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Estate management project material samples

THE APPRAISAL OF THE EFFECT OF PROPERTY MANAGEMENT ON PROPERTY VALUE. (A Case study of commercial properties in Awka)

THE APPRAISAL OF THE EFFECT OF PROPERTY MANAGEMENT ON PROPERTY VALUE.

(A Case study of commercial properties in Awka)

Chapter One

  • Introduction
    • Background of study
    • Statement of the problem
    • Objectives of the study
    • Significance of the study
    • Scope of the study
    • Limitations of the study

 

 

 

Chapter Two

  • Literature Review
    • Meaning/Concepts of property
    • Meaning of Management
    • Concepts/Meaning of property management
    • Concepts of value
    • Rental values of commercial properties
  • Shops
  • Offices
    • Landed properties and management
    • Types of landed properties
    • Characteristics of landed property investment
    • Factors affecting property values
    • Methods of determining value
    • Obsolescence (concepts)
    • Problems of public property management in Nigeria

 

Chapter Three

  • Research Methodology
    • Sources of data
    • Data collection method

Chapter Four

  • Data presentation and Analysis

Chapter Five

  • Findings, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1     Finding generally

  • Recommendations
  • Conclusion

 

 

 

 

 

SYNOPSIS

The principal objective of property management is to maintain a property in a state to command the greatest possible net return and to protect the owner’s capital investment at all times, one unique feature of commercial properties is that they are of multiple occupation. Considering the huge capital investment in their construction, it is prudent that their efficient management should be of paramount importance. As with all forms of public properties, the management of commercial properties present peculiar problems that demand  their own solutions.

The study therefore, seeks to appraise  the effect of property management  on property value using commercial properties in Awka as a case study.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The issue of property management has persisted in the Nigeria society for quite sometime. Property management is the art and science of real estate with respect to it’s development, maintenance, cash flow from users and occupiers in order to achieve optimum benefits for the owner and all parties interested in the property within the ambit of relevant laws.

It is observed that for many years. most properties have lacked proper management due to absence of qualified property managers who are professionally equipped to handle property management.

Many property owners (Landlords) do not usually engage the services of estate surveyors and valuers. They appoint “caretakers” to look after or take care of their properties. These caretakers in turn have limited powers as they can only collect rent from tenants and engage in minor repairs of the properties. Moreover, they are mostly laymen and not trained in estate management. This has affected the value of some properties in the market.

Therefore, the ability of a property to yield highest returns and posses a long physical and economic life depends on good property management. Good property management has transcended ordinary maintenance of property based on tenant’s complaints and graduated into purposeful planning of building services and efficient accounting system with due regard to the legal, economic and social interests of the tenants and Landlord alike.

If we look around and study some of the multi-storey and public properties in some of our state capitals, most especially Awka, one can easily distinguish between the well managed and the neglected ones.

Proper management of our landed properties is as important as the construction of these properties and it is vital to the economics, historical, social and cultural development of our nation and it should be accorded its due importance both privately and publicly.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Property developers as well as governments all over the world especially in developing countries embark on the development of properties. Although these properties were approved by the town planning authorities, they present physical, economical, environmental, financial and social problems.

Physically, the property becomes a source of discomfort to occupants due to wear and tear of the physical structure of the property. Any person looking for accommodation for residence or business may not like to take up the property that is old or lacked maintenance.

Economically, the property does not generate income as it used to when it was newly  constructed.

Environmentally, these properties contribute to the  degradation of the  environment.  They also pose a threat to people’s life as they can collapse and kill the occupants.

The  social effect borders mainly on the property driving away high standard  people. It was observed that these properties have turned out to become properties of low standard. All these result  from poor management and  lack of maintenance.

 

  • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
  • To ensure that the property is kept in a good state of repairs through regular maintenance within the estate.
  • To ensure that all those management tools such as letting, maintenance schedule, rent collection etc are properly articulated.
  • To elongate the economic life or useful life of a property through  activities which tend to remove physical, economic and functional obsolescence.
  • To identity the well managed and neglected  properties in the study area with a view to  comparing their levels of income as well as state of maintenance.
  • To proffer necessary measures that should be taken in remedying the identified anomalies in poorly managed properties.

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of this study will no  doubt be  of immense benefit to several state holders and interest groups in the real estate development industry.

This study will also be particularly significant to the entire society, the Anambra state government and inhabitants, as it will come out with remedial measures towards the eradication of improper management of landed properties which does no one any good.

In addition, it will be of great benefit to professionals in the building industry, real property investors, occupiers, scholarly future researcher in related areas, policy and law makers, students and a host.

 

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the work is limited only to commercial properties in Awka. The metropolis in question has over the years witnessed poor management of landed properties owned by both private and public bodies due to the ignorance of property owners.

Work has however been limited to the appraisal of the effect of property management on the value of commercial properties.

 

  • LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

It is a fact that nothing is foolproof on earth. This position was equally the case with this study, firstly, there was the problem of logistic. Our people are known to have very poor research culture.

This was manifested in the cold attitude which some people approached for information showed and  their  unwillingness to fill the  questionnaire given to them.

Time constraint was experienced, as there was not enough time to carryout more research on this work.

Some people were not convinced about the objective of this study and so they held back certain vital information for obvious reasons known only by them. Financially difficulty also created hindrance as funds for transportation to source materials and fill the questionnaire posed a great problem.

All the same, the study has been carefully conducted for one to have a good insight into the subject matter.

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THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LGA, ENUGU STATE

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PROBLEMS OF PROPERTY MANAGEMENT AND SOLUTIONS

PROBLEMS OF PROPERTY MANAGEMENT AND SOLUTIONS

PROBLEMS OF PROPERTY MANAGEMENT AND SOLUTIONS

Property management is a vital aspect of read estate profession. To a non professional estate agent property management entails only vent collection and receiving of fee, but there are other aspects of it which intake the expertise of a professional Estate agent to task. These include selecting the right type of tenant for a particular property arrangement and execution of leases, advising on insurance policy and rating assessment and ensuring that they are settled regularly, defining maintenance obligation of both the land lord and the tenant.

Beside all these, there are so many problem associated with property management which ranges form attitude of the land lord inflation, political and economic factors, particular circumstance of individuals properties etc.

This study will therefore examine these problems and  proffer solutions.

Proffer Solution: It is the responsibility of the manger to ensure that the defects are properly repaired. In a situation where the management agent is responsible for maintenance of the property, the agent must be very prudent with maintenance cost, and ensure that client receive good value of their money. If it is multiple occupied properties, the manager will or have to introduces the service charge approach for maintenance work.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Synopsis

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction
  • Objective of Study
  • Scope
  • Study Methodology
  • Definition of Property Management
  • Property Management Approach

 

CHAPTER TWO

Functions of property management

  • Preparation and Interpretation of Lease
  • Advising and Arrangement of Insurance Transaction
  • General and Routine Maintenance of Property
  • Rent collection
  • Action Under Lease
  • Multiple Ownership
  • Property Counseling

 

CHAPTER THREE

Problems of property management

  • Location and Design
  • Lease Agreement
  • Rent Collection and Renewal
  • Disagreement Over Utility Bills
  • Maintenance and Repairs
  • Uncooperative Attitude of some Land Lord

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Case study

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary of findings
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

  • INTRODUCTION

Property management to a non – Professional Estate agent entails mere collection rent.

Real property management goes beyond mere collection of rent. A property manger gets involved with managerial problem solving and decision making. He also performs several activities and tasks involving planning, organising, directing and controlling with respect to the portfolio of real estate assets being managed on behalf of his clients.

This is important since one of the features of real property that distinguishes it from other investment media is its requirement to be managed.

Because of the increasing pace of technological development or innovations resulting particularly in the construction of high rise and high technological structures in our cities, there is need for a trained manager who is able to cope effectively and efficiently with management problems arising from the latter.

Multi – tenanted properties such as office blocks and residential houses present the greatest management challenge to the surveyor.

The author’s experience of non-challant attitude of a good number of property investors regarding the management of the property prompted the choice of this topic

 

1.2     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 

The study will examine the problems of property management, and proffer solutions towards rectifying these problems

 

1.3     SCOPE

This project will be limited to a few selected property in Abuja metropole, which includes.

  1. Shelter House
  2. Alaji M.D. shitus property on Plot 801 Malumfashi Close Area 11, Gariki Abuja
  3. O.C. Enterprises property in Karmo, Abuja
  4. Nwankwo’s property on Plot 118 Tunis Street Zone 6 Wuse, Abuja

 

 

1.4     STUDY METHODOLOGY

This study is based on data collected by the following methods

  1. Primary method
  2. Secondary method

Primary Method:          Primary data collection involves the distribution of questionnaires among some practicing Estate surveyor value’s as well as some land lords.

It involves the personal interview of professional.

Secondary Method:      Secondary data are those collected from previously published works (e.g.) Journals, newspapers, magazines etc.

 

1.5     DEFINTIION OF PROPERTY MANAGEMENT

Michael Thorncraft defined property management as the direction and  supervision of an interest in landed property with the aim of securing the optimum return. This return, which may not always be financial may also be in the form of social benefit, status, prestige, political strength etc.

John P. Macey and  Charles Baker defined property management as the application of skill in caring for property. Its surrounding and amenities, and in developing a sound relationship between tenants themselves, in order that the Estate, as well as t he individual house may give the fullest value to both the land lord and the tenants, from the land lords point of view it is desirable that the property should be efficiently and economically maintained and managed as much as possible, while from the tenants point of view, the house should provide a home, the focal point of full and happy life for the family.

 

1.6     PROPERTY MANAGEMENT APPROACH

There are two types of property management approaches used in this study.

  • Active management approach
  • Passive management approach

Active management approach: This type of management encompasses both long term and short time strategies. This involves constant attempt by the property manager is involved in all issues concerning improvement maintenance, repairs, conversion, extension, of e property etc. The advantage of this system of management is that it enables the property manager to be aware of all problems concerning the property. Since his attention is required at any time matters regarding the property comes up. This provides him with an opportunity to asses the state of the property and determine all necessary actions needed t obtain maximum return.

It also makes it possible for the manger to detect defects, and remedy them at an early stage to prevent it from degenerating into a more complex one, there by prolonging the life of the property.
Passive Management Approach

This is a system of management where the manager takes little or no part in the management of the property.

This approach has a disadvantage especially in a situation where the tenant exhibits a non – chalalant attitude towards the maintenance of he property, the property manager may also loose grip of what goes on in ht e property and may discover the damage done to the property when it is already later and require more funds to undertake repairs.

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THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LGA, ENUGU STATE

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
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First Bank:
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Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

Note:  We accept bank transfer, ATM cash transfer , Online payment using your ATM , Western union bank transfer.  We will respond to you anytime of the day. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 1 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RENTAL VARIATION IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF OGUI NEW LAYOUT ENUGU)

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RENTAL VARIATION IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA

(A CASE STUDY OF OGUI NEW LAYOUT ENUGU)

ABSTRACT

 

This research has investigated in to a comparative analysis of rental variation in residential and commercial properties in Ogui New Layout, Enugu Nigeria.

The researcher used both questionnaires, interview and self observation as method of data collection. The data was collected among some landlords, Estate agents of the selected properties.

The data collected was analyzed based on interpretation and conclusion made.

Chapter one treats the introduction of the project work, chapter two Literature Review, chapter three. Research methodology, chapter four data presentation, analysis and interpretation and chapter five finding, recommendation and conclusion.

Finally, rental variation in commercial and residential properties have been discovered to be influenced by certain factors affecting the rents passing on these properties.

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

1.1     Background of the Study

  • Statement of Problem
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Significance of Study
  • Scope of the Study
  • Limitation of the Study


CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Review

2.1     Property

  • What is Property?
  • Meaning of Property for Appraisal
  • Nature of Property
  • Classification Property for Valuation Purpose
  • Economic of Rent
  • Theory of Rent
  • Concepts of Rent
  • Determinate of Rent
  • Commercial Properties and Rents
  • Residential Properties
  • Definition of Relevant Terms


CHAPTER THREE

  • Research Methodology

3.1     Sources of Data

  • Primary Data
  • Secondary Data
  • Study Population and Sample

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data Presentation, Analysis and Introduction

4.1     Presentation of Basic Data

  • Presentation and Analysis of Data
  • The Average Rent in N/M2 on Commercial and Residential Properties

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Findings, Recommendation and Conclusions

5.1     Finding

  • Recommendation
  • Conclusion

Bibliography

Appendix

List of Figures/Tables

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Shelter is a basic necessity in life. An individual can satisfy this need by either occupying his own (owner’s occupier) property or renting another persons property. In our traditional society, the need for shelter is mainly met through the first alternative, that is owner occupation. With the emergency of urban centres, the situation has changed. Many people are no longer about to own property because of the difficulty in the acquisition of land and the high cost of building construction. Therefore, they are left with the alternative of renting other people’s properties in order to satisfy their need for shelter. Consequently two classes of urban resident have emerged, the landlord and the tenant under this arrangement the tenant pays to the landlord a certain amount of money in consideration for his use of the landlord’s house. This amount is popularly known as rent.

During the civil war the Nigeria that is 1966 to 1970 many landed properties in the urban areas of the former Eastern Region of Nigeria, including Enugu, were destroyed. Consequently, there was a sharp decline in the supply of landed properties after the war. Furthermore, the post – civil war period witnessed an unprecedented number of the rural population trooping into the urban centres due to the conspicuous prosperity brought about in the urban area by the oil boom. This resulted to high demand for the existing limited supply of landed properties. Consequent upon these, rent for landed properties increased considerably.

This trend has continued with the effect that “the average worker is paying between 30% to 40% of his salary as rent ” (Oshadiya, 1985). Thus the increase in rents on the properties has led to the variation of rent on properties.

In urban area due to location advantage (for example prime location) which some properties offer above others for commercial and residential uses, rent tend to very on account of the type of use which a property can offer.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Location of economic properties has been a difficult concept to understand. Although the primary objective of commercial properties is the derivation of financial gains, while that of residential properties is for habitation, shelter and comfort, the demand for land is a refection of the profitability or utility derivable from it use. The greater the benefit to be obtained from a particular use, the higher the rent that the user will be willing to pay for it.

There appear to be wide ranging differences in the levels of rent passing on residential and commercial properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.

This research is seeking among other things to find out the causes of rental variation in commercial and residential properties in Nigeria, Ogui New Layout as a case study.

 

1.3     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main purpose of this research is to examine the reasons for rental variation in commercial and residential properties with a view to provide tool to be used in catching issues related to rent on these properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.

In order to achieve the standard goals, the following objective are to be undertaken;

  1. To identify the current level of rents for commercial and residential properties in the study area.
  2. To ascertain and examine the factors influencing the rents being commanded by these properties.
  • To specify the implications of rental variation on decisions to acquire those properties.
  1. To determine the trend in rental values for residential and commercial properties in the study area.

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The finding of this study will be of benefit to the following;

Firstly, tenants who are charged rents based on different reasons, especially when the properties are of the same nature (physically). This will again enable the investors not only to understand how occupier thinks, but also why and the things they consider before acquiring properties for certain uses. For example residential and commercial use.

Secondly, the generality of the public can now understand the reason why the rents being commanded by these properties have to differ.

Lastly, this research work will help to determine the factors influencing, commercial and residential properties which is an essential pre-requisite to successful development as well as stimulating interest in the students to carryout out further research on the topic.

 

1.5     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study covers a period of three years (2002 to 2004) and it is restricted to selected properties (Residential and commercial) comprising blocks of flat and tenements in Ogui New Layout, Enugu.

 

1.6     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Expectedly, this work met with some hindrances during the stage of data collection. The issue of rent passing on a property (residential or commercial) is usually regarded as classified information, which is not easily disclosed to people particularly researchers. This was largely suspected to be the reason why some Estate surveyors, property owners, tenants, Estate firms, property companies and even Estate agents who where approached through oral interviews, discussions and visitations found it rather difficult to reveal essential information despite every explanation that the exercise is strictly for academic purposes, a good number of them, still nursed the fear that it may be for property rating and taxation purposes. There was also the problem of logistics occasioned by the society. The researcher worked with a very light  budget throughout the period of study as the frequent and repeated visits to relevant persons and offices entailed quite some money. Moreover, also recall that some of the interview respondents were not co-operative as they kept on playing to the gallery as a means of avoiding supplying the required information. On a general not however, the researcher ensured that these bottle – necks never affected the findings of this study since the success far outweighed the hindrances as enumerated.

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THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LGA, ENUGU STATE

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
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Account Name : Host Link Global Services Ltd
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0138924237
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

Note:  We accept bank transfer, ATM cash transfer , Online payment using your ATM , Western union bank transfer.  We will respond to you anytime of the day. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 1 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

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EXAMINATION OF THE ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANK IN HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF PORTHARCOURT METROPOLIS RIVER STATE)

EXAMINATION OF THE ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANK IN HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

(A CASE STUDY OF PORTHARCOURT METROPOLIS RIVER STATE)

ABSTRACT

 

The aim of the projects is to examine and evaluate the possible effect encountered in housing development in Nigeria. The problem has come to a point that the state private corporation and individual should seat and finance housing developments and problems of housing finance. The possible effect encountered in housing development assisted by the commercial bank in   portharcourt metropolis. This property counts on the physical, social, economic values derived from it. And as well highlights some ways and amendments. It is well entails those project supervised by the commercial banks such as florda estate, choba estate, portharcourt state international/ conference centre. The researcher has taken pains to look into the commercial bank in portharcourt metropolis and the entire study concerning of source of finance and problems of housing estate finance. The commercial banks in housing development in River State, portharcourt metropolis was discussed under chapter five (5) chapter one is the introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, aims and objective, re search question, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study, overview of  the study. Chapter two concentrates in review of related literature on the subject. While chapter three deals on the description of the study area to achieve these methodology employed by the author under primary collected information. In the field survey includes observation, interview use of questionnaire, secondary data collection where applied, the characteristics of the data collection technique. The analysis use was yaro yamanes fourmulars of observation, chapter four shows the questionnaire distribution by the Estate surveyor and real estate investors, staff of the commercial banks, civil servants. Summary of the findings, major recommendations and conclusion are made in chapter five.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION                                                       1

1.1   Background of the Study                                         1

1.2   Statement of the Problem                                        2

1.3   Aim and Objective                                                    3

1.4   Research Question                                                   4

1.5   Significance of the Study                                         5

1.6   Scope of the Study                                                   6

1.7   Limitation of the Study                                            6

1.8   Overview of the Study                                              7

1.9   Definition of Terms                                                  7

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW                                             9

2.1   Introduction                                                             9

2.2   Definition of Commercial Bank                                        10

2.3   Function of Commercial Bank                                 12

2.4   Development of the Commercial Bank                     12

2.5   Commercial Bank Create Credit or Money                       13

2.6   Establishment and Organization of

Commercial Banks                                                  16

2.7   Housing Development Estate Finance Problems      17

2.8   The Concept of Housing Development by

Commercial bank                                                    19

2.9   Mode of housing development and

application by commercial bank                              20

2.10 Function which commercial bank play in

housing development in Nigeria                                       22

2.11 Development of housing                                          23

2.12 Definition of housing                                                       25

2.13 Force affecting housing development                               29

2.14 Activity system and Nigeria house use                     29

2.15 Nigeria house and the economic value                     30

2.16 Housing use situation                                              31

2.17 Various house use in portharcourt metropolis                 32

2.18 Various housing development assisted by

commercial bank                                                     33

2.19 Housing estate as an investment                             34

2.20 Summary of review literature                                   40

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN             43

3.1   Research design                                                       43

3.2   Brief description of study area                                 44

3.3   Population of the study                                            45

3.4   Sample size and sampling techniques                     46

3.5   Source of data                                                          47

3.6   Instrument of data collection                                   48

3.7   Method of data presentation and analysis                       49

3.8   Method of data presentation and analysis               49

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS                    50

4.1   Introduction                                                             50

4.2   Presentation of data base                                         50

4.3   Presentation data according to research

question and questionnaire                                     52

4.4   Data analysis                                                           52

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS

AND CONCLUSION                                                  53

5.1   Summary of findings                                                       53

5.2   Recommendations                                                   54

5.3   Conclusion                                                              57

 

Reference                                                                 58

Appendix                                                                 60

Questionnaire                                                          61

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Right from time, food, clothing and shelter, have been the three most basic requirement of man, of all these three requirement food and clothing the two, which influences man’s  life more than the house in which he seeks shelter, security comfort and dignity .it is infact where man  starts and ends his daily activities.

 

Housing is mainly the most important factors which determine the nature and form of urban settlements and the quality of human existence directly related to it.

 

Housing is defined by Oyeyi P.O. (1980) to mean the provision of any form of structure, erection of building which is man made for the purpose of accommodating a person or person. By this definitions it mean’s that housing means shelters definition appears defective as it ignores all those infrastructural facilities which housing bring along with it. The world  health organization committee housing, defines housing as the physical structure for shelter including equipment and devices, utilities and sources like electricity, water, supply, good access roads sewage and refuse dump facilities.

 

Moreover, portharcourt metropolis has been the administrative centre for the eastern region, portharcourt metropolis is occupied mainly by government workers with low income. This position makes it difficult for them to afford the high cost of developing housing estate for their uses. They therefore resort to borrowing from both formal and informal sources in other to find money for housing development.Thi above series gave rise to this study.

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Housing estate is a fundamental and essential feature in the urban environment. Adequate provision of housing e state have a great deal of positive impact on both the economic and social lie of the urban citizen and it’s inadequately has the reverse effect. The shortage of housing estate is one of the major problems facing the urban centre especially in the developing countries. This, real estate development involves large amount of money which is usually not within the capability of most urban dwellers particularly the medium and low income groups, the rate of housing estate construction often tend to be small and generally depends on financial resources.

 

This situation of financial scarcity is made worse by the rigid attitude of commercial banks toward lending housing dev elopement, their system of granting loan make it very difficult for the medium and low income groups to benefit from the available facility the bulk of the mortgage loans go the upper class. Those problems lead to this study.

 

1.3   AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

The objective of this study is to examine the role of commercial banks in financial housing development with a particular reference to portharcourt metropolis.

The following objective were to persuade to achieve the above aim.

  • To identify various area where commercial banks assets in housing development in the study area
  • To determine the various housing developments assisted by commercial banks in  the study area
  • To examine the role of the commercial banks in housing development and the extent they have performed these role in portharcourt metropolis.
  • To examine the factors affecting commercial banks in performing their roles in housing development in the study.

 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In what area have the commercial banks assisted in housing development in portharcourt metropolis?

How many housing development have the commercial banks assisted in providing in port-Harcourt metropolis?

What is the role of commercial banks in housing development and to what extent here they performed these roles in portharcourt metropolis?

What are the factors that affect the commercial banks in performing their roles in housing development in portharcourt metropolis.

 

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

A study on housing estate finance is very financial of housing estate finance is valuable and could be utilized to achieve academic objectives. It can enlighten both the government students and researchers on the importance on housing estate finance. The general result obtained form this study is educative, informative and broaden the awareness of the public on current source of housing estate finance in the estate.

 

Estate surveyors and values could apply the result of this research work in their future housing restate finance planning and their advisory role to the public. The study would be utilized in making new housing estate policies and ensuring their policy that does not place priority on source of finance would ever remain incomplete. It will also source as a basic for the allocation of finance for housing estate programmed.

 

1.6   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study centre on the role of commercial banks in housing development in Nigeria using portharcourt metropolis River state as a case study.

 

Portharcourt metropolis is chosen as a case study because it seems to be the only area in River State that seems to take housing development seriously.  Hence they have more commercial banks, real estate investors, Estate surveyors and valued, civil servants in porthacourt metropolis.

 

1.7   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The limitation to this research work is t he constraints as the constraints as the combination of heavy academic work together will   trips to different places concerning the area of study  is quite challenging and take a lot of time in the course of gathering information.

 

1.8   OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY

This research work is divided into five (5) chapters to ensure that right level of success is attained.

Chapter one centered on the introduction background aim/objective scope, significance, limitation and overview of the study.

Chapter two shows a review of related literature.

Chapter three and four show the research design and methodology and data presentation and analysis respectively.

Finally, chapter five is a review of this summary of finding, recommendation and conclusion.

 

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Banks: This is a place to which both monetary and non-monetary inputs are kept for safety to ensure future use when needed.

Housing: Can be described as a house or shelter together with the surrounding environment, the surrounding environment of a house is made up of road, drainage, electricity, water supply and open space.

 

Development: The term development is mostly applied in relation of land values and estate surveyor. According to Godaro (19) development implies the multi-dimensional process involving changes in structures attitude and institutions as well as  the acceleration of economic growth, the education of inequality and eradication of absolute property.

 

Development on the other hand has much definition. The British town and country planning. Act of 1949 defines “development” inspection 12 subsection 2 as the carrying out of building engineering mining of other operation in, or, under land or the making of any building.

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THE PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ENUGU METROPOLIS A CASE STUDY IN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY (I.M.T) CAMPUS III ENUGU

THE PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE

MANAGEMENT IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

A CASE STUDY IN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY (I.M.T) CAMPUS III ENUGU

Abstract

 

This research work is aim at examining the practices and problems solid waste management with particular reference to IMT Campus III.

The research choose the random sampling Technique based on the population concentration from three (3) location within  the study area.

The data obtained were analysed using percentage statistics method. From the analysis of data and discussion the practices in the use include open dumps and open burning which indicate poor management.

To ensure proper management the researcher recommended that government should device new and appropriate strategies in solid waste management that involves on the spot separation for possible recycling, through supervision of authorities involved in the waste management and grass roof campaign to ensure strict adherence to the rules guiding waste management. With the above recommendation waste and the health implication of improper management becomes a thing of the past.

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Research Question I
  • Hypothesis
  • Significance of the Study
  • Scope of the Study
  • Limitation of the Study

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Review
    • Concept of Solid Waste
    • Source and Types of Solid Waste
    • Waste Minimization and Treatment
  • Solid Waste Management Practices
  • Resources Recovery
  • Disposal Techniques

 

CHAPTER THREE:    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Introduction
  • Research Design
  • Population Sample
  • Refused Site Selection
  • Sources of Data
  • Instrument for Data Collection
  • Validity and Reliability of Instrument
  • Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Analysis of Management and Fiscal Problems of Waste Management
  • Solutions to Above Problems

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Discussion and Findings
  • Implications for Environmental Management
  • Recommendation
  • Conclusions

Bibliography

 

 

 

 

 


Chapter one

 

Introduction

Background of the study

Refuse generation started with the history of man and gained more attention when man began to live in communities. During the 1st century with industrial revolution rapid population growth in the develop world and the volume of waste produce was relatively small. Today in developing nations, like, Nigeria, solid waste accumulate in every city causing serious health and environmental hazard.

The practice of dumping waste on streets, roads, streets and unapproved sites lead to breeding to rats, flies and out break of plagues as well as ecological impacts, such as water and air pollution. This is because the capacity of nature to dilute, disperse or absorb or dispose of its unwanted residues in the atmosphere, water way and land is limited. It is against this background that the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) was established in 1988 manage and protect the environment. The decree establishing the agency also provided for the establishment of State Environment Protection Agencies (SEPA) in all the States of Federation.

However, the prevailing economic condition in the country coupled with negative attitude of the citizens made it difficult for proper solid waste management and environmental protection solid waste consists of biodegradable (that is substance that can be broken down by bacteria) and non biodegradable (that is substance that cannot be broken by bacteria) materials and these are usually deposited at refuse dumps and other unapproved sites. They pile up in heaps blocking road and drainage, road, network thereby consisting environmental hazards. The inhabitants of the neighborhood sometimes set the heaps of refuse ablaze in an attempt to reduce the size. This practice further deteriorate the environment since people are exposed to danger of air pollution.

 

 

 

 

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Changes in Technology brings about changes in the consumption habit of the citizenry and therefore the composition of waste materials.

Thus a lot of non-biodegradable waste (that is substance that cannot be broken by bacteria) are generated and since non-biodegradable are not easily absorbed or diluted naturally such waste accumulate in heaps along major streets. The stinking odour and blackish liquid effluence emanating from such heaps especially during the rainy season constitute environmental hazards and degrade the aesthetic values of our environment.

They as well encourage breeding of mosquitoes and communicable diseases. Therefore the rate of generation of solid waste is not matched with the rate of evacuation as a result of problems ranging from lack of funds and professional experience staffs of bureaucracy and redtapism.

 

  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to
  • To determine the composition of solid waste in campus III
  • To examine the different management strategies being adopted in solid waste management by the institution as well as ENSEPA. Enugu State environmental Protection Agencies.
  • To identify problem militating against solid waste management in campus III IMT Enugu Institute of Management and Technology.
  • To suggest appropriate and effective measures that will ensure efficient solid waste management in campus III IMT Institute of Management and Technology Enugu.

 

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In an attempt to identify the approaches and problems of solid waste management in campus III IMT with a view of finding appropriate management strategies, the following research questions were formulated:

  • What are the major components of solid waste generated in campus III IMT.
  • To what extent does the composition of waste influence the management practices?
  • What are the reasons for the inadequate as well as inefficient collection and disposal of solid waste by (ENSEPA).
  • What measure are likely to improve the existing situation constraints or management techniques.
  • What is the level of public awareness of poor solid waste management.

 

  • HYPOTHESIS

In order to ascertain the opinion of the public on the major constraints of solid waste management in. campus III IMT the following hypothesis are formulated.

 

Null Hypothesis

HO     The opinion of ENSEPA staff and the general public indicate and lack of management personnel that militate against proper solid waste management in campus III IMT.

Alternative Hypothesis

Hi      The opinion of (ENSEPA) staff and the general public indicate that it is the problem of equipment, fund and lack of management personnel that militate against proper solid waste management in campus III IMT.

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The finding of this study will be of great significance to both the students and staff and indeed, every body that has a stake in the affairs and proceedings in IMT campus III.

This is because the recommendation of this study will prefer sustainable solid waste management strategies. Moreover, the study will go along ways in revealing to industrialists, the practical ways to minimize waste recycling.

Finally, the out come of this research will be an asset to environmental researcher and planners for effective planning and management of solid waste.

 

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The consequences and various types of waste are of global significance but the research decided to limit the study to.

  • The nature of solid waste generation and problems in campus III IMT Enugu.
  • Testing the level of awareness and review of the activities of the (ENSEPA) in solving the problem of solid waste in campus III.
  • The possible measures to improve the management techniques in the area.

 

  • LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study is constrained by limited time and financial resources. Other limitation includes lack of immediate reply to, the research questionnaire, but all these were soon overcome with perseverance.

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