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The role of financial institutions in agricultural development (1990-2015)

The role of financial institutions in agricultural development (1990-2015)

a case study of nigeria

 

Table of Contents

Chapter one

Introduction

1.1background to the study.                                                                                       2

1.2 statement of research problem.                                                                            2

1.3 research questions                                                                                                3

1.4 objectives of a study.                                                                                           3

1.5 statement of the research hypothesis.                                                                  3

1.6 scope of a study.                                                                                                   4

1.7 significance of a study                                                                                         4

1.8 limitation of the study.                                                                                         5

1.9 definition of terms                                                                                               5

Chapter two

Literature review

2.1 theoretical background.                                                                                        7

2.3 agricultural credit policies                                                                                   9

  • Bank credit for agricultural development. 11

2.5 the role of parastatals in the development of agriculture in nigeria.                  11

2.6 commercial agriculture credit scheme (cacs)                                                     13

2.7 bank of agriculture limited (boa).                                                                               16

2.8 assessment of banking industries development of agriculture ,future expectation.            17

2.9 extension research and rural development strategies in aid of agricultural.            20

2.10 importance of credit facilities in agriculture                                                           21

2.11 constraints of the nigerian agricultural sector                                                          21

 chapter three

Research methodology

3.1 introduction                                                                                                                23

3.2 research design                                                                                                           23

3.3 population of the study                                                                                              23

3.4 sampling design                                                                                                         23

3.5 methods of data collection                                                                                        23

3.6 method of data analysis                                                                                            24

3.7 sources of data.                                                                                                          24

chapter four

Data presentation and analysis

4.1 introduction                                                                                                                25

4.2 educational level of respondents                                                                              25

4.3 level of operation                                                                                         26

4.4 the analysis of roles of financial institution in agricultural development            26

4.5 test of hypothes                                                                                                        31

 chapter five

Summary of finding, conclusion and recommendation.

5.1 summary of findings                                                                                            37

5.2 conclusion                                                                                                38

5.3 recommendations                                                                                                 39

References                                                                                                     43

Appendix                                                                                                                    45

Abstract

This study examined the role of financial institutions in agricultural development.( A case study of Nigeria Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank) with a view to make useful suggestions and recommendations as way of enhancing the development of agricultural sector. The population of the study includes large and small scale farmers and the sampling method adopted for the study is the stratified random sampling in order to ensure adequate representation of the population. In order to achieve the objective of making useful suggestions that would improve the agricultural sector, a number of hypotheses were made and tested. Samples of one hundred and eighty responses were collected and analyzed using the chi-square (ײ).It was discovered that bank credit loan scheme is making some impacts in lending loans to farmers. The result also showed that farmers prefer informal to the formal sources of finance mostly because of the demand of formal institutions that farmers most present collateral security. Finally, the study also indicated that the problems facing agricultural financing.

                                 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the study.

Nigeria is endowed with natural resources, large fertile arable land, wide range of crops, and abundant water resources amongst others. Despite its abundant natural resources it is faced with a poor food situation. The poor food situation is traceable to the decline in the agricultural sector. The problem of feeding is increasing by the day. However, several efforts are being made to improve the standard of living.

Prior to the discovery of petroleum in Nigeria agriculture used to be the highest foreign exchange resource earner and its contribution to gross domestic product GDP has been estimated to about 62.63% in 1960, 48.08% in 1970, and 20.63% in 1980. Recently due to the growing awareness of the role of agriculture, the various governments have intensified efforts aimed at transforming from its present subsistence level to a market oriented production. One of those efforts was the ban made on importation of agricultural products like palm oil, maize and rice. This was done to encourage improvements on our production standard. Due to the fall in the level of production from decade to decade, the country could no longer feed the large population, provide raw material for domestic industries, engage in export of agricultural produce and employ the labor force of the country despite the abundance of human and material resources.

The population is dependent directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihood. Though, the Nigerian agriculture is characterized by low farm income, low level capacity to satisfy the food In spite of growing urbanization, Nigeria is known to be predominantly rural in nature and majority of needs of the country, due to the outdated and primitive techniques of production, it is still the mainstay of the nation’s economy.

Measures and program setup to upgrade the Agricultural sector involve the construction and reformation of the whole structure of the agricultural sector by the creation of appropriate institutions and public services. This would help strengthen the economic position of the dependent farmers. Examples of such measures are National Accelerated Food Production Project (NAFPP), Structural Adjustment Program (SAP), Nigeria Agricultural Cooperation and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB).

1.2 Statement of Research Problem.

According to Anyanwu et al (1997) the agricultural sector has been recognized for a long time as an important sector to Nigerian economy and development is one of the crucial requirements for the overall economic growth. He noted further that the decline in agricultural activities might appear natural in any development process; it is obvious that in Nigeria, agricultural activities would remain the most important single sector for some time to come. He emphasized that in the past, development planners have introduced programs such as National Accelerated Food Production Project (NAFPP), Green Revolution Programs (GRP), in search for all appropriate technique in order to increase farm output and productivity and such program have at one time been implemented.

1.3 Research Questions

In recognition of the aforementioned the attempt is made in this study to provide answers or

Solution to the research questions below

  1. What are the reasons for continuous fall or decline in the production level of the agricultural sectors of the Nigerian economy?2. What actions can be taken to upgrade the current production level of the agricultural sector?
  2. What effect does the decline in agricultural sector have on the human resources of the economy?

4 What measures have been taken in the past to redress the perceived slow growth rate of the agricultural sector?

5 How and to what extent does the performance and commitment exhibited by financial institution in general, Nigeria agricultural cooperation and rural development bank (NACRDB) in particular in terms of providing financial support influenced the activities of agricultural sector?

1.4 Objectives of A Study.

The general objective of the study is to determine the role of financial institution in      agricultural development in Nigeria. The specific objectives include

  1. To examine and evaluate the agricultural credit it granted the farmers in recent years.
  2. To ascertain the effectiveness of credit granted by Nigeria agricultural cooperation and rural deve3lopment bank (NACRDB) in the achievements of the pre-planned objectives of the agricultural sector.
  3. To analyze the measures and programs set by the government in a bid to enhancing the agricultural sector.
  4. To determine the influence of these measures in accelerating the growth rate of the agricultural sector.
  5. To establish and verify ways by which the agricultural sector can be improved in the future.

1.5 Statement of the Research Hypothesis.

This study would be guided by the following hypothesis;

  1. Ho: the agricultural down drain cannot be curbed through effective bank credit.

Hi : the agricultural down drain can be curbed through effective bank credit.

Ii. Ho: bank credit and financial facilities are not made available by development bank to farmer.

Hi: bank credit and finance facilities are made available by development bank to farmers.

Iii. Ho: bank credit facilities have been ineffective due to their policies formulated and not their implementations and utilization.

Hi: bank credit facilities have been ineffective due to their improper implementations and utilization and not due to the policies formulated

1.6 Scope of A Study.

With the aim of examining how the financial institutions influence the activities of agricultural sector, through their credit policies and farm credit system, programs that have been established to review the agricultural sector would be analyzed. A lot of sources for farm credit have been and a number of them have failed to perform their pre-planned functions. An example of such scheme is the Nigeria local development board (NLDB).

Our point of focus in examining institution program and scheme setup to upgrade the agricultural sector would be on Nigeria agricultural co-operative and rural development bank (NACRCD).

1.7 Significance of A Study.

The agricultural sector of the Nigeria economy like any other sector of the economy cannot function without fund. Unlike the other sectors of the economy, agricultural sector can guarantee repayment of loan borrowed or collected only after a long period of time. This is because of the slow nature of the production process. However, this has acted as a hindering factor to giving out loan to the agricultural sector by financial institutions. If this continues in its current path, the continuous lack of fund would lead to the eventual collapse of agricultural activities.

The problem of lack of fund and credit facilities in the agricultural sector has been chosen because the persistent shortage of fund would lead to a fall in the production level of the agricultural sector, whose importance cannot be over-stated.

Nevertheless, there would be some beneficiaries in this study which will include the government, financial institutions, large and small scale farmers as well as the general public.

1.8 Limitation of the Study.

Some factors may limit the level of accuracy and reliability of this study. Such factors include.

  1. Difficulty in obtaining data.

Ii. Low response rate from involved parties.

In the absence of the above mentioned limitations, all other errors and omissions are entirely those of the researcher.

1.9 Definition of Terms

  1. Agriculture: This can be defined as the growing of crops and rearing of animals for human consumption. Agriculture involves live stock, forestry, wide life and fisheries as well as the production of crops like cocoa, palm product, groundnut, cotton and rubber. Historically, the Nigerian agriculture can be categorized into three. They are: Subsistence type, diversified type, plantation type.

The subsistence type is the production done mainly for human consumption with little or no surface.

The diversified type is the production type that is done beyond individual consumption or domestic level.

The plantation type although have not made any impact in the Nigeria agriculture, it accounts for a small amount of total Nigeria agricultural output. It involves the use of improved modern techniques and it is run in the state by their development cooperation.

Ii. Agricultural Sector: The agricultural sector is one of the sectors of Nigeria economy. It is the sector responsible for the provision of food supply and raw materials for domestic and foreign industries.

Iii. Financial Institution: These are organization owned either by individual, group or persons, state or country as a whole. Financial institutions are established mainly for saving money (deposit) for their customers and providing for such deposit and when needed and also the granting of credit facilities to their customers based on the credit worthiness of such customers.

Iv. Nigeria Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB): It is a body charged with the duty of granting credit facilities to individual farmers as well as the group farmers for the purpose of fueling their farming activities. It was previously known as Nigeria agricultural cooperative bank (NACB) and became Nigeria agricultural cooperative and rural development bank (NACRDB) after merging.

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The role of female entrepreneurs in poverty alleviation in rural communities

The role of female entrepreneurs in poverty alleviation in rural communities

the case study of awka south local government area in anambra state,nigeria

 

Table of Contents

Chapter one

Introduction

1.1 background of the study                                                                                       2

1.2 statement of the research problem                                                                       2

1.3  research questions                                                                                               3

1.4  objectives of the study                                                                                        3

1.5 limitation of the study                                                                                          4

1.6 statement of the research hypothesis                                                                   4

1.7 definitions of terms                                                                                              4

Chapter two

Literature review

2.1 theoretical issues on smes                                                                                    7

2.2 conceptual review of the study

2.3 empirical review                                                                                                  14

2.4 concept of poverty                                                                                                16

2.5 theoretical framework                                                                                          18

2.6 previous empirical studies on the relationship between smes and   poverty   19

alleviation

2.7 alleviating poverty through micro, small & medium enterprises micro,           20

2.8 alleviating poverty through women entrepreneurship                                       21

2.9 women as entrepreneur                                                                                       22

2.10 gap in knowledge                                                                                               23

Chapter three

Methodology

3.1 study area                                                                                                 25

3.2 research design                                                                                                    25

3.3 population of the study                                                                                        25

3.4 sample size                                                                                                           26

3.5 methods of data collection                                                                                   26

3.6   analytical technique                                                                                           27

3.7 source of data                                                                                                       28

Chapter four

Presentation and analysis of data

 

4.1 socio-economic profile of respondent                                                                 29

4.1.1 age distribution of the respondent                                                                    29

4.1.2 educational qualification                                                                                  29

4.2  nature and type of smes businesses in awka south area in anambra state   29

4.2.1 nature of business                                                                                              31

4.2.2 the size of business                                                                                           32

 

4.2.3   ownership structure

4.2.4 year of operation                                                                                               34

4.3   assessment of income and employment generating capacity of   smes          35

4.3.1  income generation                                                                                            35

4.4 impact of smes on living conditions of  owners                                      35

4.4.1 income level                                                                                                      36

4.4.2   toilet facility                                                                                                    36

4.4.3  sources of water                                                                                               37

4.4.4  sources of energy for cooking                                                              37

4.4.5   access to medical care                                                                         37

4.4.6   sources of electricity/power supply                                                                38

4.4.7   affordable and adequate meal per day                                                            38

4.4.8  sme’s increase employment                                                                             39

Chapter five

Summrary, conclusion and recommendation

5.1 summary of the findings.                                                                                     42

5.2 conclusion                                                                                                42

5.3 recommendations                                                                                                 43

references                                                                                                           44

appendix                                                                                                 48

Abstract

The study assessed the role of female entrepreneurs in poverty alleviation in rural communities of awka south local government area of anambra state, nigeria.  It specifically analysed the socio-economic characteristics of women entrepreneurship and assessed the contribution of female-owned businesses to poverty alleviation in the study area. The main reason for this study was due to the fact that most studies on the relationship between businesses development and poverty alleviation have concentrated on aggregate effects of small businesses on poverty reduction with little attention on   gender issue in rural areas. The study employed primary data. The target population was all the women-owned enterprises from eight communities in awka south local government area in anambra state of nigeria. Data were collected from primary source, using questionnaire on a sample of 205 female-0wned   enterprises. Responses of the respondents were analysed using percentages and the chi-square tests were carried out to support the analysis. The study therefore concluded that   female-owned microenterprises have played key role in poverty alleviation   among the businesses’ owners in awka division through income generation and job creation.

Chapter one

Introduction

1.1 background of the study

Poverty is one of the main economic problems facing most countries in the world. There have been several strategies to tackle poverty in its various forms and dimensions. Of recent, there   has   been a shift from the capital intensive large-scale industrial policy to small-scale policy as small scale industries viewed as a sector that creates substantial employment opportunities as they are relatively labour intensive. In the light of this,   different levels of government in nigeria have embraced the challenge of promoting small and medium enterprises since 1986 through the small scale enterprises programme (ssep) as an engine for economic growth. There are many studies on the relationship between small businesses development and poverty rates and overall microeconomic performance on the basis of aggregate time series data. But most of the studies have neglected the individual traits of businesses and gender issue, and with less attention on rural areas. This study is gender sensitive as it investigates the roles of small businesses owned by women in rural areas in poverty alleviation. 

1.2 statement of the research problem

In view of the escalating level of poverty in developing countries constituting a serious problem to economic growth and welfare state of the citizenry,  various policies were implemented  which could not significantly impact on the level of poverty. The failure of various reforms and development programmes to impact on the level of welfare of the citizens in terms of poverty reduction particularly through employment generation, triggered the reappraisal of the role and importance of small and medium sized enterprises as a viable channel to attaining economic growth and development especially in terms of reducing the poverty level in the economy as was witnessed in the developmental progress and economic transformation of some developed countries. In most developing countries, attention   has not   been focussed on development of   businesses owned by women due to the perception of their traditional role at home. In nigeria, there are few studies on   the actual contribution of the women-owned micro, small or medium enterprises (smes) to employment creation, income generation and wealth creation in rural areas, hence this study.

1.3  research questions

the study addressed the following   questions.

(i)   what are the characteristics of female business owners in rural areas in anambra      .         State, nigeria.

(ii)    has the establishment of the female-owned   enterprises alleviated poverty?

 

1.4       objectives of the study

The broad objective of this study is to assess the role of small and medium businesses owned by women in reducing   poverty in awka south local government area in anambra state, nigeria through job creation and income generation. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Analyse the characteristics of female business owners  in anambra
  2. Assess the extent to which   the smes   have reduced poverty among the female owners in anambra.

 

1.5 limitation of the study

Some factors may limit the level of accuracy and reliability of this study. Factors include:

  1. Difficulty in obtaining data

Ii.   Low response rate from individual parties.

In the absence of the above mentioned limitations, all other errors and omissions are entirely those of the researcher.

1.6 statement of the research hypothesis

This study would be guided by the following hypothesis

Ho: participation in smes by female does not improve the standard of living.

Hi: participation in smes by female improves the standard of living

1.7 definitions of terms

  1. Entrepreneur :someone who exercises initiative by organizing a venture to take benefit of an opportunity and, as the decision maker, decides what, how, and how much of a good or service will be produced.
  2. Entrepreneurship: this is the process of designing, launching and running a new business,i.e. A start-up company offering a product, process or service. It has been defined as a capacity and the willingness to develop, organize and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make profit.

According to economist joseph alois schumpeter (1883-1950), entrepreneurs are not necessarily motivated by profit but regard it as a standard for measuring achievement or success

iii poverty: united nations: fundamentally, poverty is the inability of getting choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society. It means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one’s food or a job to earn one’s living, not having access to credit. It means insecurity, powerlessness and exclusion of individuals, households and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, and it often implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation.

Iv.world bank: poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, and comprises many dimensions. It includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty also encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, and insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one’s life.

small and medium-sized enterprises: these are business whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits. The abbreviation smes is used in european unions and by international organizations such as the world bank, the united nations and the world trade organization. Small enterprises outnumber large companies by a wide margin and also employe many more people. Smes are said to be responsible for driving innovation and competition in many economic sectors

Alleviation: reduction of or freedom from suffering and pains.

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Impact of pure water production on the economic development of nigeria

Impact of pure water production on the economic development of nigeria

 

Table of content

Chapter one- introduction

1.0 background to the study…………………………………….……………….2

1.2 statement of the research problem…………………………………………….2

1.3 objectives of the study………………………………………………………………………….3

1.4 research question…………………………………………………………….4

1.5statement of the research hypothesis………………………………………4

1.6 scope of the study…………………………………………………………..4

1.7 significance  of the study……………………………………………………5

1.8 limitation of the study……………………………………………..………….5

Chapter two  -literature review

2.1production techniques…………….………………..……….………………..6

2.2 packaged water production system…….………………….…….…………7

2.3 quality issues in packaged water production………….……………………7

2.4 procedures for packaged water production……………………………….….8

2.5 the nafdac mandate……………………………………………………….9

2.6 steps taken by nafdac in ensuring effective regulation & control of water production..11

 

Chatpter three-research methodology

3.0 introduction…………………………………………………………………….14

3.1 design of the study……………………………………..……….……………14

3.2 area of study……………………………………………..….………………..14

3.3 population of the study……………………………………….………………14

3.4 instrument for data collection………………………………………………..15

3.5 method of data collection ………………………………………………16

3.6 validation of the instrument …………………………………………….16

3.7 method of data analysis …………………………………………………16

3.8 decision rule………………………………………………………………18

Chapter four- presentation and analysis of data

4.0 introduction………………………………………………………………………19

4.1 bio data of respondents………………………………………..…………19

4.2 analysis of the research questions………………………………………24

Chapter-five-summary,conclusion and recommendarion

5.1 summary……………………………………………..………………………30

5.2 conclusion ………………………………………………………..………….31

5.3  recommendations…………………..…………………..……………………31

References……………………………………………………………………32

Appendices …………………………………………

Abstract

Almost every nook and cranny in nigeria is littered with sachet water nylon, popularly called “pure water”, as noted by edoga et al. (2008), about 70 percent of nigerian adults drink at least a sachet of pure water per day resulting in about 50 to 60 million used daily across the country. This has significant impact on the economy of nigeria.

This study recommends that the pure water business should be allowed to thrive. This is because it provides employment for labour and profitable to the owners. The study further suggest that the pure water production should be encouraged in nigeria under a guided atmosphere such that non-registered pure water factories are not allowed to produce untreated water for human consumption, that the water source be subjected to periodic test by analysts and that pure water should be produced under hygienic condition that conforms with the standard required by the nafdac.

 

                                      Chapter one

                                      Introduction

 

  • Background to the study

Water has been identified to be very important to human existence because it is very necessary for survival.a reliable supply of clean wholesome water is crucial in an attempt to promote healthy living amongst the inhabitants of a well defined geographical region (mustapha and adam, 1999). In an attempt to proffer solution to water problem, it was estimated that 1.2 billion people around the world does not have access to clean safe water and about 2.5 billion people are not provided with adequate sanitation (third world water forum, 2003). Majority of the affected people that lack access to clean safe water and adequate sanitation are located in the developing countries because the standard industrialized global model for safe water delivery and sanitation technology is not affordable (gadgil and derby, 2003).

 

1.2 statement of the research problem

Narrowing down to nigeria, the supply or provision of public drinking water is not reliable (egwari and aboaba, 2002). As a result, this has adversely affected the good health of nigerians most especially during the dry season (adesunkanmi and ajao, 1986). In nigeria, ground water and pipe borne (tap) water are the major sources of drinking water. These sources are said to be unsafe sources of drinking water because findings indicated that ground water sources contain trace elements, dissolved solids and pathogens in excessive quantities that may be dangerous to the health of the people. Consequently, most of the investigations carried out on ground water samples from different parts of nigeria revealed that most of the available sources of water or water types are polluted or contaminated hence, were not fit for drinking purpose (ogunbanjo,2004 and tijani, 2003) cited in olaposi (2009) unpublished phd thesis. In addition, physical assessment of many public supplied pipe-borne water samples also testified to their poor quality.an example of locally developed alternative of safe water provision in nigeria is the drinking water sold in polythene sachets and plastic bottles. There are few studies on  the impact of pure water production on the economy of nigeria to employment creation, income generation and wealth creation, hence this study.

 

1.3 objectives of the study

The broad objective of this study is to assess the impact of pure water production on the nigeria economy with specific attention to nnewi north l.g.a of anambra state .

The specific objectives are to:

  1. Analyse how pure water production has impacted positively on the nigeria economy
  2. Assess the extent to which  pure water production has created income generation.

1.4 research questions

I.what are the impact of pure production on the economy of nigeria?.

Ii.has the production of pure water created income generation in nigeria?

1.5 statement of the research hypothesis

This study would be guided by the following hypothesis

1 ho.pure water production has not impact positively on the economy of nigeria.

Hi. Pure water production has impact positively on the economy of nigeria.

2 ho. Pure water production do not contribute towards economic development of nigeria.

Hi. Pure water production contribute towards economic development of nigeria

1.6 scope of the study

With the aim of examining the impact of pure water production on the economy of nigeria, pure water should be produced under hygienic condition that conforms with the standard required by agencies such as nafdac.

1.7 significance  of the study.

Most researchers in nigeria have not taken time to document the nature, production techniques and processes involved in pure water production as well as the impact of pure water production on the economy of nigeria, hence this study .the researcher examined the impact of pure  water production on the nigeria economy which include:provision of employment for labour,provision of clean and treated water among others.

1.8 limitation of the study

Some factors may limit the level of accuracy and reliability of this study. Factors include:

  1. Difficulty in obtaining data
  2. Low response rate from individual parties.

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COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
GTBANK Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l ACCOUNT
NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank: Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment : Bank Name: GTBank

Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.

Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l

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Swift Code: GTBINGLA  Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

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Management of life assurance fund in nigeria insurance industry

Management of life assurance fund in nigeria insurance industry

(a case Study of union assurance limited)

Table of content

Chapter one

Introduction

Literature review

  • Background of study ——————————–1
  • Statement of problem ——————————-5
  • Objective of the study ————————— —5
  • Research questions ——————————- -6
  • Research hypothesis ——————————–7
  • Significant of the study —————————–7
  • Scope and limitation of the study —————-8
  • Definition of the terms —————————–9

 

Chapter two

Literature review

2.1   an overview —————————————– 12

 

2.2   historical development of the case of study —-14

2.3   history of life assurance program  ————- -16

2.4   meaning and purpose of fund ——————–17

2.5   management of insurance fund ——————21

2.6  model to guide life assurance fund—————-22

2.7   problem recounted red in investment of insurance fund—————————————————–24

2.8   prospect of adequate management ————— 26

 

Chapter three

Research methodology band design

3.1   an overview ——————————————-30

3.2   source of data —————————————-31

3.3   population of study———————————–33

3.4   sampling size determination ———————–34

3.5   questionnaire administration ———————-35

3.6   method of data analysis—————————–36

Chapter four

Data presentation analysis and discussion of findings

4.1   data presentation———————————38

4.2   testing of hypothesis——————————53

4.3   discuss of finding ——————————— 56

 

Chapter five

Summary of finding conclusion and recommendation

5.1   summary of finding———————————58

5.2   conclusions——————————————61

5.3   recommendation————————————64

5.4   suggestions for further studies——————–65

Bibliography ——————————————67

Appendix———————————————-69

Research questionnaires———————————-70

 

Abstract

It is common to see report of business falling than business succeeding almost always, the failure or success of a business can be attributed to its management. When a business is mismanaged, it will lead to liquidation, the company will not meet their solvency margin thereby running away from their obligation as to settle claims which in turn portray ugly insurance image. This study there for is exploratory study designed to determine how life assurance fund are properly managed. The population of the study comprises both staff and customers of union assurance enugu. A sample size of fifty (50) was selected made up of 20 staff and 300 customer both primary and secondary data were collected. Questionnaire coupled with personal interview were the main research instrument. The data was analyzed by the use of chi square statistical method. The study came out that for proper management of life insurance fund, the premium should be invested both in short band long term investments so that insurance company will meet their obligation as to settle claims. It was recommended that all the stakeholders, including management of insurance companies, policy makers and policy holder should collaborated come out with conductive business climate to ensure effect management of life assurance funds for great returns to investors.

Table of content

 

 

 

Chapter one

Introduction

  • Background of the study

It is common to report of business failing than business succeeding almost always, the failure or success of a business can be attributed to its management. When a business is mismanaged, it will lead to liquidation the company will not meet their  solvency margin thereby running away from their obligation image. However it will also have a drastic effect on the nigeria economy when it failed. In order top nurture the interaction, this research focus on insurance industries and how they management life assurance premium, to know if the premium are invested as stipulated by law, how they handle claim and the beneficiaries and also how life assurance fund help in the economic development of nigeria.

Moreover, management of life assurance fund in insurance industry related primarily to the way the industry management life assurance premium in order to achieve organizational goal and objective using available fund efficiently and effectively.

However in context to management, union assurance limited. Limited is an associate of union bank of nigeria plc. The company was registered as an insurer on november 18, 1993 and actually commence business in 1998. At the time, it was the first attempt by any bank top venture into universal banking. It therefore become the life assurance specialist’s underwriter with in the same period. Recently, union assurance is redefining those strong potential to challenge industry management with the top five brackets. Apart from restructuring its operations, the company is diversifying and expanding at a period where competitor mare contracting due to uncertain economic conditions. (a new management driving change and excellence is  in place and venturing into new frontiers that were uncultivated. The changed in management has also brought to bear on the company’s operation innovation which are impacting passively on the work culture in union assurance) union assurance also has a robust investment portfolio cutting across assets in the equity, money bond and property marked totaling over n5 billion they also employs a conservative but dynamic investment strategy geared towards increasing the company income and profitability.

More so, in managing life assurance fund money is pooled together with that of other investors to create a single strong fund that provide significant investors benefits which include an instant increase in buying strength there by contributing towards economic development in nigeria. However, life assurance fund accumulate through payment made by the assured person called premium so that should death occur, prior to a specified date or upon survival at an agreed period funds would be made available from the scheme to pay whatever benefits that are due. The idea for assistance and association is not new to the nigeria society various town and clan union and social clubs have various ways of showing benevolence to their bereaved. It is customary for people to pay condolence visit and present a sympathy purse. Practices are similar to mutual life assurance.

In addition to this, there are also the long-term needs to create and sustain an enable environment that will engender safe practice against destructive runs in managing life assurance funds, protecting and ensuring fair play among insures in the industry.

 

1.2  state of problem         

Complex set of interrelated problem are identify as following:

  1. Mismanagement
  2. Inability to invest life assurance fund in varieties of security due to lack of experts.
  • Ineffective investment management of life assurance fund which affect expectations of the insuring public and growth of the industry.

 

1.3  objective of the study

Having been exposed to the problem the research tends to achieve the following:

  1. To described implication and suggest possible ways of managing life insurance fund.
  2. To assess the factors that determines the area of investments of life assurance fund.
  3. To ascertain whether life assurance fund are invested more on short- term investment than on long-term investment instrument or vice versa.
  4. To promote investors confidence toward life assurance.

 

  • Research question
  1. What appropriate strategies can be put in place to ensure effective management of life assurance funds?
  2. What factors determine the areas of investment of life assurance fund?
  3. What form of investment is life assurance fund put into most (long term or short-term investments insurance)?
  4. What are the trend expectation of the insuring public?

 

  • Research hypothesis

The research work tends the following hypothesis listed below:

Ho:   management of life assurance has no positive effect on the economic growth and development of nigeria.

H1management of life assurance fund has positive on the economic growth and development of nigeria.

 

  • Significance of the study

It is aimed that study will help the insurance to plan organize and control life assurance fund in order to maintain proficiency and standard in insurance practice thereby investing life assurance fund in varieties of investment. In turn have adequate fund to settle claim which portray good insurance image and bring development in nigeria economy.

It will also aid the candidate or student having hnd in insurance to know the various areas where insurance can invest.

 

  • The scope limitations of the study

This research work limit to one of the insurance companies in enugu, union assurance company of nigeria to be precise.

There are a lot of constraints in the gathering of information of the research work but the major constrain are following are to be precise.

  1. Time: in report to the theoretical and practical work the time allowed the project was limited beside there was carried out with other academic assessments.
  2. Financial: due to high rate of academic fees, i could not be able to carry out research with easy as i was planned.

 

  • Definition of terms
  1. Management: this is the act of running and controlling a business or similar organization so as achieve the organizational goal.

Ii.     Insurance: is a contract between two parties insured whereby the insured pay small amount of money called premium and the insurer promise to compensate the insured when the specified risk insured against occur.

Iii.    Life assurance: is a contract of insurance on party called the insurer agreed that subject to some term exception and condition and condition that he would pay some money on the dearth of life assured on the precious maturity of the policy

  1. Fund: this is an amount of money that have been saved or made available for particular purpose.
  2. Premium: is the monetary consideration paid by the insured for insurance covers ie the price of service rendered.
  3. Investment: to put money effort time into some things to make a profit or get an advantage. It can buying of property or share in a company as to make profit out of it
  • Management: to organize or control a business badly.
  • liquidation: to cause a because to close, so that its assets can be also to pay its debts ie the process by which a company or part of a company is bought to an end, and the asset and property of a company redistributed these can also be seen as winding up of a firm by selling off its free (unpledged) assets to convert them into cash to pay the firm’s unsecured creditors.
  1. Solvency margin: this is a minimum excess on an insurance assets over its liabilities set by regulator. It can be regard as similar to capital adequacy. It is also company ability to pay claim.
  2. Policyholder: is a person or a corporation whop owns an insurance policy. It also the owner if an insurance policy: usually, but not always the insured.
  3. Stakeholder: a person group or organization that has interest or concern in an organization ie person, group
  • Organization member or system who affect or can be affected by an organizations.

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OR PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

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Influence of product packaging on consumer buying preference

Influence of product packaging on consumer buying preference

(a case study of aba metroplis)

 

Table of contents

Chapter one

Introduction

  • Background of the study:……………………
  • Statement of problem:………………………….
  • Objective of the study:…………………………….
  • Research question/hypothesis:………………..
  • Significance of the study:………………………
  • Scope of the study:……………………………….
  • Operational functions of terms:………………….

Chapter two

Literature review

2.1     introduction:…………………………….

2.2     the concept of product:…………………

2.2.1  basic characteristics of product:………

2.2.2  the role of a product:……………………

2.3     the concept of product packaging as a marketing tools:…….

2.4     importance of product packaging as a marketing tool

2.5     the promotion product packaging function

2.5.1  the promotion function power packaging could be use to give production favourable

2.5.2          the protective function

2.6     product requirement

2.6.1  the distributors requirement

2.6.2  consumer requirement

2.6.3  the legal requirements

2.7     problem of product packaging

2.8     criticisms of product packaging

2.9     performance measures

Chapter three

3.1     research methodology

3.2     population of the study

3.4     sample size technology

3.5     research instrument

3.6     system of data analysis

3.7     method of ensuring validiaty

3.8     research design

3.9     data collection method

Chapter four

4.1     data presentation and analysis

4.2     questionnaire administration

Chapter five

5.1     summary, conclusion and recommendation

5.2     conclusion

5.3     recommendation

References

Appendix

Questionnaire

 

Abstract

The topic of this research works the influence of product packaging on consumer buying preference in aba metropolis, abia state. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of product packaging, on the purpose of this the question experimental research design was adopted to study consumers towards various product packaging. The primary data was collected from the respondents using the questionnaire. After a critical analysis of the data collected, the hypothesis, were tested using analysis with the aid of statistical product and service solution (spss) packaging and the following hypothesis were realized there is a relationship between product packaging and the consumer buying preference of a products. Moderating factors to regulate the relationship between packaging and consumer buying preferences of business firm based on these findings, the following were recommended product packaging should be look upon as a cost tool or a production problem. Again product should be lease with user of their product package so as to enable them know when there is need for improvement.

chapter one

Introduciton

  • background of the study

Historically, management has considered product packaging only for the purpose of ascertaining the product and had assigned the role responsibility of the packaging to the production department. However modern marketing managers regard packaging as a supplementary promotional tool for their product. It has been shown that in self service store, it is packaging on product that does the selling. No wonder it is often regarded as the silent salesman.

Product packaging involves enclosing mechanism in a container for marketing display, sanitation convenience in handling and use of safety and preservation. Since 1978 when folding cartons was discovered the packaging industry has grown expansively with period of rapid expansion occurring intermittently. The major resolution mechanizing era when mass production teaching were inaugurated and individual sealed product packaging replace bulk merchandise.

The most commonly used product packaging material includes corks, asbestos, rubbers, plastics, papers and several types of strong materials such as  lead glass, packaging  has gone all the way back to the down of  history when primitive societies  carry barriers continues packaging primary roles was to hold, protect and transport goods from manufactures to the users of individual goods. Packaging products therefore keeps a product intact and available to the final consumers in its original states. It protect the quality of the product from physical damage where the traditional purposes.

Kohler (1984:72) defined product packaging as the activities of designing and producing the containers for a product. He added that the container is called packaging and it mighty include there levels the primary that contains the outhits (the secondary that covers the primary container and the tertiary that protect the entire product during haulage). The type and levels of product packaging adopted  depends  on the types of product market promotion on the other hand represents all  those activities embarked upon the company to communicate its products merits and  to persuade  target customers  to buy them.

Arowomole and adeyemi (2004:148) product packaging as the general group  of activities in product planning that involved designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. Packaging provide  two major services for both consumers  and producers that is it services  as a product measure for the product and also promotional device some product packaged such as coke bottles and world famous. Materials use to protect goods also on opportunity to present the brand and logo.

Product packaging has recently been in importance. At times it becomes very difficult to determine whether greater emphasis should be put on the protective functions of packaging then its promotion functions. Formally, most firms saw product packaging as only container for the physical product without realizing the other  marketing  importance of the product especially its importance towards the promotion of the product due to the increase importance which is presently attached to promotional functions of  to be regarded  as any person jobs. The job of packaging now rest on the hands of quality product managers or specialist trained in that particular filed or marketing in most organizations. The ever increasing customers demands on organizations for more tolerant  package has pushed  marketing  managers to develop packing  with more acceptable  material  shapes and forms. Poor packaging kills a product and can also dissatisfaction among channel intermediaries.

  • statement of problem

Despite the fact that numerous studies in the past have contributed to the theoretical and practical knowledge on packaging demonstrated that products packaging play sufficient role in marketing of goods and services from all sectors of productive economy, yet quite a number of small and huge scale manufacturers have shown less concern to packaging their product effectively confectionaries especially the small one have been found wanting in the area.

The ability to incorporate into product packaging preference the right choice of material, colour, shape, design, style, size and promotional information has been a major challenge facing marketing managers in the small and medium scale ventures. Also inadequate budget devoted to product packaging that effects effective packaging  preference of organizations .it is as a result that this study is concerned with investigating how and the extent product packaging has changed consumers preferences.

  • objective of the study

The purpose of carrying out this study is to ascertain the effect of products packaging of materials, design, shape, style, colour and promotional information on consumer buying preference for product in aba metropolis, abia state.

The study also has the following specific objectives:

  1. To find out whether the choice of packaging materials affect consumer patronage of products.
  2. To understand how the promotional information/label contribute to consumer choice of products.
  • To determine the role of packaging feather (colour, shape, design, style, size and weight) affect the consumer buying preference.
  1. To know whether the cost structure of packaging is justified by the marketing growth of products.
  2. To investigate whether moderating faction a government policies technology competition affect the consumer buying preference of products.

 

  • research question /hypothesis

Below are the research questions which the work is set to tackle.

  1. Does choice of packaging materials affect consumer for purchasing of products.
  2. What roles do the packaging features (colour, design, shape, style, size and weight) play in the consumer for goods.
  • How do promotional messages contributes to the consumption of products.
  1. Does the cost structure of packaging correspond with the expected marketing growth of products.
  2. Do the moderating factor (government policies, technology) competition affect the relationship between packaging and   the consumer buying preference of products.

The following hypothesis where formulated for the study:

hypothesis one:

H1 :        the influence of packaging on products in aba metropolis  responsible for the consumers buying preference.

H0 :        the influence packaging on products in aba metropolis is not responsible for the  consumer buying preference.

 

Hypothesis two:

H2 :        consumers are influence by products packaging

H0 :        consumers are not influence by products packaging.

  • significance of the study

It has been proven that effective packaging preference of firms enhance the market ability of their product, this work is relevant in the sense that it well enlighten manufacturers on the measure  to be adopted to sustain the effect of product packaging has on consumer buying preference process and in building a loyal customers. This study will also be of academic value since the contents could be used as a basis for other studies on product packaging. The findings of the intended is expected to contribute to the body of existing knowledge in the area of product packaging and its influence.

  • scope of the study

The topic of this research is the influence product packaging on consumer buying preference in aba metropolis, abia state which is with is the researchers case study.

The finding were obtained through the use of questionnaire defined alternative responses and oral interviews. The researcher was involved using azikiwe road, ngwa road, ogbo hill, clifford road, park road also osisioma ariara market area.

The present study was aimed to investigate the product packaging as it affects many manufactures of aba metropolis in abia state. It will outline the various roles of product packaging play  in selling off product.

Again in carrying out this research, the researcher was confronted with a number of problems and limitation owning to financial and time constraint, the researcher was unable to travel to other parts of the country for effective data collection hence the research for effective data collection was carried out in aba metropolis. Respondents were equally reluctant to respond to the questionnaires inspite of the fact that assurance was given by the researcher that every information gathered would be held in strict confidence finally some respondents didn’t have the requisite knowledge or are unwilling to disclose the facts where they are available.

  • operational definitions of terms
  • self service store: these are specialize outlets which he have stock

displayed on shelf for customer easy access.

  • Product: this is anything that can be offer to a market for attention, consumption and must satisfy consumer need.
  • Silent salesman: this refers to the ability of a product packaging to include an exchange process.
  • Binding prefernce: this is the ability to quickly check and confidently on which product that will be preferable to buy, how to buy, where to buy it and when to buy it.
  • Packaging influence: this is the power to produce and affects, specially on character beliefs or actions.
  • Brand mark: this refers to the aspect of a product that has a legal right and protects the production from limitations.
  • Various products :these are those product made by various companies:

(i) magic wooden toys product:      it is a company that made most of the toys from beech wood, it is carefully selected and processed very free from any chemical. The wood is coloured and polished through a special technology through company method which has been developed and improved over many years. It is a traditional manufacturer of wooden toys and decorations.

  • Jam bottle product: it an aba made product manufactured in china, the company product had mainly the ampulla, wine bottle, perfume bottle, pickle bottle, can bottle, drink bottle etc. The company product packaging with height mass high standard, preferential price, enthusiastic service, your presence is welcomed.
  • Beverages company: cheesecake factory, american beverages association, nigerian breweries etc.
  • Pz cussons products: these are the product made by pz e.g. bathing soap, powder for babies etc. That is well for babies.

(e) loyal customers: these are group of people who believe that a company’s products are the best. As such they develop confidence in buying the firms product.

(f) manufacturers: a company or person who makes or produces goods on large scale with the help of machines.

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First Bank: Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
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Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l

 Account Number:  0117780667. 

Swift Code: GTBINGLA  Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

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