Category Archives: Food Science project material sample

Food Science project material sample

BACTERIAL EXAMINATION OF SPOILT “EGUSI” SOUP

BACTERIAL EXAMINATION OF SPOILT “EGUSI” SOUP

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction – –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       1

1.1    Background of the Study –   –       –       –       –       –       –       1

1.2    Statement of the Problem    –       –       –       –       –       –       3

1.3    Objective of the Study         –       –       –       –       –       –       –       3

1.4    Significance of the Study     –       –       –       –       –       –       4

1.5    Scope of the Study     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       4

1.6    Limitations of the Study –     –       –       –       —      –       –       4

1.7    Definition of Terms     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    Literature Review –      –       –       –       –       –       —      –       6

2.1    A brief history on Melon (Egusi) seed    –       –       –       –       6

2.2    Types of Melon – –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       7

2.3    Nutritional value of Melon seeds   –       –       –       –       –       10

2.4    Drying methods and storability of “Egusi”      –       –       –       12

2.5    Reciepe for “Egusi” soup     –       –       –       –       –       –       14

2.5.1 Ingredients –      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       14

2.5.2 Preparation of “Egusi” soup         –       –       –       –       –       –       14

2.6    Spoilage of individual components of the soup       –       –       –       15

2.6.1 Fish spoilage –    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       16

2.6.2 Meat spoilage –   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       16

2.6.3 Spoilage of Vegetables –      –       –       –       –       –       –       17

2.6.4 Spoilage of “Egusi”     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       18

2.7    Factors influencing growth of Microorganisms in foods.   –       19

2.7.1 Intrinsic factors –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       20

2.7.2 Extrinsic factors –        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       24

2.8    The effects of spoilt foods (“Egusi” soup) on human       –       –       26

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    Materials and methods –      –       –       –       –       –       –       30

3.1    Materials and Apparati (see appendix I) –       –       –       –

3.2    Collection of the “Egusi” soup samples  –       –       —      –       30

3.3    Preparation of Media   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       30

3.4    Sterilization of Materials       –       –       –       –       –       –       31

3.5    Preparation o the “Egusi” soup sample for culturing –     –       32

3.6    Inoculation and Incubation –        –       –       –       –       –       –       33

3.7    Identification of Bacterial growth – –       –       –       –       –       35

3.8    Gram staining procedure     –       –       –       –       –       –       35

3.9    Microscopic Examination-     –       –       –       –       –       –       36

3.10  Biochemical Tests       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       36

3.10.1 Catalase Test    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       36

3.10.2 Lactose Fermentation Test –       –       –       –       –       –       37

3.10.3 Citrate Utilization Test        –       –       –       –       –       –       37

3.10.4 Proteolysis       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       38

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    Results –    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       39

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    Discussions, Conclusion and Recommendation       –       –       42

5.1    Discussions –      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       42

5.2    Conclusion –      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       44

5.3    Recommendation –      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       45

References        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       46

Appendences     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       50

LISTS OF TABLES

Table 1:     Types and characterization of some melon –  –       –       9

Table 2:     Nutritional contents of melon seeds      –       –       –       11

Table 3:     Composition of melon seeds dried by different methods –        13

Table 4:     Bacterial food poisoning: incubation period and duration of illness.   –       –        –       –       –       –       –       –       28

Table 5:     Bacterial growth based on colony characteristics –  –       39

Table 6:     Bacterial growth based on gram staining reaction – –       40

Table 7:     Bacterial growth based on Biochemical tests- –       –       41

LISTS OF FIGURES

Figure 1:   Types of melon –       –       –       –       –       –       –       8

Figure 2:   Bacterial growth on different agar medium –  –       –       34

ABSTRACT

Five samples of “Egusi” soup collected from different food vendors in Ogbete Main Market in Enugu were studied for Bacterial spoilage. Observation of the plates incubated aerobically showed heavy / profused growth of Bacillus spp, moderate growth of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenes as well as scanty growths of Streptococcus Feacalis and Staphy lococcus aureus. The presence of E. coli and Streptococcus feacalis indicated Feacalis contamination of the soup as these two organisms are known to be indicator organisms. They are usually associated with poor hygienic handling of foods, water, utensils and vegetables. The shelf life of “Egusi” soup can be extended having known the spoilage organism by subjecting the soup to a more advanced preservation methods such as canning.

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Biochemical changes in food when perceived as undesirable are called spoilage. Because food are such excellent source of nutrient, microorganisms grow rapidly and make what once was an attractive and appealing food into a sour, foul smelling mass suitable only for the garbagecan. On the other hand, microorganisms can degrade food quality and lead to spoilage. Importantly, foods also can serve as vehicles for disease transmission. The detection and control of pathogens and food spoilage microorganisms are important parts of food microbiology. During the entire sequence of food handling from the producer to the final consumer, microorganisms can affect food quality and human health (Prescott et al; 2008).

The number and types of microorganisms present in food are influenced by the general environment from which the food was originally obtained, the microbiological quality of the food in its raw or unprocessed state, sanitary condition under which the food was handled and processed as well as the adequacy of subsequent packaging, handling and storage are conditions in maintaining the flora at a low level (Jay, 2003).

Melon (Egusi) belongs to the family cucurbitaceae and grows in pods with seeds that are covered with a mucilaginous coating (Offonry and Achi 1998). They are used as the major ingredients for preparing a traditional soup called “Egusi” soup, which is popularly consumed in West Africa, particularly Nigeria. The seeds can be roasted and eaten or grounded as flour and used as a soup thickner. Various “Egusi” soups are favorites in Nigeria. In West Africa, plants and seeds of cucurbitaceae as well as soup, cakes and stews made with them are all called “Egusi” (Bankole et al; 2005). One major problem that besets “egusi” soup is that it deteriorates quickly, because the soup is rich in nutrient, it serves as a culture medium for bacterial growth. Although a lot of research work has been carried out on spoilage of different types of foods, no work has been done on bacterial spoilage of egusi soup (Bankole et al; 2005).

 

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

“Egusi “ soup is prone to fast / quick spoilage than other soups especially during the hot weather which results in food poisoning when consumed. Majority of the populace prefer other soups than egusi soup despite its cheap and easy method of preparation.

 

1.3    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The aim of this project is to Isolate and identify the spoilage bacteria of “Egusi” soup, this will help in the choice and type of preservation method to be used.

1.4    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research study will help the populace know the biological state of food in take to promote a healthier society because a healthy nation is a wealthy nation and health depends mostly on what is eaten. It will also improve the economy of the Nation.

 

1.5    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study was limited to the food vendors in Ogbete Main Market in Enugu.

 

1.6    LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The research work was limited only to the examination of aerobic and facultative organisms in spoilt “egusi” soup. Anaerobic incubation was not carried out due to lack of anaerobic jar in the laboratory.

1.7    DEFINITION OF TERMS

Thermal Death Time (TDT) – This is the shortest time needed to kill all organisms in a microbial suspension at a specific temperature and under defined conditions.

 

Decimal Reduction Time (D) or D Value  – This is the time required to kill 90% of the microorganisms or spores in a sample at a specified temperature. It is also used to estimate the relative resistance of a microorganism to different temperatures through calculation of the Z value.

 

Z Value – This is the increase in temperature required to reduce D to 1/10 its value or to reduce it by one log cycle when log D is plotted against temperature.

 

Thermal Death Point  – This is the lowest temperature at which a microbial suspension is killed in 10 minutes.

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FERMENTATIVE PRODUCTION OF CASSAVA FLOUR FOR BAKERY INDUSTRIES

FERMENTATIVE PRODUCTION OF CASSAVA FLOUR FOR

BAKERY INDUSTRIES

ABSTRACT

A high quality cassava flour has been produced using fermentative method which has been found worthy by the bakery industries. Bread were made from unfermented cassava flour respectively. The proximate chemical composition and sensory qualities of the cassava bread were compared to those of bread were compared to those of bread from 100% wheat flour as refrence. Apart from protein and fat contents of the reference bread components (aoh, fubre and moisture) of the cassava bread were similar to those of the wheat bread.

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction 1

1.1     Aim and Objectives                                                                 6

  • Statement of Problems 6
  • Limitation 7
  • Justification 7

CHAPTER TWO

2.1     Literature review                                                                     8

CHAPTER THREE

  • Materials and Methods 18

3.1     Collection and Preparation of Materials                                  19

  • Flow Chart of the First Set of Cassava Flour Production 22
  • Flow Chart of the Second Set of Cassava Production 23

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1     Result                                                                                                24

4.2     Discussion                                                                               26

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion and Recommendation                                                     28
  • Conclusion 28

Reference                                                                                 29

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

Cassava Manuhot Exculanta  cranty in a prennial woody shrubs with edible root, which grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is also called yucca, manioc and mandioca. Cassava has the ability to grow on marginal land where cereal and other crops do not grow well. It can tolerate draught and grow in low nutrient soils. Because cassava root can be stored in the ground for up to 24 months and some varieties for up to 24 months and some varieties for up to 36 months, honest may be delayed until market processing or other conditions are favorable.

Cassava is the basis of many produces, including food. In Africa and Latin America cassava is mostly used for human consumption, while in Asia and parts of Latin America it is also used commercially for the production of animal feed and starch based products. In Africa, cassava provides a basic delay source of dietary energy. Roots are processed into a wide range varites of granules pastes, flours, etc or consmed freshly boiled or raw. In most of cassava growing countries in Africa the leaves are also consumed as a green vegetable which privies protein and vitamin A & B.

In southeast Asia and Latin America, cassava has taken on an nomic role. Cassava starch is used as a binding agent, in the production of paper and teatiles and monosodium glutament, an important voring agent, in the Asia cooking. In Africa today, cassava is beginning to be used in partial substitution for wheat flour.

Planting materials should be made available to farmers at all times. To complement the efforts of MOFIA on the multiplication of compared planting materials for the farmers a programme should be initiated to identify and select 3 to5 farm each of the agroecological zones with the potential to take part in this exercise. A conscious effort should be made to provide inputs and logistics through a special fund to make this workable. This should form part of an overall national action plan for the industry.

In order to made cassava attractive for use in industry, there in the need to substantially reduce the price of cassava roots to outdo the cereals, its closet substrate. To reduce this, the following should be considered (i) support for research to develop high yielding varieties that would yield in excess of 40 nature tones per hectare. There varieties should have low gynogenic potential (ii) support research and extension to develop and disseminate information on improved agronomic practices such as optimum plant population, we of healthy planting materials, development of sustainable production systems to maintain soil fetidly such as intercropping, rotation and manuring efficient pest and disease management practices (iii) support research and action to develop method of preserving planting maternal when cassava is harvested during the dry season. Arrangement involving banks, organized producers and associated marketing companies (who provides guarantees of payment on behalf of producers) could be arranged @ effords should be made to encourage the private sector to enter into the large scale production of cassava. Modern farming estates with outgrower scheme should be encouraged and supported. These will enable the use of machinery and the employment of modern farming ledinques to improve efficiency and profitability. To encourage investors to enter into the development of farming estates, a number of potential proving area should be identified and provided with good access roads and other infrastructural facilities (v) small scale cassava farmers should be organized into farmers group to facilitate in the sharing of facilities and dissenmenation of tedinical informations.

Labour/drudgery in harvesting could be reduced through testing and adoption of simple manrinel lifting/diagting devices that lifting pole) (v) the use of appropriate harvesting equipment to cut down on cost of harvesting. The simple hand lifter used by peasant farmers in Thailand and adopted by the post harvest. Unit of the Agricultural Engineering Department of Ministry of food and Agriculture should be cassava farms (x) for commercial and large scale farmers, the leaping conversely cassava harvester which was developed in Germany and Currently being tested at Kwame Nkrumdi University of Science and Technology could be adopted of found to be practical.  The harvester lowest 2 – 3 hectares of cassava in eight hours, an operation which would requires about 75 man hours. The equipment designers are readily to enter into agreement with local manufactures for assembling the harvests locally.

In the tropics cassava flour production is comparatively a virguis bade and virtually wheat flour type used here are imported. To this effect, wheat are imported can be reduced tremendously by partial or complete substitution of the wheat flour with flour and starch from tropical crops such as roots and tubers (cassava, yam and sweet potato) and cereals (maizge, rice sorghum and millet). Among the roots and tuber, cassava is the best to replace wheat partially or completely due to its high yield and low cost of production since the charge from locally produced foods to wheat based foods has resulted to an increase in wheat importation in several Africa Countries since the crop is either not grown due to climate limitation, or where grown” production can supply only a small percentage of the requirement.

Although partial substitution of wheat flour with cassava flour up to 40% has been reported for the production of bakery product by kim and Deliuter, Morton, Eggeston et al, Omoata and Bokage, little has been reported on complete substitution of wheat flour with cassava flour and the effect of  fermentation on the substitution properties of cassava flour. In this research project, the researcher intends to give a wrid reports of how the succeeded in producing cassava flour by fermentation using local available materials so that industratists schools and local bakers can read this I nformation contained therein and share this important knowledge with her.

It is believed that the researcher will delve in to elucidate a better method of producing high quality cassava flour so that wheat importation would be reduced or band outrightly. Unemployed induredcials can gainfully be employed thus revving our so called economy which is almost in shambles.

 

1.1     AIM AND OBJECTIVES

          The major aim of the research work in to produce cassava flour by fermentative method.

To bring to the notice of both the bakers and consumers on the availability of this cassava flour as a replacement for wheat flour in order to reduce cost.

 

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

It is evident that the cost of wheat have become prolubitaive and beyond the reach if so many bakers to reduce this problem cassava seems the best choice to replace wheat partially or completely due to its high yield and low out of production.

 

 

 

  • LIMITATION

This is limited to the fermentative production of cassava flour for bakery industries.

 

  • JUSTIFICATION

To enlighten bakers on the importance of using the local source flour (cassava flour) in their bakery products in order to reduce the high cost of wheat flour importation, thereby saving the country huge some of foreign currency usually spent as such importation.

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1. Access Bank:
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3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
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5. First Bank
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6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
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11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
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15. Diamond Bank
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To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

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ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINATION OF ALASA RIVER IN BURUTU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA

ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINATION OF ALASA RIVER IN BURUTU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA

ABSTRACT

 

          Water sample were collected along these river at various location, and were studied. The parameters determined were P4, temperature, conductivity, total hardness, alkalinity, ca hardness, maghardwen Cation (Pb2+ Fe2+ Cu2+) were also determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (DDS).

From the analysis showed that PH ranges from 6.10 – 6.80 temperature from 63.10 us/cm – 63.90 us/cm-1 while were hardness 6.00mgk – 6.60mgk alkalinity rages from 7.00 – 9.00 Ph2+ ranges from 0.2mgk – 0.16mgk CU2+ ranges from 0.01mgk – 0.03mgk Fe2+ ranges from 0023mgk – 0.23mgk Nl2+ ranges from 0.11mgk – 0.70mgk.

The result of the analysis revealed that the sample are soft and would leather easily with water.

CHAPTER OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE
  • Introduction 1

1.1     Statement of problem                                                    2

  • Objective 2
  • Limitation 2
  • Hypothesis 2
CHAPTER TWO
  • Literature Review 3

2.1     Effluent                                                                          6

  • Effluent Quality 7
  • Type of Pollution 8
  • Classification of Water Pollution 9
  • Effects of Water Pollution 11
  • Quality Criteria 15
  • Portable Water Standard 16
  • Storage and Preservation of Water Sample 18
CHAPTER THREE
  • Materials and Method 23
CHAPTER FOUR
  • Results 28
CHAPTER FIVE
  • Conclusion/Recommendation 33

Reference                                                                       34

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

 

  • INTRODUCTION

Water is one the most abundant substance in nature. It was previously considered to be an element, not until Canvendish proved it to be a compound consisting of hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 2:1 by volume.

Water covers approximately three quarters of the entire surface, but in spite of this apparent abundance, several factors have limited the amount of water available for human use.

It is of fundamental importance to all kinds of plants and animals and therefore to man. It is of equal importance with the air we breath in maintaining the vital process necessary for life and growth. But since it is not every available, its provision has form the earliest part of villages and town to the places where water supply exist.

Water is a vital commodity to industries for process field stock (reacting raw materials) solvent compound and cooling process. It is distributed in many forms such as rain water, spring water, sea water and water.

 

1.1     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The oil industries along this river discharge their waste sample into the Aleasa river, this effluent posses environmental hazards when disposed by the industries into water bodies, thereby causing effect on the life of the people.

 

1.2     OBJECTIVE

The objective is to determine the nature of the pollutant and its quantitative concentration level.

 

1.4     LIMITATION

A detail study of this work should have been carried out, but to the following factors there is limitation in the work. The factors include: (a) finance (b) time (c) non-availability of equipment to carry out most of the test (d) chemical to be used in carrying out most of the test.

 

1.3     HYPOTHESIS

          It is assured that the rate of water borne diseases among the people living along this Aleasa River, is as a result of polluted water caused by effluents waste products from the industries.

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Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
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Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

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1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

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IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH TEA SPOILAGE OF SWEET POTATO TUBERS SOLD AT OGBETE MAIN MARKET IN ENUGU, ENUGU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA. ENUGU STATE

IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH TEA SPOILAGE OF SWEET POTATO TUBERS SOLD AT OGBETE MAIN MARKET IN ENUGU, ENUGU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA. ENUGU STATE

ABSTRACT

Spoilt sweet potato tuber samples bought from Ogbete Main Market Enugu were used for this study. After carrying out the practical, the result showed that a mixed flora of the spoilage of the potatoes examined. The fungi isolated were aspergillus spp, penicillum spp, rhizopus spp and mucor spp.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   MATERIAL AND METHOD

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   RESULTS

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

6.0   LIST OF REFERENCES

 

REFERENCES

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

Sweet potatoe (ipomoea batatas l) is root tuber crop belonging to the family conva valaceae. It is an energy rich carbohydrate food. It thrives very well in moderately warm climates. It requires a growing period of at least four months of warm weather. The crep is grown extensively in Nigeria especially in one of the major subsistence crops in Nigeria. According to Olake Suisi (2004) root and tubers refers to any grown plant that stores edible materials in the roots, corms or tubers.

 

The total world production exceeds 140 million metric tones grown on 16.6 million metric hectares with yields of 0.86 metric tones per hectares. Estimates, of annual world production are 133m tones. The largest producer of the crop is China. Other leading producing countries of the crop includes Japan, Taiwan, Indonesia, Korea, Brazil, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. Sweet potato is a root crop which is believed to have originated in Central America and was introduced to Africa probably at the end of 19th century. It is a tropical crop with China producing 85% of the world total while Africa accounts for just 5% (Awojobi 2004). The plant is now widely grown as an important staple food in a number of Africa countries including Burundi, Rwanda and Nigeria among others (Arojobi 2004).

 

Root and tuber crops are most important in Nigeria since they are major food crops and supply much of the carbohydrate requirement for normal health. The intensive hand operations which are needed to produce yams have made the growing of cassava and sweet potatoe more attractive to some farmers because of lesser labour they require for their growth.

 

A well recognized fact about this crop is that, it is an economical crop which provides a source of law cost energy to the human diet as compared to other root and tuber crops. Sweet potatoe are mainly used as food after, boiling, banking, roasting or trying and the leaves equally serve as vegetable. The fresh sweet potatoe contained 25.95% starch which is even low but falls within the range reported by Li et al (1994). There was a general decline in starch content with storage period and according ray and Ravi (2005) respiration and transpiration contribute to weight loss and alternation of internal and external appearance of the potatoes. Because starch is used as respiratory substrate, the starch content decrease storage and subsequently the dry matter also decrease.

 

In Nigeria, the vines form useful dry forage crop for ruminants and area of value for supplementary feeding during dry season. The leaves are edible and are eaten. They also serve as feeds for cattle, pigs and goats. They are good source of vitamins A and B. yellow and purple varieties is rich in carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid.

 

The appropriate composition of a mature tuber is water 50 – 80, percent, carbohydrate 10 – 40 percent, 1 – 25 percent, fat 2-6 percent, the sugar content varies 0.5 – 6 percent. The mineral constitutes are: calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, chlorine, sulphur and iron.

 

Various traditional method of sweet potato storage such as heap storage, plate form and pit storage method have been practiced in Nigeria and across African countries by farmers. Pit storage of sweet potato has been reported in Indonesia, Zimbabwe and Malawi by Woolfe (1992) and in Nigeria by Awojobi (2004). Pit storage can generally be considered to be cheap for the rural communities since it is less expensive.

 

In the face of the present food situation in Nigeria, one of the major obstacle to food production is that of storage. During harvesting seasons tubers crops are very much available at cheap prices but this availability is usually short lived due to storage problems. Tropical crops suffer tremendously due to inadequate storage practices. Sweet potato as crop suffer most and tuber crops. Nigeria farmers under their local practices have the problem of storing the tuber over a period of time after harvest. These problem are those originating from:

  • Attack by micro-organizing which gain entry through harvest bruises, insect and rodents their by causing rotting
  • Attack by rodents and arthropods especially insects
  • Weight loss due to high temperature which causes high rate of evaporation leading to high loss to water
  • Sprouting which renders the tubers unpalatable.

 

Report have shown that local farmers in Nigeria in the effort to minimum too much loss Nigeria in the effort to minimize too much loss of their harvested tubers practice the following methods of storage to check the problems they encounter

  • Storing in barns/sheds
  • Storing in soil pits
  • Storing in baskets or crates
  • Leaving the crop unharvested
  • Heaping on the floor in the room
  • Spreading/heaping on raised plate form.

 

 

THE AIM OF THIS WORK IS THEREFORE

  • To find out the micro-organisms associated with the spoilage of sweet potato tubers and the degree of damage they cause
  • To know the adequate condition necessary for the storage of sweet potato tubers in order to ensure good helping sweet potato tuber of desired quality.

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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

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USE OF COMPOSITE FLOUR BLENDS FOR BISCUIT MAKING (PEANUT/CASSAVA FLOUR)

USE OF COMPOSITE FLOUR BLENDS FOR

BISCUIT MAKING (PEANUT/CASSAVA FLOUR)

ABSTRACT

Digestive and gingerroot biscuits were produced from composite flour blends – cassava flour, peanut butter, wheat flour and ginger flavour in different ratio mix digestive biscuit – (50 : 50; 10 : 30 : 60 and 10 : 90 ), Ginger biscuit (10 : 25 : 60 : 5, 10 : 85 and 50 : 45 : 5) respectively. Creaming method was used in the production of biscuits with the specified ingredients. Proximate analysis of the products were also determined; moisture content (1.5 – 4.5%), protein content (0.5 – 1.8%), fat content (14 – 1%), protein content (17.50 – 23.9%) and carbohydrate content (51. 51 – 60. 20%). Cyanide content of the cassava flour was also determined using the method of FAO (1984) and was shown to have no toxicity effect: 14. 85mg/g against 150mg/g, lethal dose.

The protein content of the peanut enriched biscuits were observed to be high while product C ranked best in terms of mean score using seven points hedonic scale; eight being the highest and two the lowest.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

1.1       Statement of Problem

1.2       Objectives of the Study

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review

2.1       Cassava Origin

2.2       Nutritive Value

2.3       Chemical Composition

2.4       Limitations of Cassava

2.5       Peanut Original

2.6       Chemical Composition

2.7       Nutritive Value

2.8       Limitations of Peanut

2.9       Biscuits

  • Flours for Biscuit Production
  • Type of Biscuit and their

2.9.3    Nutritive Value of Biscuit

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Materials and Methods

3.1       Source of Raw Material

3.2       Method of Processing Cassava into flour

3.3       Method of Processing Peanut into Peanut Butter

3.4       Proximate Analysis of the Flours and Products

3.5       Manufacture of Biscuit Using Different Ratio Mix

3.6       Sensory Evaluation

3.7       Determination of Cyanide Content of Cassava

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Results / Discussion

4.1       Results

4.2       Discussions

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Conclusion and Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Biscuits are the major products produced by the biscuit and crackers industries. Flour confectionery describes a large range of flour based goods other than bread manufactured from batter sponge or dough by mixing, kneading and may be created by fermentation, chemical or other means resulting in puff/flaky short or sweet product. Those that have their moisture content reduced to make them exceptionally brittle or crops are generally regarded as biscuits. (Okaka, 1997)

The word biscuit come from the Latin word Biscuit meaning twice cooked, baking at high temperature followed by drying at lower temperature (Okaka, 1997). The term biscuit and cookie are synonymous. The American Encyclopedia described biscuit as a form of bread baking soda as a raising agent rather than yeast.

Biscuit are a common feature of southern us cousine which can be served as a side dish with meal or as a breakfast item. Biscuit is also said to be essentially bakery confectionery dried down to low moisture content name derived from Latin word for twice cooked, made from soft flour, mostly rich in fat and sugar and consequently of high energy content of 420 to 510kcal per 100g they are cherished by people of all ages and used at different meals and occasions as part of breakfast, snacks etc. they are eaten with butter and jam or jelly or as a part of a dish called “Biscuit and gravy”. Biscuits are also eaten covered in pizza sauce and cheese. Many varieties exist, both sweet and savoulry often produced in industrial quantities by large food companies. Sweet biscuit are commonly eaten as snack and may contain chocolate fruit, jam or nuts (peanuts). Savoury biscuits are plainer and commonly eaten with cheese following a meal

The simplest form of biscuit is a mixture of flour and water but may contain fat sugar and other ingredients mixed together into a dough which is rested for a period, passed between rollers to make a sheet. The sheet is then stamped out baked, cooled and packaged. Biscuits are generally made from wheat flour but according to the topic of this project, “use of composite blends for biscuit making”. Some raw materials other than wheat have to be used in producing the flour for the biscuits. In order to get a superior product especially for crackers, the following factors are of importance – choice of flour for sponge and dough, selection of fermentation environment and the baking conditions. It is therefore necessary to search for raw materials that give flour of light quality.

Biscuits are classified based on their degree of enrichment and processing or by the method adopted in shaping them. Based on the enrichment criterion are hard dough, soft dough and batter biscuit respectively. (Okaka; 1997). Soft wheat is used in making flour for most biscuit and the softness is de to lower protein (gluten) content when compared with the hard wheat. Based on this fact, raw materials are chosen from other legumes such as Peanut and Roots such as cassava. Since they contain protein though in lesser quantity and quality.

Peanuts are one of the leading agricultural crops of the world and belong to the family leguminous. It is a source of edible oil and plant protein. The characteristic feature of legume seed protein is that they are markedly deficient in methionine and tryptophan. Infact, methioine is t he first limiting essential amino acid in almost all the legume grains. Peanuts contain about 26% to 35% protein with the peanut meal containing a large amount of nutritionally essential amino – acid. The seeds are nutritional and contain vitamin E, Niacin, folacin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron, riboflavin, thiamine, potassium etc (Ogbo; 2002). Peanut also contain a significant load of  resveratrol, a strong antioxidant which inhibit lipid peroxidation of low – density lipoprotein (LOL), prevents the cytotoxicity of oxidized (LDL) and protects cells  against lipid peroxidation. Hydrophilic aid lipophilic properties, it can as well provide more effective protection than other well known antioxidations such as vitamin C and E.

Peanut is used for different purposes, food (raw, roasted or b oiled, cooking oil), animal feed and industrial raw material. There are four varieties of peanut:- Virginia, Peruvian runner, Valencia and Spanish.

Cassava, one of the raw materials is an indigenous and stable food of millions of Nigerian people. The few misconceptions related to cassava especially with regard to its low nutritional value and its toxicity have been effectively challenged by National ad International Research Institutions. National Institutions like University of Agriculture Umedike in Umuahia who have succeeded in producing many Tropical Manioc Selection (TMS) varieties with an added advantage of low cyanide.

Despite the obvious advantages of cassava like being easily propagated by stem cutting. Relatively high yielder and excellent source of calories, cassava remained for some time a neglected crop in agricultural research and development activities to an extent not commensurate with its importance as food. However, some developments within the past 15 years have enhanced interest in the crop and research priority has been given to research on its improvement, increased production and utilization.

First, the International Society for Tropical Root and Tubers Crops was founded in 1967 to encourage research, increased production and utilization and exchange of information on tropical root and tuber crops including cassava yams, sweet potatoes and avoids. Second, among the International Institutions (International Institute for Tropical Agriculture – IITA – in Nigeria, and he International Centre for Tropical Agriculture – CIAT in Colombia) that have programmes giving high priority to research on the improvement, production systems, storage and utilization of cassava and other related training.  Roots and Tubers Expansion Programme (RTEP was also put in place to develop and source for alternative uses of cassava as industrial raw material and create enabling market environment. High Quality unfermented flour”, including fortified cassava flours are now more accessible because of the improved processing and technological methods for processing cassava. These technologies can be used to produce particle / whole substitute for wheat flour from 540 100 percent in bakery and confectionery products such as biscuit, chin-chin etc. and some of these snacks have no noticeable change in texture, flavour, aroma nor colour.

The cassava flour is fortified with peanut butter in this project because of its high protein content, vitamins like vitamin E, which is a powerful antioxidant. The manufacture of good biscuit therefore depends mostly on the selection of correct flour for each type ad applying processed which are compatible such processes a re mixing, accretion and fermentation, laminating, baking and cooling (Okaka, 1997:- p. 155).

 

1.2       AIM / PURPOSE

As everybody including the federal government is putting effort together to induce foreign exchange conservation by means of local material utilization. It has been decided to carryout some work on cassava and peanut blend in order to use them as substitute for imported wheat in making flours for biscuit manufacture. Peanut butter is also added to complement the necessary amino acids.

The result of research carried out and test conducted by Roots and Tubers Expansion Programme show that it is possible to produce acceptable biscuits of comparable standard to that of wheat flour biscuits using composite flours from the above named legume and Roots.

Wheat whose flour is the major material used for biscuit manufactures in most countries of the world traditionally employ wheat for biscuits and similar products. Although wheat flour is generally employed as the basic ingredients in biscuit manufacture. Wheat is uniformly grown all over the world and being a temperature crop, it only grows under certain climatic conditions. Consequently, biscuit manufacture industries in countries where wheat does not grow have to import the grain or the flour.

In countries, Nigeria, to be precise, wheat is cultivated though not in appreciable quantity due to climate conditions, a large sum of foreign exchange is spent on importation especially with the present rate of growth of biscuit and allied industries in Nigeria (Federal Office of Statistics, Lagos Nigeria). There are a lot of industries (confectionery) although the date is not yet readily available, all based on wheat flour. Foreign exchange spend as at 1982 are huge amount of money. Therefore success in this trend of supplementation will save a huge sum of money being spend annually on wheat importation and could now be utilized to improve other sector of the country’s economy.

The aim of this project work therefore is to reduce or stop totally the extensive importation of wheat, thereby broaden the food base of Nigerians. The commercial and industrial implication will bring economic benefits to all biscuit consumers by making the product more readily available. Supplementation of imported wheat flour with cassava flour will save millions of naira in foreign exchange.

It is also estimated that the use of these composite blends (cassava flour and peanut butter) will result in the production of biscuits that are less expensive and highly nutritive than those produced before.

It will also create new employment opportunities as well as economic self-reliance both at the industrial and house – hold level of cassava processors.

 

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE