics – – 39
Table 6: Bacterial growth based on gram staining reaction – – 40
Table 7: Bacterial growth based on Biochemical tests- – – 41
LISTS OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Types of melon – – – – – – – 8
Figure 2: Bacterial growth on different agar medium – – – 34

ABSTRACT
Five samples of “Egusi” soup collected from different food vendors in Ogbete Main Market in Enugu were studied for Bacterial spoilage. Observation of the plates incubated aerobically showed heavy / profused growth of Bacillus spp, moderate growth of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenes as well as scanty growths of Streptococcus Feacalis and Staphy lococcus aureus. The presence of E. coli and Streptococcus feacalis indicated Feacalis contamination of the soup as these two organisms are known to be indicator organisms. They are usually associated with poor hygienic handling of foods, water, utensils and vegetables. The shelf life of “Egusi” soup can be extended having known the spoilage organism by subjecting the soup to a more advanced preservation methods such as canning.
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Biochemical changes in food when perceived as undesirable are called spoilage. Because food are such excellent source of nutrient, microorganisms grow rapidly and make what once was an attractive and appealing food into a sour, foul smelling mass suitable only for the garbagecan. On the other hand, microorganisms can degrade food quality and lead to spoilage. Importantly, foods also can serve as vehicles for disease transmission. The detection and control of pathogens and food spoilage microorganisms are important parts of food microbiology. During the entire sequence of food handling from the producer to the final consumer, microorganisms can affect food quality and human health (Prescott et al; 2008).
The number and types of microorganisms present in food are influenced by the general environment from which the food was originally obtained, the microbiological quality of the food in its raw or unprocessed state, sanitary condition under which the food was handled and processed as well as the adequacy of subsequent packaging, handling and storage are conditions in maintaining the flora at a low level (Jay, 2003).
Melon (Egusi) belongs to the family cucurbitaceae and grows in pods with seeds that are covered with a mucilaginous coating (Offonry and Achi 1998). They are used as the major ingredients for preparing a traditional soup called “Egusi” soup, which is popularly consumed in West Africa, particularly Nigeria. The seeds can be roasted and eaten or grounded as flour and used as a soup thickner. Various “Egusi” soups are favorites in Nigeria. In West Africa, plants and seeds of cucurbitaceae as well as soup, cakes and stews made with them are all called “Egusi” (Bankole et al; 2005). One major problem that besets “egusi” soup is that it deteriorates quickly, because the soup is rich in nutrient, it serves as a culture medium for bacterial growth. Although a lot of research work has been carried out on spoilage of different types of foods, no work has been done on bacterial spoilage of egusi soup (Bankole et al; 2005).

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
“Egusi “ soup is prone to fast / quick spoilage than other soups especially during the hot weather which results in food poisoning when consumed. Majority of the populace prefer other

Share This:

FERMENTATIVE PRODUCTION OF CASSAVA FLOUR FOR BAKERY INDUSTRIES

FERMENTATIVE PRODUCTION OF CASSAVA FLOUR FOR
BAKERY INDUSTRIES

Download our android mobile app for more materials

ORDER NOW

COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Host Link Global Services Ltd
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0138924237
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

 

ABSTRACT

A high quality cassava flour has been produced using fermentative method which has been found worthy by the bakery industries. Bread were made from unfermented cassava flour respectively. The proximate chemical composition and sensory qualities of the cassava bread were compared to those of bread were compared to those of bread from 100% wheat flour as refrence. Apart from protein and fat contents of the reference bread components (aoh, fubre and moisture) of the cassava bread were similar to those of the wheat bread.
TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Aim and Objectives 6
1.2 Statement of Problems 6
1.3 Limitation 7
1.4 Justification 7
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Literature review 8
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and Methods 18
3.1 Collection and Preparation of Materials 19
3.2 Flow Chart of the First Set of Cassava Flour Production 22
3.3 Flow Chart of the Second Set of Cassava Production 23
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Result 24
4.2 Discussion 26
CHAPTER FIVE
Conclusion and Recommendation 28
5.1 Conclusion 28
Reference 29

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Cassava Manuhot Exculanta cranty in a prennial woody shrubs with edible root, which grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is also called yucca, manioc and mandioca. Cassava has the ability to grow on marginal land where cereal and other crops do not grow well. It can tolerate draught and grow in low nutrient soils. Because cassava root can be stored in the ground for up to 24 months and some varieties for up to 24 months and some varieties for up to 36 months, honest may be delayed until market processing or other conditions are favorable.
Cassava is the basis of many produces, including food. In Africa and Latin America cassava is mostly used for human consumption, while in Asia and parts of Latin America it is also used commercially for the production of animal feed and starch based products. In Africa, cassava provides a basic delay source of dietary energy. Roots are processed into a wide range varites of granules pastes, flours, etc or consmed freshly boiled or raw. In most of cassava growing countries in Africa the leaves are also consumed as a green vegetable which privies protein and vitamin A & B.
In southeast Asia and Latin America, cassava has taken on an nomic role. Cassava starch is used as a binding agent, in the production of paper and teatiles and monosodium glutament, an important voring agent, in the Asia cooking. In Africa today, cassava is beginning to be used in partial substitution for wheat flour.
Planting materials should be made available to farmers at all times. To complement the efforts of MOFIA on the multiplication of compared planting materials for the farmers a programme should be initiated to identify and select 3 to5 farm each of the agroecological zones with the potential to take part in this exercise. A conscious effort should be made to provide inputs and logistics through a special fund to make this workable. This should form part of an overall national action plan for the industry.
In order to made cassava attractive for use in industry, there in the need to substantially reduce the price of cassava roots to outdo the cereals, its closet substrate. To reduce this, the following should be considered (i) support for research to develop high yielding varieties that would yield in excess of 40 nature tones per hectare. There varieties should have low gynogenic potential (ii) support research and extension to develop and disseminate information on improved agronomic practices such as optimum plant population, we of healthy planting materials, development of sustainable production systems to maintain soil fetidly such as intercropping, rotation and manuring efficient pest and disease management practices (iii) support research and action to develop method of preserving planting maternal when cassava is harvested during the dry season. Arrangement involving banks, organized producers and associated marketing companies (who provides guarantees of payment on behalf of producers) could be arranged @ effords should be made to encourage the private sector to enter into the large scale production of cassava. Modern farming estates with outgrower scheme should be encouraged and supported. These will enable the use of machinery and the employment of modern farming ledinques to improve efficiency and profitability. To encourage investors to enter into the development of farming estates, a number of potential proving area should be identified and provided with good access roads and other infrastructural facilities (v) small scale cassava farmers should be organized into farmers group to facilitate in the sharing of facilities and dissenmenation of tedinical informations.
Labour/drudgery in harvesting could be reduced through testing and adoption of simple manrinel lifting/diagting devices that lifting pole) (v) the use of appropriate harvesting equipment to cut down on cost of harvesting. The simple hand lifter used by peasant farmers in Thailand and adopted by the post harvest. Unit of the Agricultural Engineering Department of Ministry of food and Agriculture should be cassava farms (x) for commercial and large scale farmers, the leaping conversely cassava harvester which was developed in Germany and Currently being tested at Kwame Nkrumdi University of Science and Technology could be adopted of found to be practical. The harvester lowest 2 – 3 hectares of cassava in eight hours, an operation which would requires about 75 man hours. The equipment designers are readily to enter into agreement with local manufactures for assembling the harvests locally.
In the tropics cassava flour production is comparatively a virguis bade and virtually wheat flour type used here are imported. To this effect, wheat are imported can be reduced tremendously by partial or complete substitution of the wheat flour with flour and starch from tropical crops such as roots and tubers (cassava, yam and sweet potato) and cereals (maizge, rice sorghum and millet). Among the roots and tuber, cassava is the best to replace wheat partially or completely due to its high yield and low cost of production since the charge from locally produced foods to wheat based foods has resulted to an increase in wheat importation in several Africa Countries since the crop is either not grown due to climate limitation, or where grown” production can supply only a small percentage of the requirement.
Although partial substitution of wheat flour with cassava flour up to 40% has been reported for the production of bakery product by kim and Deliuter, Morton, Eggeston et al, Omoata and Bokage, little has been reported on complete substitution of wheat flour with cassava flour and the effect of fermentation on the substitution properties of cassava flour. In this research project, the researcher intends to give a wrid reports of how the succeeded in producing cassava flour by fermentation using local available materials so that industratists schools and local bakers

Share This: