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The uses of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in nigeria public service

The uses of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in nigeria public service

(a case study of university basic education board, awka, anambra state)

 

Table of content

Chapter one

1.0   introduction                                                1

1.1   background of the study                             3

1.2   statement of the problem                            6

1.3   purpose of the study                                    7

1.4  significance of the study                              8

1.5   research question                                        9

1.6  scope of the study                                       10

1.7   limitations of the study                               11

1.7   definitions of terms                                     11

 

Chapter two

Literature review

2.1   the concept of communities and group meetings

In general                                                     16

2.2   history of universal basic education board 26

2.3  universal basic education board                  33

2.4  the chairman and function                          37

2.5    general overview of the laws of group meetings 39

2.6   uses of communities and group meetings

Universal basic education board                 47

2.7  the summary                                               53

2.8   gap in literature                                           53

 

Chapter three

3.0   research design and methodology        55

3.1  design of the study                                      55

3.2  area of the study                                         56

3.3   population of the study                                       56

3.4   sample size and sampling technique           57

3.5   instrument for data collection                     58

3.6  validity and reliability of the instrument     59

3.7    distribution and retrieval of the instrument       60

3.8  method of data collection                            61

 

Chapter four

4.0   data presentation and analysis                   62

4.1   presentation of findings                                      62

4.2   discussion/analysis of finding                     76

Chapter five

Summary, conclusion and recommendations

5.1   summary                                                     78

5.2   conclusion                                                   81

5.3   recommendation                                         82

References                                                   85

Appendix a                                                   87

Appendix b                                                    88


 

Abstract

The major purpose of this study is to examine the uses of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in nigerian public organization using universal basic education board, awka anambra state as the case study in the course of findings, the researcher made use of primary and secondary data in arriving at its findings. Simple percentage was used to answer and analysed the research questions. The researcher, however  discovered that the uses of committees and groups meetings in enhancing decision making in nigeria public organization ensures (i) quick decision making in an organization (ii) allow for an adequate treatment of issues that are technical in nature (iii) gives rooms for appropriate decision to be taken on matters that affect the whole organization. (iv) gives an opportunity to involve greater number of legislators in decision making in an organization. The researcher recommends that government at various level should try as mush as possible to enhance the uses of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in nigeria public organization in order to ensure greater participation legislators and welfare of citizens in general.


 

Chapter one

  • Introduction

Mckenna and flenning (1977) defined committee as “group of individuals which is formed to consider and report various matters which have been referred to them”. At the unset, it will be necessary to explain in a compendium the two major terms of the topic for better understanding.

A committee can be for an important issue and in that, it is responsible to the body which forms it and infact reports to it at the end of its assignment.

While there is a specific and special connotation on the formation of committees towards the performance of their indentified and specific task. A meeting according to shas (1965) is an assembly of persons and such assembly may arise in circumstance infinitely diverse in their character and combination. From these definitions, a group meeting is just a meeting of a group of people with common objectives and interest, and in that sense, it may be a committee.

The primary pre-occupation of universal basic education board (ubeb) anywhere is basically looking after the affairs of the primary school students in the state, this is because through them, the states can ascertain the condition of things comprehensively but only through their board of directors and such meetings decisions can be reached on its varied functions.

Since the organization time is limited, matters to be dealt with most times are either technical or highly specialized. The need therefore arises to form a committee to solve the problem. This is exactly the case in the universal basic education board, awka, anambra state, while a body of many members concentrate on discussing the principles the committee of few members are formed to discuss the details of the proposal and report back to the full body of the organization with recommendations.

 

  • Background of the study

The uses of committees and group meetings is a very important issue and that is the reason for the creation of the committees for the organization. They have the power to coordinate the activities of the state primary school. It aims at pushing the local people on the path to educational development. It means that committees and group meetings has to do with the group of elite or selected people superimposed authority to see affairs, social well being of the state primary school. The existence of committees and group meetings in the universal basic education board must not stand on its own, they must be dependent on the chairman of the board or have the total delegated power or authority from the chairman for smooth functioning. Most often, some matters in the organization requires expertise and specialist knowledge such matters are handle better of committee who  in turn reports to the board who takes the final decision. A committee must have a chairperson or can be headed by a chairman who directs the meetings proceedings.

The research study is concerned with the effect on the uses of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board, awka, anambra state. A close look at the evolutionary trend of the committee and group meetings in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board. The universal basic education board programme was established in nigeria with an act of the national assembly in 1999 during the general olusegun obasanjo’s administration. This led to the re-organization of the board to focus on promoting education and providing formal basic education encompassing the first nine (9) years of schooling, i.e. Primary and junior secondary education for all children in anambra state. For this reason, the board was renamed, the state universal basic education board and this has equally led to the board forming a committee with the commissioner for education among the committee members to establish and manage schools, and provide formal education to local communities as well as provides facilities and enabling environment for early stimulation of the young child.

  • Statement of the problems                

The universal basic education board in anambra state has been facing a lot of problems. The major reasons in which the universal basic education board was established are for administrative efficiency, provisions of education as well as provisions of social amenities. Unfortunately, most of the universal basic education boards in nigeria have not been able to perform those assigned functions expected of them. This ugly situation was caused by the following factors.

  1. Inadequate funds for the universal basic education to execute some of its projects in the state. Inadequate revenue from both the external source and that of internally generated revenue.
  2. There is lack of skilled man-power to implement policies aimed at achieving educational development, all these factors are combined to affect the quality of education.
  3. Corruption among officials: it is also instructive to note that the phenomenon of corruption is compounding the problem of shortage of funds in the implementation of the uba programme. Even, where the allocated funds is not enough, the little that is made available is usually embezzled by corrupt officials working in the board.

 

  • Purpose of the study

The general purpose of this study is to examine the use of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board, awka, anambra state.

  1. To know the extent to which committees and group meetings has helped in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board in anambra state.
  2. To determine the factors militating against the effectiveness of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board, anambra state.
  3. To proffer solutions to the problems facing the effective and efficient committee and group meetings in anambra state universal basic education board.

 

  • Significance of the study

The significance of this study will contribute immensely to the enthronement of efficient and effective management in the uses of committees and group meetings towards enhancing decision making in anambra state universal basic education board.

To students and researchers, the findings will serve as reference materials when embarking on related research work of this nature. And to the general public, this study will serve as an “eye opener” to them in order to determine the major impact of the uses of committees and group meeting in enhancing decision making in the society.

Finally, the government of the country will generally benefit immensely from the study as it will substantially enable them to understand better how to use committees and group meetings top enhance decision making across the country’s public service.

 

  • Research questions

To arrive at the realistic finding, the researcher sought out the following research questions which are very relevant to the purpose of this study.

  1. To what extent has committees and group meetings helped in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board?
  2. What are the factors militating against the effective committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making the universal basic education board?
  3. How can the problems facing the effectiveness and efficiency of committees and group meetings be solved in anambra state universal basic education board?
    • Scope of the study

This research work is mainly carried out to discover how efficient and effective is committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board, with particular reference to ube, awka, anambra state.

 

  • Limitation of the study

The researcher faced time constraints and was enable to carryout a comprehensive research and visit as many universal basic education board as possible.

Also, there was inadequate fund for the effective financing of the research work. The reluctance of the people to divulge informations was also a major limitation. Despite the limitations, the researcher did a thorough study.

 

  • Definition of terms
  1. Organization: it is a body or association of persons united by common purpose, having various functions to perform.
  2. Development: this is a widely participation process of directing social changes in a society. It aimed at bringing both social and material advancement for the majority of the people through their gaining greater controls over their environment.
  3. Committee: a group of individual which is formed to consider and report on various matter which have been referred or assigned to them.
  4. Basic: forming the part of something that most necessary and from which other thing develop.
  5. Education: a process of teaching, training and learning especially in school or colleges to improve knowledge and develop skills.
  6. Board: a group of people who have power to make decision and control. A company or other organization.
  7. Committees and group meetings:

Committees are sessions and compositions of individuals or exports, set up to deal with issues in the organization at the formative state or to tackle other matters which are better discussed in camera/secret by a few people.

The committees in the universal basic education board are mainly but the most outstanding ones are as follows:

  1. The standing committee
  2. The committee of wages and means
  3. The selected committee.

Their major importance rest in their capabilities to arrive at decision within speed and precision and to address issues for which they are established.

  1. Universal basic education board:

The universal basic education board is the composition of people who are gainful employed into the civil service for comprehensive administration of the primary school students affairs in the state. The individuals who make up the board are admitted through examination or interviews.

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The role of non-governmental organizations in the development of rural areas

The role of non-governmental organizations in the development of rural areas  

(a case study of community self-help organization in awgu local Government area)

Abstract

This research work is designed primarily to examine and assess the roles being played by non-governmental organizations in the development of rural areas. The work is also designed to identify the causes of the low rate of involvement of the non-governmental organization in the development activities and the possible ways of making them more ideally effective. The study was carried out principally on community self-help organization in awgu local government area. A total population of 100 was selected as sample size through simple random sampling techniques. Primary and secondary sources of data collectively were used by the researcher which include oral interviews and questionnaires, textbooks, journals, document and newspaper. The researcher designed one hundred and twenty (120) questionnaires but one hundred (100) were selected retrieved. Statistical tools were also used for this research work. Questionnaires were employed in carrying out this research based on the historical nature. The relevant information which help and served as the foundation and construction of the questionnaires were the theory of development and rural development and related literature based on the roles of non-governmental organization in the development or rural area. Conclusively, lack of basic infrastructure and the problems of inadequate orientation reduces the numbers of projects being carried out by the development of rural areas. Government should endeavour to provide our rural areas with the basic social amenities so that these non-governmental organization will not be discourages by the alarming financial constraint that could mar the provision of these amenities before the operation of their organizations.

 

Table of contents

 

Chapter one

  • Introduction ———————————- 1

1.1   background of the study——————–      5

1.2   statement of the problem——————-      8

1.3   purpose of the study————————-      9

1.4   significance of the study——————–      10

1.5   research questions ————————-               11

1.6   scope of the study—————————              12

1.7   limitation of the study ———————               12

1.8   definition of the terms ———————               13

Chapter two

Literature review

  • Introduction ——————————–              15

2.1    the concept of non-governmental organization    15

2.2   the concept of rural development——– 24

2.3    registration of non-governmental organization    26

2.4   importance of registering an ngo ———       27

2.5   types of non-governmental organization –       29

2.6   objectives of rural development ————     33

2.7   community self-help in development ——     34

2.8   non-governmental organization as a means

To improve rural development —————   39

2.9   summary of literature review —————     41

 

Chapter three

  • Research methodology————————– 42

3.1   brief outline of the study ———————-   42

3.2   design of the study—————————–   43

3.3   area of the study——————————-    43

3.4   population of the study———————–     43

3.5   sample of the study—————————     44

3.6   instrument for data collection ————–     44

3.7   validation of the instrument —————-     45

3.8   distribution and retrieval of instrument —      45

3.7   method of data analysis———————–   46

Chapter four

  • Data presentation and analysis ————    47
    • Presentation of findings ———————- 47
    • Findings —————————————– 59

 

Chapter five

Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation

5.0   summary of findings—————————   60

5.1   conclusion ————————————–   63

5.2   recommendations —————————–    65

References ————————————–   67

Appendix —————————————-   69

Questionnaire ———————————-   70

Chapter one

Introduction

over the years, successive non-governmental organization agencies in nigeria have demonstrated appreciable interest towards the provision of amenities to both the rural and urban population of the country. The interest shown by this non-governmental organizational agency could be derived from their genuine intention of uplifting the living standard of the people. There is therefore no gain saying the fact that there have been some noticeable increase in educational institutions, health care centers, road constructions, water supply and so on as they strive to impress the people. Experience has shown that the provision and maintenance of amenities cannot be handled by government alone because it will be too onerous for government to satisfy the needs of all communities, bearing in mind the limitation of time and resource. It is therefore, necessary for the agencies of government to educate the people to appreciate the fact that the transformation of their country for enhancement of their standard of living should be a joint responsibility between the rural areas and the government or it’s agencies. This is why series of reforms and restructuring have been undertaken at local government level, all in an attempt to make it more responsive to the yearnings and aspirations of the people. It is also aimed to evolving an efficient and functional administrative and resources allocation system that will make for rapid growth and modernization of rural areas.

the impact of non-governmental organizational agencies (ngo’s) in rural development has attracted the attention of some great scholars. Nnoli (1981) refers development as “a natural fact in which the individuals and society interact with their physical, biological and inter human environment transforming them for their own benefit and that of humanity at large”.

also aroh (1997) viewed rural development as a process whereby rural dwellers come together to perform various functions in order to give a face lift to their immediate environment or rural area.

also obasi, oko and nnamdi erondu (2010) viewed rural development as the improvement of the living standard of the people of low income population risiding in rural areas and making the process of their development self-sustaining. The united nations children rural (1995) perceive ngo’s as organizations or loose association which are composed of people working together to address a need. They give basic elements of ngo’s.

  1. An ngo is primary an intermediate organization that is development oriented.
  2. Non – profit oriented
  • Non-government in term of organization, membership and funding
  1. A voluntary organization.

In all, non-governmental organization agencies role in rural development is aimed at making people self-reliant, able to participate in national development. It also ensure that both the rural and urban areas the provision of the necessary assistance, like funds, legal and structural framework, and technical and managerial expertise necessary for the programmes (aroh, 2002).

 

  • Background of the study

The study was carried out in awgu local government area of enugu state in nigeria. The local government area occupies an area of about 200 square kilometers with an estimated population of 8,000 people (npc, 1991). The local government is bounded in the east by orji local government, in south by udi local government, in west by abia state and in north by ani-nri local government.

In these very local government which is awgu more than 90% (90 percent) of the inhabitant living in the rural area of the local government area are igbo’s who are mainly from enugu while the remaining percentage are people from other parts of the country who must have come to settle in the area for the search of green pastures, such as farming, trading, schooling and business. The local government comprises of different communities like agbo-ogwugwu, mgbidi, mmaku, ihe, ituku, ozalla, owerre court, mpu etc. The occupation of the people is teaching, farming, trading, civil servants etc. The awgu co-operative union was formed in 1980 and it is one of the first co-operative formed in that area during that period and it’s aim is to help to improve the living standard of the people by indulging them into contributing money which is likely known as (isusu), so that any member that is in need of capital can take loan from the cooperative and later pay back without interest. After the 1980 co-operative come another one in (1982) which is called the umuene co-operative after that came another one in 1986 named umuanioke co-operative and all this tends towards enhancing the living standard of the rural dwellers and making life easier for them. This union has been noted to be a well recognized union of the development of the rural area and also has help in extending arms to the less privileged in the rural areas. There was a remarkable thing done by these awgu co-operative union on september (2002) they bought chairs and desks for the whole primary school in awgu local government area, also in december 2004 the awgu co-operative donated bags of rice and wrappers to the widows in the rural areas. The agwu history is something one cannot forget in a haste, the people of awgu are people of integrity, honesty and responsible, as i was told the awgu people are known for their hard work, zeal to help one another and have the spirit of oneness and believe in teamwork from the above indication it means that they live a life worthy of emulation.

  • Statement of the problem

Through the rural dwellers non-governmental organizations have continued to play a significant role in rural development by producing food and agricultural raw materials for export and local consumptions but yet so many rural areas still lack the basic amenities of life such as good roads, postal services and communication e.g. Mtn network, nitel, glo, airtel, etisalat etc anyanwu (1981). The unbalance in provision of these basic amenities and infrastructural between the rural and urban areas have occasioned an unprecedented rural urban daft with a depressive effects on the rural economy which the facts has been established in a way whereby the non-governmental organizational agencies is constrained in it’s efforts to provide citizens with all the required social and basic amenities for comfortable living anyanwu (1992). The truth is that non-government organizations have been established by various community members, who came together to compliment the effort government.

 

  • Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study is to highlight the role of the awgu co-operative development union, awgu local government while specific objectives of the research work are:

  1. To ascertain the personal characteristics of each member of the awgu co-operative development union, awgu.
  2. To ascertain the level of contributions of non-governmental organizations for rural development.
  3. To examine the structure of the development union.
  4. To identify the constraints encountered by the awgu co-operative development union in their rural development effort.

 

  • Significance of the study

The importance of this study is to ascertain the benefit of ngo’s to the society. It also include the beneficiaries and this means those who benefit from these study and they are:- teachers, student, farmers, communities/villagers and society at large.

However, it is important to note immense contribution made by ngo towards enhancing the standard of living of the people and also reduce the burden of over dependency on government.

 

 

 

  • Research questions

In order to achieve the objective of this research work the following research questions are designed to adviere that:

  1. What are the contributions of non-governmental organizations agencies in rural development in awgu local government?
  2. To what extent are people at the rural area involved in the development of their area?
  • In what ways do the people of the community involved in taking the decision for the maintenance of their area?
  1. To what extent are the people of the rural area initiating programmes and projects for the development of the rural areas.

 

  • Scope of the study

The scope of the study is the impact of non-governmental organizations in rural development with particular reference to awgu co-operative union in awgu local government area of enugu state as a yardstick for other state of nigeria as regards to development of rural areas.

 

  • Limitation of the study

In carrying out this research work i encountered so many obstacles. There were difficulties in getting the respondents, because most of them have gone to farm and some to market etc.

Some of them were afraid of feeding me with the proper information because to them they are seling out the secret of their community or area. I lacked the financial resources which affected the research negatively.

 

  • Definition of terms

In order to give easy comprehension of the entire research, it is required that some terms of importance used should be defined. Such terms are as follows: –

Government: can be defined as an institution of a state whereby the interest, welfare and need of the citizens are been protected.

Organization: is defined as a highly rationalized of persons co-operating with one another to announce and achieve a specific goal.

Community: referred to as a relatively small isolated centre with a stable population in which all economic and social service necessary for life can be realized.

Rural: a part of society that is relatively more natural than artificial.

Development: it involves improvement, progression, enhancement and change in economic, social socio-cultural, infrastructure, political of a state, development is a multidimensional changes in nature and attitudes of one’s life.

Role: it is referred to as the objectives.

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The role of non-governmental agencies in poverty alleviation and the development of community

The role of non-governmental agencies in poverty alleviation and the development of community

(a case study of ufuma prime movers association in orumba north

Local government area anambra state)

Abstract

The study focuses on the role of non-governmental agencies in poverty alleviation and the development of communities using ufuma prime movers association in orumba north local government area as a case study. The general purpose of the work was to highlight the role of non-governmental agencies in poverty alleviation and development of community which the specific objective is to examine the structure of ufuma prime mover in orumba north local government area anambra state. To identify the contributions of ufuma prime movers in oruma north in its community development effort. The data used for this research is derived from the administration of questionnaire, interview and also through internet, library research on the textbooks, percentage analysis and the hypothesis formulated were tested using the percentage test. The scope of this study is the impact of non governmental agencies in community development organization to the development of communities, area of the study which covers a particular geographic area which is orumba north local government which is used as the case study. Population of the study which is composed of five hundred and sixty two (562) workers, sample of the study which the researcher used random sampling techniques which stated that out of 562 workers in orumba north local government, 233 was selected.  The major constraint encountered by ufuma prime mover in orumba north local government area in its community development efforts were lack of finance and materials for carrying out development projects. From our finding, it was recommended that government and non-governmental agencies should make conscious effort towards supporting community members in self help community project.

 

Table of content

Title page                                                                       i

Approval page                                                               ii

Dedication                                                                     iii

Acknowledgement                                                         iv

Abstract                                                                        v

Table of contents                                                          vi

 

Chapter one

1.0    introduction                                                         1

1.1    background of the study                                      1

1.2    statement of the problem                                     6

1.3    purpose of the study                                    7

1.4    significance of the study                                      8

1.5    research question                                                 9

1.6    scope of the study                                                10

1.7    limitation of the study                                          11

1.8    definition of terms                                                11

 

 

Chapter two

Literature review

2.0    introduction                                                         14

2.1    the concept of non-governmental agencies 14

2.2    the concept of community development              16

2.3    registration of non-governmental agencies  18

2.4    types of non-governmental agencies            21

2.5    objectives of community development                 23

2.6    basic function on non-governmental agencies       25

2.7    non-governmental agencies as a means to

Improve community development                        26

2.8    summary of literature review                               28

 

Chapter three

3.0    research design and methodology                        29

3.1    design of the study                                               29

3.2    area of the study                                                  30

3.3    population of the study                                        30

3.4    sample of the study                                              31

3.5    instrument for data collection                             32

3.6    reliability and validity of the instrument             33

3.7    distribution and retrieval of the instrument        33

3.8    method of data analysis                                       34

 

Chapter four

4.0    presentation and analysis of data                        35

4.1    data presentation                                                 35

4.2    data analysis                                                        35

4.3    discussion/analysis of findings                   48

 

Chapter five

5.0    summary of findings, conclusion and        recommendation                                                   49

5.1    summary of findings                                    49

5.2    conclusion                                                            51

5.3    recommendations                                                52

References                                                            54

Appendix(es)                                                   56-57

 

 

 

List of table

Table 1:     position distribution of respondent             36

Table 2:     characteristics of the respondents              37

Table 3:     number of married and yet married            38

Table 4:     educational qualification of respondents      38

Table 5:     do the people of the community initiate programme and project for the development

Of the community.                                       39

Table 6:     does the people of the community involved

In the development of their communities   40

Table 7:     does the people of the community involved

In taking decision for the maintenance of

Their community                                          41

Table 8:     is there any positive relationship between

Orumba north local government and

Non-governmental agencies.                        42

Table 9:     do you think that the agency of orumba

North local government has helped well in community unemployment problem             43

Table 10:   do you think that non-governmental

Agencies  have a lot of in pact in

Community development                            44

Table 11:   does the people of the community provide

The amenities used in their community     45

Table 12:   do you think that some people have diverted

These basic amenities for their own personal use?                                                         46

Table 13: do you think that the amenities produced

have achieved the development of rural

community?                                         47

 


 

Chapter one

  • Introduction
    • Background of the study

Non-governmental agencies in nigeria have demonstrated appreciable interest towards the provision of amenities to both the rural and urban population of the country. The interest shown by these non-governmental agencies could be derived from their genuine intension of uplifting the liking standard of the people. There is therefore no gain saying the fact that there have been some noticeable increases in educational institutions, health centers, road constructions, water supply and so on as they store to impress the people. Experience has shown that the provision and maintenance of amenities cannot be handled by government alone because it will be too onerous for government to satisfy the need of all communities, bearing in mind the limitation of time and resources. It is therefore, necessary for the agencies of government to educate the people to appreciate the fact that the transformation of their country for enhancement of their standard of living should be a joint responsibility between the community and the government or its agencies. This is why series of reforms and restricting have been undertaken.

At local government level, at in an attempt to make it more responsive to the yearnings and aspirations of the people it is also aimed to involving an efficient and functional administrative and resources allocation system that will make for rapid growth and modernization of rural communities (non oil). The role of non-governmental agency (ngo’s) in community developed has attracted the attention of some great scholars. Aroh (1997), viewed community development as a process whereby community came together to perform various functions in order to given a face left to their immediate environment or community. Also non oil (1981) refers development as a natural fact in which the individuals and society interest with their physical, biological and inter human environment transforming them for their own benefit and that of humanity at large. Ngo’s as an organization or loose associations which are composed of people working together to address a need. Basic element of ngo’s are: –

  1. Non-profit oriented
  2. A voluntary organization
  • An ngo is primary on intermediate organization that is development oriented.
  1. Non-government in term of organization, membership and funding.

In all, non-governmental agencies role is poverty alleviation and community development is aimed at making people self reliant, able to participate in national development. It also ensure that both the rural and urban communities the provision of the necessary assistance, like funds legal and structural framework, technical and managerial expertise necessary for the programmers’, aroh (2002).

The study was carried out in ufuma, which is located at orumba north local government area of anambra state in nigeria. The local government area occupies an area of about 220 square kilo with an estimated population of 8,280 people (npc 1991).

The local government comprises of different communities like ajali which is the headquarter, oko, ufuma, omogho, awa, naka, amaokpala, ndiowu, ndikelionwu and so on. The occupation of the people is farming, treading, civil servants, etc. The ufuma prime movers was on the third development union formed in the area in 1984 but before the formation of the ufuma prime movers there was other union formed in february 23nd 1982. The cooperative union formed in march 2nd 1983 before the formation of the ufuma cooperative union in june 28th 1984. This union of the development of the community and also has helped in increasing the standard of living of the people and extending aims to the less privileges in the community. There was remarkable to which was done by these prime movers on march 8th 2000 disk and chairs for the umonyiba primary and nursery school in the area also in 2004 the prime movers donated wholesomely to the widows in umuogem community. The ufuma comprises of nine (9) villages and its history is something that one cannot forget in a haste, the people of ufuma are people with integrity, honest and responsible as i was told the ufuma people spread to different villages like umuagu, obiagu, umuogem, umonyiba, umuonyiuka and so on.

 

  • Statement of the problem

Though the community dwellers in non-governmental agencies has continued to play a significant role in the community development by producing food and agricultural raw materials for exploit and local consumptions but yet so many community still lack the basic amenities of life such as good roads, postal services an communication e.g. Mtn network, nitel, glo etc anyanwu (1981). The unbalance in provision of these basic amenities and infrastructural development between the rural and the urban areas have occasionally an unprecedented rural urban draft with a depressive effects on the rural urban economy which the facts has been established in a way whereby the non-governmental agencies is constrained in its effort to provide citizens with all the required social and basic amenities for comfortable living anyanwu (1992). The truth is that non-governmental agencies have been established by various community members, who came to government with the activity of the non-governmental agencies have been documented adequately in literature and it is such view that the study was conceived to examine the role of the ufuma prime movers in ufuma orumba north local government area, anambra state was regarded to the community development.

 

  • Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study is to highlight the role of the ufuma prime movers in orumba north local government which specific aim of these research works is to designed the following:

  1. To examine the structure of the development union.
  2. To identify the constraints encountered by the ufuma prime movers in their community development effort.
  3. After the completion, the research work will be an incentive and motivation factors in the behavior of the people towards community development.
  4. Ascertain the personal characteristic of each members of the ufuma prime mover in orumba north local government.

 

  • Significance of the study

The essence of this research work is to propagate the good role of non-governmental agencies towards community development and how they can contribute to the crusade against poverty after the completion of this products, so that the people of the community can see the need for self help project because non-governmental agencies have play a significant role in community development and their roles need to be understood very well by policy makers, the government and ngo, the potentials members that will gradually help in development.

 

  • Research questions

In order to achieve the objectives of this research work these proper solution will be attempt to in the research:-

  1. In what extent are the people of the community initiate programmes and projects for the development of the community?
  2. What is the relationship between non-governmental agencies in community development in orumba north local government?
  • How are the amenities given to the people of the community being provided and maintain by the people of the community?

 

  • Scope of the study

The scope of this study is the impact of non-governmental agencies in community development organization to the development of communities with particular reference to ufuma prime movers in orumba north local government area of anambra state. Findings here shall be used as a yardstick to other states in nigeria.

 

 

  • Limitations of the study

In carry out this research work, i encountered so many obstacles, like the day i was travelling to anambra state for questioning of the respondents, it rained heavily and the cost of traveling was very high as i thought. There were difficulties in getting the respondents, because most of them have gone to the farm, why some to the village market etc.

 

1.8  definition of terms

In order to give easy comprehension of the entire research, it is required that some terms of importance used be defined, such terms are as follows: –

 

 

  1. Government:

Can be defined as an institution of a state whereby the interest, welfare and needs of the citizen are been protected.

  1. Community:

This referred as a relatively small isolated center with a stable population in which all economic and social services necessary to life can be realized.

  1. Development:

It involves improvement, progressing enhancement and change in economic, social socio-cultural, infrastructure, political of a state. Development is multidimensional change in native and attitudes of one’s life.

 

 

  1. Agency:

A business or an organization that provides a particular service especially on behalf of other business or organization.

  1. Role:

The function or position that something has or is expected to have in an organization in society or in a relationship.

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The role of micro-finance bank in the development of rural areas.

The role of micro-finance bank in the development of rural areas.

(a study of oko micro-finance bank) 2004-2014.

Table of content

Chapter one

Introduction

1.0   background of the study                             1

1.1   statement of the problem                            6

1.2  purpose of the study                                    8

1.3   research question                                        9

1.4   statement of hypothesis                              10

1.5   theoretical framework                                  11

1.6  significance of the study                              12

1.7  scope of the study                                       13

1.8   limitations of the study                               14

1.9   definitions of terms                                     14

 

Chapter two

Literature review

2.1   introduction                                                16

2.2   concept of oko micro-finance bank              25

2.3  the record of micro-finance bank                 27

2.4  importance of credit to the development

Of the rural communities                             35

2.5    micro-finance bank offer a number of credit

Delivery schemes                                         40

2.6   products and services                                  41

2.7   summary of literature review                       42

Chapter three

Research methodology

3.1  design of the study                                      44

3.2  area of the study                                         44

3.3   population of the study                                       45

3.4   sample/sampling techniques                      45

3.5   instrument for data                                     46

3.6  reliability and validity of the instrument     46

3.7    distribution and retrieval of the instrument       47

3.8  method of data analysis                                      47

 

Chapter four

Data presentation and analysis

4.1   personal data                                              49

4.2   data presentation                                        53

4.3   analysis of research questions                     53

4.4   testing of hypothesis                                   58

 

Chapter five

Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations

5.1   summary of findings                                   63

5.2   conclusion                                                   64

5.3   recommendation                                         65

References                                                   67

Appendix i: letter of respondents                  70

Appendix ii: questionnaire                           71


 

Abstract

This study aim at describing the role of micro-finance banks in the development of rural areas. To this effect, a case study was used which is oko micro-finance bank 2004-2014. This study aim at unearthing the powerful strategy for alleviating poverty in general and rural poverty in developing country, to analyze the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of micro-finance institutions in the selected region, to access the problems encountered by micro-finance service consumers in the rural areas. To achieve this purpose, 4 (four) research questions were raised vis: how does micro-finance institution operate in selected rural settling in the country? What are the problems encountered by micro-finance service consumers in the rural areas? What are strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of micro-finance institutions in the selected region? In addition, hypotheses were formulated to guide the study namely: micro-finance banks helps in the development of rural areas. Oko micro-finance bank is aimed at increasing the level of per-capital income of oko-community in anambra state. The researcher uses percentages respondents’ opinion. The researcher also made some recommendations among which were: micro-finance banks should involve themselves in the catchments areas. Because is the last hope of rural dwellers.

 

 

Chapter one

Introduction

1.0  background to the study

A major development issue facing many developing countries has been the need to reduce the scale and depth of poverty among the growing population. Chandy and gerts (2011) estimate that there were about 878.2 million people living below the poverty line in the year 2010. Of this number over 700 million live in rural areas. African has 369.9 million population or proportion of poor people the elimination and reduction of poverty is a key concern of development thinkers and practitioner (coyle, 2007; ifrpi, 2008).

The beginning of the 1970’s saw attention general towards improving the wellbeing of the rural poor who formed the majority of the population in developing countries, many governments and international and local agencies shifted their attention and channeled their resources towards development of rural area. This idea was motivated by the intention of reducing the levels of unemployment, increasing access to public goods and services by the development of rural population and more particularly, lowering poverty and overcoming income inequalities in most developing and least-developed countries according to brad show (2006), the explanation of poverty may be structural, personal, social or economic according to (burgess & pande, 2002). In the fight against poverty it is believed that the introduction of banks in rural areas enhance the livelihood of the rural dwellers. It is assumed that intervention will change human behaviors and practices in a way that will lead to the achievement of desired outcome.

According to (van santen, 2010) said that financial services for the poor have also been proven to be a powerful instrument for reducing poverty, enabling poor people to build assets and increase incomes, and reducing vulnerability to economic stress and shocks the idea of establishing micro-finance banks in nigeria was initiated under the former head of state general ibrahim babagida in 1990 the   idea was to mobilize funds and sensitize people on the need for development particularly those in the rural areas. The micro-finance becomes effective on the 16th day of july 1991 with the inauguration of the national board for micro-finance bank implementation committee and subsequent opening of the first micro- finance bank in the country at althen which was located in kaduna state. Since then there had been major efforts at improving the understanding of nigeria about the objectives and modalities of establishing micro-finance bank.

Many communities have established their own micro-finance bank, already the country is having about 1,450 micro-finance banks as at the end of december 1999. Stood at n200m mostly is currently form of cash bank, balance loan e.t.c of the one hundred and five bank licensed before february 2004 about 52 fifty two have share capital of between n500,000 and n1million. Twenty seven banks, between n1billion and n3billion loan and advance range from 500,000 to 5.8million in zone. Over 20 micro-finance banks have asked to be allowed to increase their share capital to n1million while far ones are requesting to raise their share capital to n5million banks like ibeto micro-finance bank, oganiru micro-finance bank and so on have already assests worth over n10million each. As a mark of growth, so many micro-finance banks had qualified for a board matching loan repayment over a period of five years. The loan is being given to those banks that have met the condition of submitting the return for the first three months, board resolution requesting the loan and an understanding by the board of directors to guarantee the loan.

In 1993 precisely, there was a boom on establishing of micro-finance banks, which then was regarded as the last hope of the rural dwellers, this encouraged customers to deposit and granting loan to rural dwellers thereby developing rural areas through investment by the rural people, it was within this period that oko micro-finance bank was registered with the national board of micro-finance banks. Oko micro-finance bank has a staff strength of between 15-20 a share current capital of about n700,000 to n1million and numerous customers which are mainly students of the federal polytechnic oko. Their function includes to lend loans to their customers, to help in export financing.

 

1.1  statement of the problem

Micro-finance bank could be powerful strategy or instrument among several others, for alleviating poverty in general and rural poverty in particular in developing countries. Although many developing countries, such as african have scored relative successes in using micro-finance bank as an instrument for alleviating poverty in general, and rural poverty in particular, it has not been so for many other developing countries.

Most of the micro-finance programs operated in these countries have left the so-called beneficiaries in debts. In a similar vein, most organization involved in providing micro-finance service, including government institution, co-operatives and non governmental organizations (ngos) have in most cases performed very poorly. High rates of non-repayment of loans by clients have on several occasions led to the collapse of micro-finance institutions. Notwithstanding this, micro-finance has continued to gain popularity among rural developers as a visible tool for improving rural agricultural practice and the diversification of economic activities of small- holder farming householders.

Lack of adequate loan funds, inadequate institutional capacities, poor coordination, little or no participation of the beneficiaries in the planning of micro-finances programs, lack of effective training programs for the both beneficiaries and operators of the programs are some of the reasons behind the ineffectiveness of micro-finance as a strategy for alleviating rural poverty in developing countries.

 

1.2  purpose of the study

The main objective of this study is to critically examine how micro-finance can be used as an effective instrument or strategy to reduce the high level of poverty in the rural areas of respective developing counties especially in africa. The researcher have to look at the nigeria situation.

  1. To examine how micro-finance institutions operate in selected rural settings in the country.
  2. To analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of micro-finance institutions in the selected region.
  3. To access the problems encountered by micro-finance service consumers, in the rural areas.
  4. To investigate and analyze the types and nature of micro-finance service provided in selected rural settlements in the country.

 

1.3  research questions

  1. How does micro-finance institution operate in selected rural settlings in the country?
  2. What are the problems encountered by micro-finance service consumers in the rural areas?
  3. Does micro-finance bank alleviate poverty in general and in rural developing countries?
  4. What are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of micro-finance institutions in the selected region?

 

1.4  statement of hypothesis

The following hypotheses were designed to guide the study:-

H0:   micro-finance bank does not help in the development of rural areas.

H1:   micro-finance banks help in the development of rural areas.

H0:   oko micro-finance bank is not aimed at increasing the level of per capital incomes of oko community.

H1:   oko micro-finance bank is aimed at increasing the level of per capital income of oko community.

 

1.5  theoretical framework

Past studies on diffusion theory have shown strong influence of the awareness of idea and innovation by a member of the community in which it spreads to all other members of such community. Also is the influence of distance on diffusion process which shows that a further away member of the society may not be aware of the innovation or ideas from the source on time unlike some one else to the source. Thus, this theory depicts an application to development of rural areas through self-help projects by the process of social contract through spatial ranges and dimension and field of influence. A member of the community through     community unions and association in most cases, the expansion and diffusion process is most applicable in development of rural areas through self-help projects in which ideas, innovation and communication spread spatially and temporarily until increasing members of individuals in the society become aware of the need for self-help project for development of rural areas.

 

1.6  significance of the study

On the completion of this study, it is hoped that it will be useful and profitable to the micro-finance banks executives, students and the researcher in particular together with the rural people since micro-finance bank is seen as poor man’s bank. To the management of the micro-finance bank, it will help them to know the areas of services they are performing well as those areas that needed improvement in development of rural areas. To the students more of those in public administration will also use it as a guide for literature review in carrying out more research work on the topic. To the rural dweller’s the idea of micro-finance bank will enlighten them on the need to bank their money no matter how small which will help to combat the number of loses/stolen being encountered by these ones. The idea will also encourage savings in the rural areas.

 

1.7  scope of the study

The study would concentrate on the role of micro-finance banks in the development of rural areas a study of oko micro-finance bank in particularly including the staffs of federal polytechnic oko and staffs of micro-finance bank oko.

 

1.8  limitations of the study

Financing:     during this study there was limited finance in producing questionnaires and also going to other micro-finance banks around together information.

Time:             it was a problem combing the research work with other activities and assignment of the semester.

Data collection: it was a problem collecting data because of the busy schedule of staffs in the bank.

 

1.9  definition of terms

Roles: is a set of connected behaviour rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms.

 

Rural areas: are areas which are not town or cities they are often farming or agricultural areas.

 

Development: the processes of economic and social transformation that is based on complex cultural and environmental factor and their interactions. It is also a process of adding improvements to a parcel of land, such as grading, subdivision, drainage, access, roads utilities.

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The role of educated nigeria women in the social and economic development of our country

The role of educated nigeria women in the social and economic development of our country

(a case study of nigeria)

 

Chapter one

  • Introduction ————————————-1

1.1  background of the study————————4

1.2 statement of the problem————————9

1.3 objective/  purpose of  the study————-10

1.4 significance of the study———————–11

1.5 scope of the study——————————-13

1.6 research question ——————————

1.7 definition  of  terms —————————-13

Chapter two

  • Literature review——————————-16

2.1 roles of educated nigerian women

2.2 contribution of educated nigerian women

2.3 problems confronter by educated nigeria women

2.4 sources of help top educated nigerian women

Chapter three

  • Research methodology———————–39

3.1 design of the study—————————–40

3.1 area of the study———————————–

3.3 population of the study————————41

3.4 sample of the study—————————–41

3.5 description of the instrument  —————42

3.6 distribution and retrieval of the instrument –43

3.7 method of data analysis————————43

Chapter four

  • Presentation and analysis of data ———-45

Chapter five

Summary of findings, conclusion and

Recommendation

5.1 summary of findings—————————55

5.2   conclusion ———————————–59

5.3 recommendations ——————————57

5.4 limitations of the study————————60

5.5 suggestions of the  study

References ——————————————–

Appendix———————————————–

Questionnaire ——————————————

 

 

Abstract

The major purpose of the study was to determine the roles of educated nigeria women in socio-economic development of our country. The population of the study consisted of the 78 educated women. Both workers and visitors in women development center awka. The sample size for the study was 70 using simple  random sampling, with 90%  of the percent  of the entire   population four research question were formulated  which quited the study a 70 tem  structured questionnaire were developed, percentage was used to analyze  the data collected.  The major finding of the study were. (1) it was observed that women help in    building  of charitable  organization  motherless baby homes etc, awarding of  scholarship and building of health centers (2)  it was also found that  government is the most eminent  sources  of  help  to educate  nigerian women in playing.,  their roles it  was concluded that.  (iii) educated  women play a vital role in socio-economic development  of  nigeria  (2) educated women contribute in  building  of charitable  organization awarding of  scholarship and building  of   health centers ultimately it was recommended that above mention  factors (v) that federal government should  encourage  women education by criticizing early marriage in the country (2) government should create employment programmes for younger women to enable them to develop themselves.

 

Chapter one

                        introduction

  • background  of the study

Over   four  decade years ago  educated  nigerian women  were  left out  in  most  of  the  national issues.   Most average  nigeria  men felt  that the place  of  women   no  matter  the level of  her education  end in  kitchen.

however the  contribution  of  most educated women in  nigeria in  the  recent time  have  cleared al doubt  in  the  saying that what  a  man  can do woman  can do  more  better.

Nigerian women are now coming forward  in this  21st  century to assert   and play significance  role in  the  countries    social   and economic  development   with their male  counterpart , they  have    left no  stone unturn in  carrying out  their  nature   duties either as a  civil  servant, commissioner,  minister, governor,  public  servant,  heads  of   non  governmental  organization  (ngo)etc. They now  organize  seminars  workshop,  campaign etc on women  empowerment  and  campaign on  feeding  methods and spacing  of  children and   number   of  children  which every  family   would  aim at  for  a  proper education   and  healthy up bringing.

economically,   most idle  house  wife  in  the rural areas have be rehabilitated after  receding lectures on  the  roles  educated women in  developing economy and   women empowerment  in  our country. Some  embraced  waving  poultring , farming , hand  craft etc.  These  locally  made  craft during trade  fairs has  helped to project the ingenuity of  nigerian women  as have   help to boast the economy of   the  country.

the  recent political interest     being  shown  by educated women   in our country  have also challenged the uneducated women  in  the  society  and the  masses at larger  to  understand that the  place  of   women  is   not only  in  the kitchen.  The past  immediate government recorded most of its  success in   most area which  was spearheaded by woman  the strong  and unbribable nafdac   chairman dr.  Dora akuntelu she  took   it  upon herself to step drug abuse., chief  mrs. Ngozi iwuala minister of finance recorded an unforgettable  impact  in that ministry   and  our country  at   large.  Also mrs.  Oby ezekwesili  the  minister of  education who  went a long way  in making nigeria  educational  system, what  it  is today dame virge etiaba   is  not  also   left  out  in  history   as the first woman  governor  in nigeria  who turn anambra state into   peaceful state  during   her (100) days in  office  as  governor  of anambra state. To   mention but  a few.

women  makes  psychological impact in  the society  with  the  talent they have as mother.   They knew the  best  way to approach the  youths children, they have in  many time organize themselves  in  groups to take care  of the  youths and educate  them on  the bad affect of  drugs  and other misconduct,  which they involve and  the impact of  their  contribution  is   been felt all  over the  country.

1.2 statement of  the  problems

it is sometimes  said that women are   not  logical   that  their  thoughts  are  less  subject  to  control  by  the  rules  of  logic  and that  they  depend  upon institution and   emotion  more than  men.  It  is also  believed  that women are naturally   so constitute  that they cannot    be  otherwise.  This conception  had been used to rationalize  much of the  prejudice against higher profession  and top   business  and   industrial position. Are all these opinion about   women  facts    or are  the more  cultural  biases   having  no  factual base on  the  capabilities  of  woman.

The question on  their topic might  be asked who are these educated women? What  significant  roles  have  they  played or can play toward developing the country.? Though  women  are  later comers  in  the  race for education. Do  we   have women who have attained such educational   heights  as to  enable them play  the   significant  role  in  national development.

1.3 objective/  purpose  of the study 

the  study  tend  to identify various  socio-economic   development of the  country.

  1. To identify the roles played by the educated   nigerian woman in social  and economic development  of  our country.
  2. To examine the contributions of the educated  nigerian  women  in socio economic  development of the country.
  3. To identify the problem facing the educated nigerian women in  their efforts towards social  and economic development  of  our country.
  4. To identify sources of help and motivation that facilitate  the   educated women in playing  their  roles.

1.4 significant of the study

The  funding  of  these  research work  will significantly   create awareness  of  the  roles  of educated  women and how  to  improve  their performance and  participation in  social and economic development  of our  country.

the study  will serve as a  piece of motivation  to  the  uneducated   women on the need for women education  and  empowerment. It will also  inspire the educated women  more  on  the  quest for the   country  social and economic   development.  It will also  help to  eliminate  the humiliation borne by educated nigerian  women in  the  country.  In essence  enable  their  men  counterparts,  government   and  families  to  understand   how important the  role  of educated women  are in  the development  of our country  thereby  encouraging women education both financially,  morally  and  otherwise.

finally, the study  will also  be of great importance   to al  the  female  students in our colleges   and will also  act as a reference   material  to the  school library.

  • Scope/ delimitation of the  study

The work  is a research based on socio-economic development of  our  country  . It  is  to examine the role  of educated  women.

in  the  course of study.  The   contribution  of  the educated nigerian women as  involved   in  the social and development  of  nigerian should  be  examine. Problems   or  weakness as well  as standard practices will be  looked with as  identified and recommendations  will  be made  for  improvement.

no attempt was  made to look into  the    activities of other women such as the   business women  and   farmers.  The research  work will   not  also looks  into  the  domestic  roles  of educated nigerian women in    their  respective  homes.

1.6 research  questions

This  study sought   answers to  the   following   research question

  1. What are the roles  played by  educated   nigerian women in  the socio-economic development  in  our  country.
  2. What are the contributions  of the  educated  nigerian  women  in  the  social   and economic  development  of nigeria.
  3. What are sources of help and   motivation  that  facilitate  the   educated women in  playing  tier  roles?.
  4. What are the problems that faced the  women in tier   effort at  the  social and economic  development of  nigeria.

1.7 definition of terms

the  teams used  in t his  research  work which have   unique  meaning that could  be  subjected to different  interpretations   by different  readers  of  this  project  reports are defined as follows.

  1. Educated women: this are women who have been to the school college  and  Those who  have  acquired  certificates  either as a degree holder master holder, nce, nd, hnd holder  etc.
  2. Development: it is an overall trend or process in  which  socio- political   and  socio- economic    transformation  are achieved ,  it  is   the process  of  improving  or changing the quality  of  a thing.
  • Social development: it is an aspect  of development  that concerns   the  social  aspect of  life  people as regard.  Housing  public  health
  1. Economic development: this  deals  with  those aspects  of  life  designed to  give profit to  the  economy   as regards finance  agriculture, trade,     

 

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