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Customer services in financial institutions, a step towards improving profitability

Customer services in financial institutions, a step towards improving profitability

(a case study of union bank plc, oko)

 

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Table of Contents

Chapter one

1.0   introduction                                                 1

1.1   background of study                                     4

1.2   statement of the problem                              5

1.3   purpose of the study                                     6

1.4   hypothesis                                                    7

1.5   scope/limitation of the study                 9

1.6   significance of the study                        10

1.7   definition of terms                                        11

Chapter two

Review of related literature                                   15

2.0   introduction                                                 15

2.1   budget                                                         15

2.2   budgeting

2.3   historical development pf budgeting               21

2.4   reasons for budgeting                                   23

2.5   types of budget                                             29

2.6   variance analysis                                          38

2.7   importance of variance analysis                    38

2.8   controllable and uncontrollable cost              44

2.9   responsibility accounting                              44

2.10 budget administration                                   45

2.11 budgetary control                                          46

2.12 objectives of budgetary control                      47

2.13 basic requirements for a good budgetary

Control system                                             48

Chapter three       

Research methodology                                          51

3.0   introduction                                                 51

3.1   population of the study                                 51

3.2   sample size                                                  52

3.3   sample method of data                                  52

3.4   sources of data collection                              53

3.5   administration and retrieval of questionnaire 53
3.6   procedure used for data analysis                   54

Chapter four

Presentation and data analysis                             56

4.0   introduction                                                 56

4.1   presentation and analysis                             56

Chapter five

5.0   introduction                                                 75

5.1   summary of findings                                     75

5.2   conclusion                                                    76

5.3   recommendation                                           77

5.4   suggestion for further research                     78

5.5   limitation of the study                                   79

references                                                    81

appendix a                                                   83

appendix b                                                   84

List of tables

Table i:    response to the question; how is union bank of nigeria plc, oko branch rated by is customers and general public in terms of profitability.

 

Table ii:  response to the question which of union bank of nigeria customer service innovations are its customers aware of?

 

Table iii: response to the question; how do they rate them via-a-vis their ability to engender customer satisfaction?

 

Table iv:  response to the question; what perception do the customers of union bank of nigeria plc have of courteousness and friendliness of their staff at oko branch.

 

Table v:   response to the question; what do the customers of union bank plc, oko fell about their speed of service?

Abstract

Due to the importance of customers service in the business world. Many privileged organizations most especially the financial institutions are now depending strongly on it to enhance or improve their profitability. Ideas and opinions were received from staff and reputable customers of union bank of nigerian plc, oko branch, which was used as a case study.

These ideas and opinions were got through the use of open and close ended questionnaires, interviews and observation. The data collected was analysis with the use of chi-square (x2) which is a statistical technique used in comparing the differences between observed and expected frequencies. Actually only banks with foresight with respect to customer service will succeed amidst competition.

Meanwhile union bank of nigeria plc will really benefit more if they take advantage of the result of this research work, here by sustaining its customers and at the same time keeping them happy.

Chapter one

Introduction

        the topic of this research work is of course, customer services in the financial institutions, a step towards improving profitability (a case study of union bank plc oko).

woodruff (1997) defines profitability as the ability of an investment or a company to make a profit after costs. Overhead, etc. Profit on the other hand, is the difference between the income of the business and all its costs and expenses over a period of time.

shaw (1990) defines a service as a performance that delivers some combination of benefit to the customer.

union bank of nigeria plc, a bank established in 1917, as bank of colonial africa, increased its profits after tax from 5.035 billion in 2001 to 9.375 billion naira in 2005. In july 2009, the bank was rated the 556th largest bank in the world and the 14th largest bank in africa, with an asset base of us $826 million.

however, the bank was one of the banks that were controversially indicated by the central bank of nigeria in november 2009, for what the apex bank termed as improper loan and financial management.

the profitability of banks could be increased through a plethora of ways. These include the aforementioned financial management, the recruitment and training of seasoned personnel, honesty of staff intensive/extensive selling efforts and other factors. Nevertheless, the focus of this work is to examine how profitability could be increased through improved customer services. This line of thought is congruent with the marketing concept, which makes consumer satisfaction the fulkrum of all organizational activity, banks not being exceptions.

 

1.1   background of the study

in the last ten years there have been important changes in the business of consumer financial services. The main characteristic that has marked the evolution of the financial system has been paradoxical (in the sense of reduction in number of banks but increase in their ability to compete, through bank consolidation) increase in competition in the sector. The banking business has undergone changes in the regulation of the sector, changes in consumers demand for services, technological changes and the entry of new competitors from businesses outside banking (gardner et al, 1999). Due to this an increasingly open and competitive framework has been formed, in which many financial entities are beginning to be concerned about developing defensive strategies, in order to avoid in discriminate loss of customers. According to jacuhy and chestnut (1978), firms should strive to maintain long-term relationships with their customers, in order to obtain the advantages of a clientele loyal to the firm.

union bank of nigeria plc was established in 1917, as bank of colonial african. It opened its bank at oko in august 15,1995. The bank, since its inception has initiated several customer friendly innovations and strategies which it also extended to its oko branch. These innovation and strategies include the use of automatic teller machines (atm), computerized banking services, automated security check doors, bullet proof bullion services, flash me cash, air conditioned banking hall, cable television etc.

we will examine, in the course of this research work of course, at a macro level, how these customer services innovations and strategies have increased the profitability of the bank. We will also recommend ways in which the bank could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its service delivery system.

 

1.2   statement of the problem

  1. Lack of customers satisfaction.

Ii.     Loss of market share

Iii.    Poor customer relationship

Iv.    Lack of improved customer service

  1. Poor quality services rendered to their customers

 

1.3   purpose of the study

  1. To determine if customers are satisfied with performances of the bank.

Ii.     To find out the best way to increase the banks customers.

Iii.    To increase the staff and customer relationship.

Iv.    To determine how best to improve customer service.

  1. To find out how to improve the quality of services rendered to the customers.

 

1.4   significance of the study

        this research work may be helpful to those who are either carrying out research work in banks profitability, customer service, hotels any other establishments in the service industry.

it will also be useful to scholars and students of the aforementioned areas.

 

1.5   research questions

the following are the research questions

  1. How is union bank of nigeria plc, oko branch rated by its customers and the general public, in terms of profitability?
  2. Which of union bank of nigeria’s customer service innovations are its customers aware of?
  • How do they rate them, vis-à-vis their ability to engender customer satisfaction?
  1. What perception do the customers of union bank of nigeria have of the courteousness and friendliness of their staff at oko branch?
  2. What do the customers of union bank of nigeria plc, oko branch feel about their speed of service?

 

1.6   hypothesis

the hypothesis was formulated based on the problems stated above.

  1. Null hypothesis – ho: the profitability of financial institutions in nigeria cannot be increased through improved customer service.

Ii.     Alterative hypothesis – hi:       the profitability of financial institutions in nigeria can be increased through improved customer service.

 

1.7   scope of the study

this research work is limited to union bank of nigeria plc, is services are more or less similar to that of other banks.

based on this, the researcher has decided to find out the kind of services and how to satisfactorily these services are rendered to customers.

 

1.8   definition of terms

the following terms are hereby defined:

  1. Customer services: an instrumental activity performed for a consumer or a consummatory activity involving consumer participation in but not ownership of a company’s product and facilities
  2. Marketing: marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating offering and exchanging products of value with others.
  • Marketing concept: is a corporate state of mind that insists on the integration and co-ordination of all the marketing functions which in turn are melded with all other corporate functions, for the basic purpose of producing optimal consumer benefits and maximum long-range corporate profit.
  1. Commercial bank: is an institution which accepts deposits, makes business loans and offers related services for profit.
  2. Bank: this is any person or institution responsible for collecting deposits and other valuable items from customers for safe-keeping.
  3. Customer satisfaction: – this is the extent to which a firm fulfills customers needs desires and expectations.

 

 

Continue reading Customer services in financial institutions, a step towards improving profitability

The impact of television advertising on consumer brand preference for soft drink in a competitive market.

The impact of television advertising on consumer brand preference for soft drink in a competitive market.

(a case study of 7up bottling company  nig. Plc, 9th mile corner enugu)

 

Table of Contents

Chapter one

Introduction                                         1

  • Background of the study 5
  • Statement of problem 8
  • Purpose of the study 9
  • Significance of the study 10
  • Research questions 11
  • Hypotheses 12
  • Scope of the study 13
  • Definition of terms 13

 

Chapter two

  • Review of related literature 15
  • A brief introduction 15
  • Review of current literature 16
  • Summary of literature review 29

 

Chapter three

Methodology

3.0   brief introduction                                        31

  • Design of the study 31
  • Area of the study 32
  • Population of the study 32
  • Sample of the study 33
  • Instrument for data collection 35
  • Validation of the instrument 37
  • Distribution and retrieval of the instrument 38
  • Method of data analysis 38

 

Chapter four

Data presentation and analysis           40

Brief introduction of the chapter 40

  • Presentation and interpretation of data according

To research questions and hypothesis         40

  • Findings 60
  • Discussion of findings 62

 

 

 

Chapter five

5.0   summary, conclusion and recommendation       64

  • Summary of findings 64
  • Conclusion 67
  • Recommendations 69
  • Limitations of the study 71
  • Suggestion for further research 72

References                                                   73

Appendix a                                                  75

Appendix b                                                  76

 

 

 

 

List of tables

Table one:       age of the respondents

Table two:       sex of respondents

Table three:     educational qualification/level of respondents

Table four:       occupation of respondents

Table five:       contingency table

Table six:         chi-square

 

 

 

Abstract

This research work is designed to examine the impact of television advertising on consumer brand preference for soft drink in a competitive market, with particular reference to 7up bottling company nig. Plc, 9th mile corner, enugu. For the purpose of clarity, this project has been divided into five chapters and the information was gathered through both primary and secondary sources. The introduction was done in chapter one where objective of the study, the statement of the problem, the hypothesis, scope and the significant of the study was done. In chapter two, reviewed some related literature about the topic. In chapter three, the population of the study, the sample size, method of data collection and the data analysis is tool that was used in the research study were discussed. In chapter four, the analysis of data collection by the use of questionnaires and unstructured personal interview was used. The data was analysed using simple percentages and tested hypothesis by the use of chi-square (x2) the summary of the research finding, conclusion and recommendation based on the findings were therefore effective tool in appealing the target market.

 


Chapter one

Introduction

        The beginning of the twentieth century witnessed an outburst of advertising efforts the bottling companies. This outburst was necessitated by the desire to outsell the other in the consumer market, since soft drinks are competitive products. In order to maintain a stronghold of their various market segments, or even to widen an existing market, different advertising strategies erupted prominent among them are sales promotions, sales campaign, point of purchase displays, media advertising e.t.c.

This rampant use of various advertising strategies in eliciting consumers’ response has credited a stiff competition between the manufacturers of soft drinks of which 7up is one. Constant inundation of consumers with multifarious advertising slogans has even created confusion in the minds of helpless consumers on which products to buy or leave.

Pride and fewel in their book “marketing” explained that an advertisement may a times be informative, or entertaining yet it may fail to get the audience to purchase the product they were of the opinion that the ultimate effectiveness of advertisement is determined by its ability to cause product adoption and high purchases among the potential buyers.

The extent of patronage of any advertised product does not entirely depend on the effectiveness of the advertising strategies. It might sometimes, depend on extraneous factors like economic status of the prospects, belief system, culture, climate, level of education e.t.c. For instance, it will be an exercise in facility to advertise liquor in a predominantly moslem state of kaduna and zamfara. This is because the consumption of liquor is against their islamic belief system.

Similarly, advertising of such luxury goods like vacuum, cleaner, tv set, electric cooker to a predominantly nomadic population will be a wasteful venture. In the above cases, values and economic status respectively play vital roles in changing the people’s behaviour towards accepting advertised product(s).

Advertising is a communication between sellers and buyers with the sole aim of changing the attitude of buyers. From the above definition, it could be deduced that advertising is communication especially from the producers to the target market about a product or organization with the hope of creating awareness, interest, desire and a patronage of the product.

Erickson (1962) defined advertising as “truth well told”. The american marketing (ama) said that advertising is “any paid non personal presentation and promotion of ideas goods and services by an identified sponsor”.

This means that advertising messages are beamed at a group of people that are not personal in nature. Note worthy is the fact that an advertising channel is selected according to its suitability in researching the prospects. E.g. Newspapers and magazines advertisement may not be helpful in researching an illiterate segment. According to this research, the nigeria mineral water industries limited markets of 7up have used almost all the advertising channels mentioned above to reach their audience. However, in order to arrive at a satisfactory result, only television may be analyzed here as it affected 7up consumption.

 

  • Background of the study

Nigeria mineral industry limited established in 1959 by the endc (eastern nigeria development cooperation) the company commenced production in 1960 with pepsi range of products. The productions operation of the company halted for three years due to nigeria / biafran war – (1967 – 1970). The company started operating in 1971 after restructuring with product of tango brand of soft drinks. In 1976, the company stopped the production of tango and changed over to sun sweats range of products. In 1987, nigeria bottling company (nbc) launched an aggressive sales promotion campaign on one of their product called sprite with their animal kingdom game. The 7up bottling company in 1989 came up, with “it is raining again” slogan, which came after the 1988 “naira ram” and the 7-up bottling company with the intention of maintaining its stronghold, increasing sales, penetrating into new markets and increasing shares of the entire market among the competing firms. In the animal kingdom game, the slogan my choice is clear – sprite! Rent the air and some incentives were provided to the buyers or consumers of sprite, this advertisement strategy seemed to have had an adverse effect on the 7-up brand of soft drink hence a greater segment of the market was thought to have been won by the nigeria bottling company. Consequently, the 7-up bottling company launched a counter attack in 1989 with the slogan. “the difference is clear” 7 – up.

With the above slogan, it appears as if buyers’ attention was shifted to the product. As a result, the competition between the nigerian bottling company and 7-up bottling company became so keen that both of them today engage in under use of various advertising strategy to market their products and return their customers. Some critics are of the opinion that acceptance of a product is a multi – step process and since promotion advertising is only one part of the marketing mix, single promotional activity can rarely cause an individual to buy a previously unfamiliar – product. However, it is generally believed that advertising is necessary in the product – adoption process. More especially now that there are several product manufacturing companies, with each jostling for attention. The awareness of the existence of such product can only be created through venous advertising strategies. In line with the aforestated, the nigeria mineral water industries limited markers of 7up soft drink in 2000 launched an extensive sales campaign titled “7up pop a top promotion”. The intention was to widen an existing 7up market through incentives. Consequently, the objective was realized as 7up recorded higher sales and increased preference after the advertisement and sales campaign.

 

  • Statement of the problem
  1. Low awareness about television advertising of 7up bottling company’s products.
  2. Low access of consumers to television facilities.
  • Wasteful advertising campaigns by bottling companies.
  1. Unhealthy rivalry amongst companies advertising their products.

 

  • Purpose of the study
  1. To ascertain of consumers are aware of the adverts of 7up bottling company.
  2. To find out if consumers have easily access to television facilities.
  • To ascertain if advertising campaigns by bottling companies are wasteful.
  1. To find out if there is unhealthy rivalry amongst bottling firms.

 

 

  • Significance of the study

The presentation of vital information on the impact of television advertising on consumer preference will be very important in many aspects it will help to reveal some major advertising constrains that mediate against consumers preference for soft drink in a competitive market. When the effects are analyzed and comprehended, it will help the industrialists involve and other their related counter-parts to find the best way to avoid the following constraints:

  1. The information collected will tremendously enhance the students performance who intends to carryout research on the impact of television advertising on consumers preference for soft drink in a competitive market.
  2. The study will expose them to these role-played by television advertising in a completive market.
  3. The study will provide a strategic television which is consumer oriented and which is also aimed at generating, consumer preference. Consequently the company will be opportune to have a high profit margin.
  4. On the side of government, the study would help pin point to the long awaited method of promotion television advertisement.

 

  • Research questions
  1. Do consumers likely to prefer 7up brands of soft drinks?
  2. Has the nigerian mineral water industries limited, makers of 7up embarked on any of advert?
  • Did the advertisement increase the consumers demand for 7up?
  1. Does 7up been able to maintain its hold on the market at the advertisement or sale, campaign programmes?

 

  • Research hypothesis

Hypothesis one

Ho:   consumers do not prefer 7up to other brands of soft drinks.

Hi:   consumers prefer 7up to other brands of soft drinks

Ho:   7up has been able to maintain its hold on the market at the end of the advertisement or sales campaign programmes.

Hi:   7up has been able to maintain it holds on the market at the end of advertisement or sales campaign programmes.

  • Scope of the study

A good research needs to be delimitated to a manageable scope. This research covers the impact of television advertisement on consumer preference for soft drink in a competitive market using 7up-bottling company, enugu.

 

  • Definition of terms

Advertising: any impersonal form of communication about ideas, goods or services that paid for by an identified sponsor.

Brand: a name, term, symbol, design or combination of these elements that feature as differentiating measure of goods or services from one seller to another seller offerings.

Campaign: an organized trend of promotional efforts built around a theme and designed to reach some goal.

Market segmentation: the process of dividing the total market into one or more parts (sub-markets or segments) each of which tends to be homogeneous in all significant aspects.

Consumer market: consists of buyers who use the product to satisfy personal or household need.

Product: a good, service or idea that offers a bundle of tangible and intangible attributes to satisfy consumers.

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Small-scale industries development problems and prospects.

Small-scale industries development in anambra state: problems and prospects.

(a case study of awka and nnewi industrial areas)

 

Table of Contents


Chapter one

Introduction

1.1   background of the study

1.2   statement of problem

1.3   purpose of the study

1.4   significant of the study

1.5   research questions

1.6   hypotheses

1.7   scope of the study

1.8   definition of terms

 

Chapter two

Literature review

2.1   brief introduction

2.2   review of current literature

2.3   summary of literature review

 

Chapter three

Methodology

Brief outline of the chapter

3.1   design of the study

3.2   area of the study

3.3   population of the study

3.4   sample of the study

3.5   instrument for data collection

3.6   validation of the instrument

3.7   distribution and retrieval of the instrument

3.8   method of data analysis

 

Chapter four

Presentation and analysis of data

Brief introduction of the chapter

4.1   presentation and interpretation of data according to research questions and hypothesis

4.2   findings

4.3   discussion of the findings

 

Chapter five

Summary, conclusion and recommendation

5.1   summary of findings

5.2   conclusion

5.3   recommendation

5.4   limitations of the study

5.5   suggestion for further studies

References

Appendix a – letter of request

Appendix b – questionnaire


List of tables

Table 1:   do you think that the provision of infrastructure, power supply, availability of land will solve the problem of industrial development.

Table 2:   do you agree that government creation enabling environment such as allowing the importation of raw materials and given tax holding to industries among the solutions to the problems?

Table 3:   do you think that find can be obtained in the following sources to finance industrial development, bank loan, government grants loan, borrowing from friends or relatives and personal savings?

Table 4:   do you agree that skilled manpower will be attracted due to availability of funds?

Table 5:   do you consider the rural set-up of the industries as one of the problems of lack of skilled manpower.

Table 6:   do you see lack of skilled manpower as one of the problems militating against the development of industries in your area?


Abstract

This research is aimed at small-scale industries development in anambra state: problems and prospects. Small-scale industries are those industries that are privately owned by its owners in a purely personalized way without a formalized management structure. Small-scale industries is needed for speedy growth and development especially for abilities to boost the larger industries, social infrastructure, agriculture etc. Small-scale enterprises is however faced with a lot of problems. It is against this background that this project is undertaken to take a critical look at small-scale industries in awka and nnewi. In chapter one which is the introduction, the researcher discussed the statement of the problem, purpose, significance of the study, research questions, hypothesis, scope and definition of terms. Chapter two death much on various literature review, problems and prospects and summary of the literature review. Chapter three reviewed the methodology of data collection. Chapter four shows how data was collected, presented the summary, conclusions, recommendations and references.

Finally, my opinion based on the findings of this project, small-scale business is the mainstay of the nigerian economy, providing almost seventy percent (70%) of employment to the society in the anambra state.

 

Chapter one

Introduction

        the dynamic role of small-scale industries as engine of growth in developing countries has long been recognized. According to ukeje (2004:108). It’s accelerative effect in achieving macro-economic objectives such as full employment, income distribution development of local technology, as well as diffusion of management skills and stimulation of indigenous entrepreneurship has been well documented in economic literature. Their importance has become such as to make them a pivotal focus of economic development.

that was exactly what nigeria did since the second national development (1974-1979) that is development jof industries, because they have seen the need to be self-reliance which will lead to genuine development and survival as well as improve the effective management of local resources, both human and materials.

development of small-scale industries was encouraged in the document found in the third and fourth national development plan, with the aids of providing empowerment opportunities, management of local resources, thereby recording rural urban migration. The above plans emphasized that paying attention to agriculture, manufacturing, education, manpower development, infrastructural facilities will improve the quality of life for average nigerians

 

1.1  background of the study

economic history of various developed countries have shown that industrial revolution has been the led by small-scale industries which are indeed the bedrock of an industrial growth.

nigeria as a developing nation is battling for her economic survival, which can however not be achieved without acquisition of industrial and technological power and enough manpower both skilled and unskilled to cope with the struggle.

nigeria economy has in the last two decades passed through various phases, starting from the oil boom in the seventies and followed by the era of unplanned and reckless spending our wealth. This is followed with the emergence of economic doom which has necessitated the introduction of austerity measures and structural adjustment programme (sap).

the industrial growth of the nation has no scientific approach. The planning in some measures did not analyze the backwardness in the economy. This is noted, as the various government did not provide adequate encouragement to industrial development of nation.

before our economic problems, foreign capital was cheap and the business of importing and selling of finished products was most profitable. These importers generated excess liquidity and invested their funds making in acquisition of landed property. Investment was merely neglected because of tortuous process of establishing in nigeria.

during the boom, therefore most industrial projects were sponsored by multinationals and the governments, small industries were neglected as there were little incentives in manufacturing at low level.

with the introduction of austerity measures and structural adjustment programme (sap) import trade business become more difficult as many commodities were banned or put on license with high import tariff to conserve foreign funds and encourage local manufacturers.

many businessmen therefore, started thinking of industrial ventures to produce their wares locally. Hence, the massive investment on small-scale business.

 

1.2  statement of the problem

  1. Insufficient finance
  2. Low technical base enabling environment and logic supply.
  • Lack of managerial expertise
  1. Communication difficulties
  2. Inadequate infrastructures.

 

1.3  purpose of the study

  1. To increase the capital accumulation of the indigenous entrepreneurs in anambra state.
  2. To increase the dispersal of industries
  • To improve the technological skills and capabilities available in the state.
  1. To motivate inter-local government area relationship through industrial products patronage.
  2. To provide greater employment opportunities

 

1.4  significance of the study

  1. It will unveil some of the major problems facing the development of small-scale industries.
  2. To give the reader an overview of the problems, and the role developing small-scale industries play.
  • To benefit both economists and students who may like to carryout further research.
  1. The findings and recommendations will be of great value to the small-scale industries as a way of improving and reducing such problems.

 

  • Research questions
  1. How much money did you start your business with?
  2. Do you think you have really progress if you compare your initial with the amount you have now?
  3. What type of business do you operate?
  4. Do people patronize your industry very often?
  5. How efficient are your staffs?
  6. Do you think there will be need to employ more people in your industry?

 

1.7  hypothesis

Ho:  insufficient finance does not affect the development of small-scale in anambra state.

H1:  insufficient finance affects the development of small-scale in anambra state.

 

Ho:  lack of managerial skills does not affect the growth of small-scale industries in anambra state.

H2:  lack of managerial skills affects the growth of small-scale industries in anambra state.

 

Ho:  inadequate infrastructures does not affect small-scale industrial development in the state.

H3:  inadequate infrastructures affects small-scale industrial development in the state.

 

Ho:  low technical base does not affect the development of small-scale.

H4:  low technical base affects the development of small-scale.

 

1.8  scope of the study

        this research work carried out in awka and nnewi in anambra state, which makes it suitable for carrying out marketing research work on small-scale industrial development.

 

1.9  definition of terms

Small-scale:          central bank of nigeria (cbn) defines small-scale business as one which annual sales turnover is less than half a million naira.  

Finance:                the initial capital used to start and maintain a business.

Business:               any organization established for economic purpose.

Management:        the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the work done by members of an organization, utilizing available resources within the organization to achieve its main goal.

Development:       it has to do with the changes in positive direction in order to improve in a country.

Objectives:            it is goal that has a comparative short life span and specific measurable achievement.

Industry:               it is where raw materials are converted into finished goods, or it could be people and activities involved in producing a particular thing or services.

Manufacturing:       it refers to industries that produce goods in large quantity in factories.

Problem:               it is a difficult situation

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Product development in the cable industry: problems and prospect.

Product- development-  cable- industry- problems – prospect.

(a case study of cutix cable plc nnewi anambra state)

Abstract

This research work is aimed at identifying some of the variables affecting new product development in the cable industry using cutix cable plc. Nnewi as a case study.  A look at this problem has show that customer’s wants and needs should be put into. Consideration before deciding on the new product to be produced, and the firm should make some that they have enough raw materials to meet the quantity ordered by her customers to avoid the problem of stock-out in the company. This research is made up of five chapters, chapter one is centered on the introduction of the study, the purpose and the variables affecting product development.  Chapter two deals with the works of some intelligent scholars who had done some research on new product development and some of the likely problems one can encounter when developing a new product. Chapter three dealt with the research methodology, the design of the study, questionnaires and method of data collection.  Chapter four looked into the findings and analysis while chapter five gave insight on the summary of difficulties involved before a firm finally come out with a new product in the market and the recommendations given to the cable industry to achieve the production of new products, without difficulties.  It also contains the limitation of the study and suggestions for further study.


Chapter one

Introduction:

The product or watchword for marketing has to be associated to “innovation or die.

This innovational attributes can become a philosophy compelling or almost parallel to that of the marketing concept (stanton w.s 1981).

Definitions

  1. Offering new improved products for present markets.
  2. A strategy of selling a new product to existing markets.
  3. A state of creating new products that moves the product from concept to test phase and also involves the development of marketing mix (promotion, distributions and prices)
  4. A product market growth strategy in which a company develops new products to sell to its existing markets.
  5. Consist to of the companies seeking products for its current markets.

Development is often referred to as the technical side of business only.  This interpretation or emphasis is not too concise as development itself is more than the application of scientific planning to ensure the progress of the enterprises as a whole

a clearer idea of the development  functions is concerned with word “ improvement.”  A firm that has decided to go into the manufacturing of a product that is in someway an improvement on those there competitors.  If the firm wishes to have any success hey must exercise the development function right from the start.

The established business must pay a needed attention to give he product a better position in the market, otherwise    it would be outrunned or out stripped by vibrant competitors.  Improvement in design performance, materials and processes by a progressive firm may have direct impact on their product.  Again, the demand for a certain circle may be of  uncertain demand especially where fashion is involved and hence product development is paramount and of vital importance.

New product may be introduced to checkmate or replace again (obsolete) or unsuccessful ones.  The need to smoothout seasonal sales fluctuation, exploring new opportunities and using or maximinising excess plant capacity.  A new product can be a minor modification to the existing product features or in the packages of the product.  The

Product development can as well meaning item which is “totally” new in concept.  The term “new” product depends on the view of the firm or company concerned.  What may not be looked at as a new product by the leader in the industry may be referred to as “new” by some other companies within that particular industry.

the need for product development can also be seen when we realize that

30 to 40 percent of a firms current value .

Sales and products do same from products that were not in the firms product portfolio twice years ago.  New results to either utilizes excess plant  capacity or as a need to have enough products to have care of the seasonality in sales.

 

 

  • Background of the study

Developing a product to satisfy the desire of the customers is always an up-hill task and most times a night more to most to most manufactures.  Some manufactures are confronted with problems because of there incapacitations to handle product development.

cutix plc is a company located at nnew-anambra state.  Whose responsibility is to produce durable cables?  The company is an employer of many workers. Cutix plc isa well know manufacturing outfit with credible excellent perfance in its corporate and social responsibilities.  They are experts in electric cables and wires.  The firm enjoys a commandable return on investment despite this, the firm still need to strengthen their market show byway of givens priority to further product development.

according to w.k meniru, development is often understood and referred as the technical side of business and it also involves the application of scientic planning to ensure the programs of the enterprises as a whole. In developing the product, a firm will also mercase its market share and the sales volume of the firm will also increase.

Some products of cutix cable came to a decline stage                           and this is as  result of poor product development. Improvement in design performance, materials process by a progressive company may have direct impact on the sales of the competing enterprises and this may render the product absolute.

Cutix cable plc nnewi was incorporator with the chater to make and produce durable and high quality wires and cables using maximum local resources. The employed 100% indigenous manpower, uses local inputs in machinery and adopts rapid integrated programmes for its work-force.

The reason for choosing cutix plc as a case study is that out of 100 different types and sizes of cable manufactured in nigerian cable industry, by cutix plc only forty (40) were successful in the market. Therefore, this study is aimed at identifying problems and prospects that leads to these massive product failure and to profer solutions.

1.2 statement of the problem

Product development is usually a complex situation that requires tactfulness. It is an inbill task for most firms, this is because companies developing products are not even sure of its acceptance or success in the market. Companies or firms that do not consideration seems to be taking some avoidable risks.

such companies may finally see their products falling victim of changing consumer taste and need and at the same time face domestic and foreign competitions. Some of the problem associated to product development tends to have contributed to the inability of cutix 15 adequately handle the process and the problem could be traceable to poor marketing research, poor marketing efforts, inadequate marketing analysis and fragmented marketing of new products at a smaller market segment rate than the mass market.

physical factors as product quality and packaging is part of the problem. For cutix plc nnewi their may dilemma is the identification of which factor among these constitute bottle-neck in their product development. This is one of the challenges of this study.

1.3 purpose of the study

  1. To identify the processes involved before cutix plc could come out with a new product development (idea generation, and ands with commercialization).
  2. To identify the problems militating the various stages of product development with respect to cutix plc nnewi.
  3. To axertain how government policies can influence cutix cables in developing a new product.
  4. To find out how cutix can develop a product that would command market a leader.
  5. To sort out alternative measures, of which if implemented by the marketing department of cutix would lead to innovation of a viable product at the lowest minimum cost.

1.4 significance of the study  

due to the economic condition of the country change in consumer needs and preferences, technological changes and increase in competitions. In the cable industry in nigeria with particular attention to cutix plc, this research becomes paramount and ultmost importance in order to carry out a thoroughly study on the problems and prospects that cable manufacturers encounter in developing a new product. On completion of this work, it recommendations will be made available to cable manufacturer in nigeria.

this in turn would enable the manufacturers to respossition their products in a more attractive way, have a good market share and indeed maintain its position as a product innovation. This result would also enable cutix cable plc in the following ways:-

  1. To achieve sales growth and profit maximizations.

Ii.     Attract positive consumer reactions to its products.

Iii.    To replace the aging in successful products.

Iv.    To smooth out seasonal sales fluctuations.

  1. To explore new opportunities and using excess plant capacity.

1.5 research questions

  1. Does poor market analysis affect the development in the cable industry?
  2. Does poor timing of products introduction affect product development in the nigerian cable industry?
  3. Poor feasibility studies does it affect the development of products?
  4. Does the product satisfying the need of her target market audience?

1.6 hypothesis

  1. Null hypothesis (ho) lack of raw materials does

Not affect new product development in cutix cable plc.

  1. Alternative hypothesis (h1) lack of raw material affects new products development in cutix cable plc.
  2. Null hypothesis (ho) the products of cutix cable plc does not satisfy the need of her target market audience.
  3. Alternative hypothesis (h1) the products of cutix plc satisfies the need of her target market audience.

1.7 scope of the study

the economic and social justification for the existence of business in the ability of the business to meet to the needs of her customers profitably. A firm or company can meet this basic responsibility to the society through constant product development. This research is therefore designed to identify those problems and prospects an organization (cable manufacturers) encounter when developing a product in a developing economy like nigeria, where there is high cost of capital acquisition, frequent changes in consumer behaviours, high cost of electricity, and high cost of labour and manpower.

cutix cable plc nnewi was chosen by the researcher as the base for this study on problems and prospects of product development in the cable industry due to the fact that it was discovered that out of hundred (100) products developed by cutix plc, only forty (40) were able to reach commercialization stage successfully.

1.8 definition of terms

The terms used in this research which have unique meaning is subjected to different readers of the project. The definitions are as follows:-

market     a market is a set of actua and potential buyer

Of goods and services. It is also defined as      people with need, with money, with willingness and ability to buy.

marketing     marketing is a unique function of

Business concerned with finding and   satisfying customers needs wants on the basis of benefits (ugonwanyi w.)

innovate     to introduce something new.

innovator       somebody that introduces new thing or

first users.

innovation        changes, change is the only thing that

is constant.

economic      deals with production, distribution and

Consumption of goods and services. It also  deals scarcity and how to cope with it. Attention of resources and effort to make a living as well as provision of burn and needs.

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Corporate advertising as an effecting promotional tool in the marketing of banking services

Corporate advertising as an effecting promotional tool in the marketing of banking services

(a case study of selected commercial bank in delta state)

 

Table of Contents

Chapter one

1.0   introduction – –      –      –      –      –      –      -1

  • Background of the study – –      –      –      -1
  • Statement of problem- –      –      –      –      -4
  • Purpose of study – –      –      –      –      –      -4
  • Significance of the study – –      –      –      -5
  • Research questions – –      –      –      –      -6
  • Hypothesis –  –      –      –      –      –      –      -7
  • Scope of the study – –      –      –      –      -7
  • Definition of terms –     –      –      –      –      -8

Chapter two

2.0   literature review –   –      –      –      –      –      -11

2.1   historical milestones in advertising     –      -11

2.2   history and development of advertising in nigeria -12

2.3   the corporate advertising objective –    –      -22

2.4   measuring the effectiveness of corporate advertising –        –      –      –      –      –      –      -26

 

Chapter three

Methodology

  • Design of the study – –      –      –      –      -32
  • Area of the study – –      –      –     –      –      -33
  • Population of the study – –     –      –      -33
  • Sample of the study – –      –     –      –      -34
  • Instrument for data collection – –      –      -35
  • Validation of the instrument – –      –      -35
  • Distribution and retrieval of the instrument- 37
  • Method of data analysis – –      –      –      -38

 

Chapter four

4.1   data presentation and analysis –  –      –      -39

4.2   data presentation –         –       –       –       –       -39

4.3    testing of hypothesis –        –       –       –       –       -46

 

Chapter five

Summary, conclusion and recommendations

5.1   summary of findings     –      –      –      –      -57

5.2   conclusion –    –      –      –      –      –      –      -58

5.3   recommendations –        –      –      –      –      -59

5.4   limitation of the study – –      –      –      –      -62

5.5   suggestion for further research  – —     –      -63

References –    –      –      –      –      –      –      -65

Appendix a –   –      –      –      –      –      –      -68

Questionnaire –      –      –      –      –      –      -69


Abstract

This study on “co-operate advertising as an effecting promotional tool in the marketing of banking services, has tried to seek answers to the crucial question that plaques the memory of readers. Questions on how co-operate advertising acts as an effective promotional tool in the marketing of banking services, its values and importance. Chapter one of the study deals with the general introduction of the study, it’s background and analyses, statement of the study, significance, the research question and most importantly the definition of terms. Chapter two of the study examines extensively different views such as literature review, observations and comments of economist on the effectiveness of co-operate advertising. The third chapter is about the method to be used in conducting the research study. The type of method of study to be used which is survey method, design, sample size and population. Chapter four is about data analysis and result. Chapter five summarizes it and deals with recommendation.

 

 


Chapter one

1.0  introduction

  • Background of the study

Business is like a bicycle either you keep moving or you fall down.

Over the century, man have been able to achieve so many fears, one of those great fears is the ability to like the whole world together through invisible thread called communication, without communication we would merely be isolated groups without any coordination we have today. In prehistoric time communication was haphazard and primitive. With time however the need for a better organized and developed system of communication become more and more crucial.

 

In marketing, the need for communication cannot be over emphasized. When a firm has developed the perfect product or services, have priced it attractively and has made i accessible to the target customers yet they customers are unaware of all these, the success of such effort may be unwanted.

Marketing communication is used to achieve these aims and various tools are employed to achieve the firms communication objectives such tools are advertising, sales promotion, personal selling and publicity, it has been used by firms in the marketing communication, however advertising has often been employed, it reaches a much wider audience than any of other tools would normally reach. Ceyman (1969). Contends that advertising is concerned with conveying about a product or service and the company producing that product or services to the potential  buyers.

Bank provide array of services for the customers. It is hence necessary, to communicate information about these     service, their benefit and new features a customer considering the financial   aspect of the banking services, bank also have to build up an image of respect ability and viability through co-operation advertising . When confidence reposed in banks the customers would be better disposed to have dealings with them. Hence a bank has to constantly inform its customers. (present and potential) about its services and about itself in order to build an image.

 

 

  • Statement of the problem

Banks are custodians of the customer trust. They don’t simply provide financial service’ they provide peace of mind of the customer with this on mind, the banks corporate advertising plans should ensure that the customer is well inform of its offers, solution to solve problem. A good number of banks are seeing the importance of advertising, but some still see it as an adhere affair not something that should be done all of the time based on the above, this study aim at examining the extent to which banks carry out advertising co-operative and the effectiveness of such campaign.

  • Purpose of the study

This study is aim at finding out the extent to which certain have gone in exchanging corporate advertising as a part of the marketing strategy used the effect by some bank customer.

Making recommendation for effective corporate advertising in banks.

 

  • Significance of the study

The age-old banking tradition was to sit down and wait for customers. Such a step those days would be suicidal. A bank with state of the art facilities and service my still not make such heavy profit if it does not talk. And with problem arise step to correct the situation may be taken a little too late. It is hoped that through this study, insight can be gained as to how to effectively established, maintained and improve line of communication between the bank and its public. When its public understand a bank policies aspiration etc a more efficient banking system can be hoped for with room still for further improvement.

 

  • Research question

It is expected that research work should be able to provide answers to the following research question.

  1. Do bank advertise from head office?
  2. Are bank truthful in their corporate advertising?
  3. Does corporate advertising influence the customer’s choice of bank?
  4. Which of the promotional tools is the most effective for bank marketing?
  5. Does corporate advertising by banks’ increase their customer’s awareness?

 

  • Hypothesis

In carrying out the study, the researcher will work with the under listed hypothesis so formulated shall be the end of the study.

  1. The customers awareness of bank activity is not increase with more corporate advertising.
  2. Customers awareness is not the most effective promotional tools in the marketing of bank service. Banks are not truthful in the corporate advertising?

 

  • Scope of the study

Through literatures have not been written on the topic corporate advertising as all effective promotional tools in the marketing of banking services. There is banking business the foundation of which is trust means that a bank can not afford to pay lip services will tend to be sough. The only way to stay in business is to move profit and corporate advertising help to achieve the profit goal.

Bank can only continue to make profit in so far as its public that it is deserves to continue its operation by corporate advertising generally seeks to achieve the following.

 

Definitions of terms

Bank:             this is an organization authorized by the central bank of nigeria [c b n]. Through the insurance banking license to accept deposit from members of the public as well as to carry out the banking business generally.

Banking:        banking can be said to be the business of receiving money from outside source as deposit irrespective of the payment of the interest and granting of money, loan and acceptance of credit or the purchase of bills and cheques or the purchase and sales of securities for the account of others or the incurring of the obligation to the acquire claims in respect of loans prior to their maturity or the assumption of guarantee and other warranties for others or the effecting of transfer and clearing and such other transaction are the commissioners may on the recommendation of the central bank by other published in the federal gazett designates as banking business.

Bank marketing: the creation and delivery of customers satisfying services at a profit.

Corporate advertising: this is advertisement focused on the creation of good image for the company in the minds of the public.

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Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l

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Swift Code: GTBINGLA  Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

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Enter Amount

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