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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES OF POOR PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN CHEMISTRY

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES OF POOR PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN CHEMISTRY: A CASE STUDY OF ORHIONMWON LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

ABSTRACT

This work is centred on “poor performance of students in Chemistry in Orhionmwon Local Government Area in Edo State. The primary aim of this study is to highlight the causes of the situation and assess the quality and quantity of human and material resources (teachers and laboratories) needed for effective teaching of chemistry in the area. in the analysis of the causes and effects of the poor performance of Chemistry students in chemistry, many eminent chemistry teachers have stressed and expressed much concerns about the situation in the form of write up and verbal, regarding ways of remedying or reducing the unfavourable conditions to barest minimum. Data was collected through questionnaires and oral interviews were done personally. Data collected were analyzed by using tables and percentages and findings were obtained. Acute shortage of chemistry teachers, chemistry equipment, laboratories and the conservative beliefs and non-challant attitudes of chemistry students towards chemistry were found to affect their performance greatly in examination.      

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE  

  1. Introduction
  2. Background to the study
  3. Statement of the problem
  4. Purpose of the study
  5. Hypothesis
  6. Significance of the study
  7. Scope of study
  8. Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO          

Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE       

Materials and Methods

3.1   Research Design

3.2    Sampling Procedure

3.3    Sample

3.4    instruments of Data Collection

3.5    Methodology

3.6    Scope and Limitations of the study

CHAPTER FOUR         

Data and Data Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

Suggestions for further study

REFERENCES    

APPENDICES

Questionnaires for Chemistry Teachers

Questionnaires for Chemistry Student

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

The role of chemistry as one of the science subjects in both national and global development cannot be over-emphasized. The study of chemistry offers one of the opportunities to develop an understanding of scientific method and the ability to understand the living world of which man himself is a part. This has contributed to its relative popularity among other school subjects especially the sciences. It is important therefore that chemistry of all science subjects should be given priority attention in our schools.

The current development in science and technology which chemistry is not left out has so greatly affected the lives of every human being, to be ignorant of the basic ideas of chemistry which is the physical branch of science that deals with the physical properties and the composition of matter is to live in an empty, meaningless and unrealistic world. Any nation therefore, that is not scientifically inclined, cannot be expected to make any reasonable progress whether in politics, science world, economic development of the nation and or in technology. Based on this fact, scientific and technological advancement constitutes the means by which nations of the world have been classified as developing or undeveloped. To be fully acquainted with the needs of the societies we belong to, chemistry has been made an internal part of the schools subjects. In line with this, the state and Federal Government initiated certain measures such as the admission of large number of students in chemistry in our tertiary institutions. Scholarship for chemistry teachers for further training in the profession, and the provision of chemistry equipment and laboratory facilities are other provisions geared towards the achievement of technological advancement with the priority attention given to chemistry subject in our secondary schools, it is hoped that students with the right attitude towards chemistry would in the near future become great assets to the nation.

  1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Chemistry, because of its scope and potentials it’s quite unique in its involvement in several aspect of modern life. Its role as a transforming agent is recognized as crucial especially in a developing economy of ours. In Nigeria where the major problems could be summarized as provision of adequate supply of technology for rapidly growing population, banishing of unemployment and building infrastructures for the much talked of industrialization, the role of chemistry is undeniably dominant. This motivated the researcher to investigate on the reasons for the poor performance of students in chemistry subject and provide ways of improving the situation.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Chemistry is a science subject which is being taught in most all secondary schools in and outside Edo State and almost all science students offer chemistry in the state because it is essential and relevant for professions like medicine, teaching, agriculture and engineering. Statistics have shown that inspite of student’s interest in chemistry, majority of them still perform poorly. This work shall provide answers to the following specific questions;

  1. How do students respond to chemistry subjects?
  2. What are the factors which influence their attitudes towards chemistry subjects?
  3. How can the student’s attitudes to the subjects be improved?
  4. How can the teaching methods of the chemistry teachers be improved?
  5. How can the problems of inadequate and unqualified chemistry teachers be solved?
    1. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to examine and determine the reasons for poor performances in chemistry in some selected secondary schools. The need for this research would also help to suggest ways in which the student’s performance can be improved.

  1. HYPOTHESIS

There are many factors that can affect the performance of students in the teaching of chemistry. The study seeks to find solutions to the following;

a.     Does student’s poor background of scientific knowledge hinder good performance?

b.     Is there any relationship between student’s unwillingness to learn and poor performance?

c.      Is there a significant relationship between the availability of adequately equipped chemistry laboratory and performance in chemistry?

d.     Do bad teaching methods affect the teaching and learning process in chemistry?

e.     Is there a significant relationship between non-professionalization and poor performance?

f.      Does student’s home problem hinder their performance in chemistry as a subject?

  1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The role of science has been recognized in Nigerian educational system. At the end of this research, curriculum planners should be able to restructure and modify science curriculum to suit the students, teachers and the society as for the world of science is concern. The science teachers, as well as the chemistry teachers should be able to adopt and use a favourable and suitable method. It is hoped that the findings of this project will be of a great important to secondary school autho9rities in Orhionmwon Local Government Area as well as Edo State ministry of education.

The Nigerian government in her desire to produce young Nigerian chemist who can cope with our expanding industries mainly in the area of petroleum and petrochemical industries where valuable products for our daily use are produced, can rightly benefit from this study. It will also enable us to compare the achievements of students studying chemistry in different schools investigated in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State. This research would be relevant to students, teachers, and parents and to the society in general.

  1. SCOPE OF THE STUDY      

The study is limited to Orhionmwon Local Government Area in Edo State. I am however limiting it to those secondary schools that offer chemistry in their senior secondary school (SSCE)  certificate examinations (SS 1-3), in Orhionmwon Local Government Area.

  1. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Chemistry: Is the branch of science that deals with the properties and the composition of matter formally, chemistry because of it relevance to the body of science was define as that branch of science which deals with nature and properties of substances which make up our environment  and the various changes which these substances undergoes in different condition.

Qualified Teacher: This is one that posses the real quality of a teacher and he or she has the spirit of inculcating knowledge effectively into the students without stress. (The person has the qualifications and the experienced as far teaching is concern).

Learning: Knowledge or skills acquired through experience or study or by being taught.

Learner: A learner is one that is less knowledgeable who sit under the rood of a more knowledgeable person to receive information. So as to be a better person to the society.

 

 

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ANALYSIS OF THE RELEVANT OF CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT IN SELECTED JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ANALYSIS OF THE RELEVANT OF CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT IN SELECTED JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

 

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THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LGA, ENUGU STATE

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ABSTRACT

This research work was designed to investigate the importance of continuous assessment among some selected junior secondary school students in Ovia North East Local Government Area Edo State. To achieve the laid down objectives, the researchers carried out the investigation by designing well structured questionnaire for respondents in the area of study. The data so far generated from the study was analyzed using the simple percentage statistical analysis. The study revealed that both teachers and students alike recognized the impact of continuous assessment, continuous assessment have not helped prevent exam malpractice, continuous assessment help promote good study habit and reading culture among students it help teachers give feedback, keep assessment records of students and help diagnose students areas of strength and weakness in social studies. It was also discovered that most teachers never use standardized test and standardized score. They mainly assess students cognitive activities behaviours.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter One     

Background of the Study

Statement of problems

Purpose of study

Significance of the study

Research Question

Scope of the study

Definition of terms

Chapter Two     

Literature review

CHAPTER THREE        

Research Methodology

Sample Study

Sample and Sampling

Sample Techniques

Research Instrument

Population

Administration of instrument

Method of analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

Data Presentation and Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE 

Summary

Recommendations

Conclusion

REFERENCES              

QUESTIONNAIRE      

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The assessment of student’s progress and achievement  is a vital component of any educational system. It is a mechanism for progressive evaluation of changes in the behaviour of individual learners and for determining the student’s level of achievement in a course of study (Ehiametalor, 1990).

Thus teachers are expected to examine from time to time how far the students in their classes learn subject matter presented to them (rather than wait till the end of the academic year before examining them).

According to (Ughamadu 1991), Western Education came into Nigeria with twin assessment methods in the firm of internal and external examination. Internal examination includes all tests that are conducted from time to time in our students. Such tests were conducted firmly at the end of the school year and were used essentially for promotion of students from one class or level to another. Also the internal system of assessment was to prepare the students for external examinations. But whatever the frequency of such tests and examinations, they never from part if final assessment of students.

The external examinations on the other hand are those conducted by external bodies and agencies that had no hand in the teaching of the students. Such bodies includes the Ministry of Education, Western Africa Examination Council (WAEC), NECO, NABTEB, Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB). The old system of assessment was however found to be loaded with so many flaws and fraught with weaknesses because it concentrated on one aspect of human development i.e. cognitive domain at the expense of affective and psychomotor domains. These flaws and weakness according to Ali, Ezeadi and Ogbazi (1988) including the following.

  1. It lacks the necessary feedback that would allow the teacher to assess his instructional strategies and instruments.
  2. The system was not comprehensive enough at it make use of examination and text as only technique for assessment of learning outcome.
  3. The inherited systems of assessment encourage examination mal-practice since the end of term exam determines who pass of fall. Therefore, students are conscious of the fact that their future depends solely on the result to cheat al all cost and take the examination as a matter of life and death.
  4. The system also denies the teachers the opportunity to participate in the final assessment of his students hence teachers are not been flexible and innovative in their mode of teaching more often than not they rigidly stick to the examination syllabus.
  5. Decision about the learners is made at the year course when it is already late to give any guidance service that help the students improve on their learning.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Despite the numerous recommendations so for advanced by contemporary educationists, the practice and implementation of continuous assessment on the part of most teachers is still nothing to write home about. The aim of any teaching-learning processes is the modification of behaviour of the learners social studies is one of the area where teachers still fraught the assessment and evaluation of learning outcomes and in most cases resort to the old practice of assessment at the end of the course in making final decision about the individual learners.

It is against this ground, this research is undertaken to critically investigate the importance of using continuous assessment as a major strategy in the evaluation of social studies.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY     

The purpose of the study includes;

  1. To examine the concept of continuous assessment in its ramification.
  2. To identify the importance and reasons for the use continuous assessment in social studies.
  3. To investigate the problems hindering the effective implementation of continuous assessment in social studies.
  4. To put forward some strategies and recommendations which will service as a possible solution to the problems hindering effective implementation of continuous assessment in social studies Nigeria schools?

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. Do teachers assess students learning outcomes in social studies?
  2. Will the practice of continuous assessment enhance teacher’s effective evaluation of students in social studies?
  3. How often does teacher keep continuous assessment records in social studies?
  4. Does teacher use varieties of evaluation instrument in the assessment of social studies?
  5. Does continuous assessment help in improving performance of students in social studies?

1.5 SOME BASIC ASSUMPTIONS

The assumption are based on the fact that;

  1. Teacher does not keep enough assessment records of student’s performance in social studies.
  2. Continuous assessment will never work in Nigeria schools due to un-ethical awards of grade on the part of most teachers.
  3. Teacher does not lay emphasis on the domains of learning in the evaluation of learning outcomes in social studies.
  4. Teachers are not fully involved in the final grading and certification of the students they have taught.
  5. Most school does not make use of continuous assessment result for guidance and counseling purpose.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The research study will help provide data on teacher’s use of continuous assessment as a tool in the evaluation of learning outcomes in social studies. It is therefore expected that the research finding will among other things shed light on what is currently going on in school as far as the effectiveness of continuous assessment is concerned.

Also, the study will help provide a frame work for teachers suggest useful ways of improving the practice of continuous assessment of students. Finally this study and research finding will also be significant in such a way that it will serve as a pointer to other researchers who might be interested in the study.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The focus and coverage of this research work is on junior secondary in Ovia North East concern is to examine teachers use of continuous assessment and the importance of evaluation in social studies.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

It is necessary for clarity to define certain concepts within the context in which they are used;

Continuous assessment: From time to time evaluation of students learning which is used to make final decision about the learners?

Domains of learning: The levels and areas which students are been assessed/cognitive, affective and psychomotor.

6-3-3-4 system: Implies six years in primary, three years in junior secondary, three years in senior secondary and four years.

Exam-malpractice: All forms involved in cheating during an examination.

Evaluation: Method of passing valued judgment on any test items.

Curriculum: All programmes of studies which the school used in changing the overt and covert behaviors of the learners.

Record keeping: documentation of vital information for future references.

Test: Is a device or instrument for measuring student’s ability, achievement, interest, and attitude.

 

PARENTS EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AS CORRELATES OF CAREER PREFERENCE AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

PARENTS’ EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AS CORRELATES OF CAREER PREFERENCE AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN EDO STATE

 

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THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LGA, ENUGU STATE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Statement of the Problem

Research Questions

Hypotheses

Purpose of the Study

Significance of the Study

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The Theoretical Framework

Concept of Career Preference

Factors Influencing Career Preference

Influence of Parents Educational Attainment

Parents Occupational Status

Empirical Studies

Summary of Reviewed Related Literature

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

Design of the Study

Population

Sample and Sampling Procedure

Research Instrument

Validity of the Instrument

Reliability of the Instrument

Administration of Instrument

Method of Data Analysis

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure  I: Influence of  parents occupational status

LIST OF TABLES

Table I: Theoretical Frame Work of the Study

APPENDICES

Appendix I: Parents educational attainment and parent’s occupational status on career preference questionnaire (PESPOCCP)

Questionnaire

Appendix 2: Evidence of Validity

Appendix 3: Evidence of Reliability

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

In this era of unemployment, choosing the right career by young adolescents will pave way for employment opportunities for him or her in future. career preference of the young adolescent has become an area of interest because educational planners have become aware of the dangers and frustrations suffered by some adolescents who find themselves in wrong career selection (Alika & Egbochukwu, 2008). According to Agboola (2013), career selection is one of many important choices students will make in determining future plans. This decision might affect them throughout their lives. The essence of who the student is, will revolve around what he or she wants to do with his/her life-long work.

At adolescence stage people make their career related decisions which could have impact and consequences on the individuals vocational future, psychological well-being and even health. The skills needed to make appropriate career decisions are very central to the psychological adjustment of the adolescent. While some adolescents do this with ease, others may have difficulties in making appropriate choices. (Scott, Repucci, and Woodlard, 1995).

Career is a chosen pursuit, a life of work or success in a profession occupied by a person throughout his/her lifetime. In other words, career is the totality of work one does in his life time. (Ipaye, 2000). Career plays a very fundamental and significant role in the life of the individual not only because it determines the pattern of income but also affects the individual’s personality and concepts in life. A Career is the sequence of occupation in which one engages in. Some persons may retain or remain in the same occupation through their life span while others may have a series of life occupations. (Egbochuku, 2008).  A career could also be defined as the sum total of life experience including paid or unpaid work, community, volunteer and family activities. Kinanee (2004). Therefore, career can be seen as a product of career preference. Career preference may be defined as the aspect or types of work that people show more interest in and will most likely improves in its, that is work people like doing or like to do; for example, some might prefer to be self-employed rather than work in an office. Egbochuku (2008) believes that the career a person prefers is an expression of the individual’s personality. In the sense that, the choice of career one prefers determines to a large extent, how time will be spent, who will be chosen as friends, what attitudes and values will be adopted, where one will reside and what pattern of family living will be adopted.

In Nigeria, many youths go into unsuitable careers due to ignorance, inexperience, peer pressure, parents and teachers influence and they may also prefer the prestige attached to certain jobs without considering mental abilities and personality traits. Salami, (2000). Consequently, many of them are unsuited for their careers as they usually find themselves in a job where they could not satisfy their needs. When this occurs, they are likely to become frustrated and constitute nuisance to themselves and the society. Such individuals are not likely to contribute meaningfully to the society and ultimately become liability to the nation.

Alika and Osa-Edoh (2009) identified parental attitude, parental income, peer pressure as factors influencing career choice. Student’s careers have equally been studied with different frameworks. Many of them have focused on parents education, occupation or home background (like family income, language or the home activities of the family and work methods). Adeyemo, (2001). Studied variables such as attitude, self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-concept or parents support such as motivation of wards, parental attitudes towards education, the aspiration of parents amidst these factors presumed to have relationship with career preference. Therefore, it becomes necessary to determine which of the factors that could relate with students career preference and of interest to the researcher is parental educational attainment and occupational status.

Parental educational attainment could be a factor that can influence students career preference. Educational attainment of parents refers to the qualification of an individual, that is, level of education acquired by an individual for example, non-formal education, primary or secondary school certificate, Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) and National Diploma (ND), Higher National Diploma (HND) Bachelor of Science (B.Sc), Master of Science (M.Sc), Masters in Education (M.Ed) and P.hD with a higher level of education parents are more likely to function as a teacher in the home, and provide a balance emotional stability as well as stimulating environment. This implies that the educational background of parents could influence how they structure their home environment and their interaction with their children in promoting their career preference. (Davis, 2005). The study of Alika and Audu (2011) revealed that among the factors that affect career decision making and career development, level of parents education is also significant. In other words, adolescent from a well-educated and higher income family is expected to attain more education and aspire to higher status occupation. This was supported by Musgrave (2000), he opined that a child that comes from an educated home would like to go into career of his/her family and by this, work actively in his/her studies relating to parents occupational status.

Parent’s occupational status is the social and professional position of parent’s occupation in relation to others. In other words, it is the position or status of one’s occupation when compared to other available occupation like the unskilled occupation. Many adolescents enter into different occupation, which they neither have aptitude nor capacity for. This might be due to the fact that their parents want them to either inherit their vocation for maintaining their status or live the life they would have loved to live (Egbochuku, 2008).

The study of Rothman, (2004) shows that the most important factors associated with career preference of children appear to be occupational status which determines their socio-economic status. Similarly, Otto (2000) said that ninety-three percent of secondary school students in his study reported holding similar occupations and values to their parents. This is significant because it dispels the myth that children and adolescents tend to defy their parents’ values and expectations. Instead, it may be more accurate to say that children are quick to adopt their parent’s occupations and values, perhaps without ever exploring their own. This may be due to children’s natural desire to connect with their parents (Poulter, 2006). As a result, they are likely to leave out their career preferences and aspirations while adopting their parental values and occupation especially if the society rates such occupations higher than the others and are treated preferentially by others based on prestige and their unique salary packages. This is the reason why many youths according to Watts and Law (2012) choose career like law, engineering, medicine, banking because most society has rated these group of careers high. This study therefore, seeks to examine parent’s educational attainment and occupational status as they relate to the adolescents career preference in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.

Statement of the Problem

Career decisions tend to pose problem for students in the contemporary society, since it determines the kind of profession that they intend to pursue in life. That is why it is not uncommon for students to get into careers that are not quite suitable to their abilities. Parental educational background on the other hand, tends to be one of the most influential factor in students career preference. More often than not, parents owing to level of education or personal idea tend to put pressure on their wards into taking up family occupations and other careers such as prestigious jobs e.g. Medicine, Engineering, Law and so on, even when they do not possess requisite abilities. Miller, (2000). The tendency may also be there for the children to identify with their parents by taking up their occupations. Moreover, in the traditional African society, there was tendency towards encouraging youths to enter the profession owned by family in order to jealously guide the skill owned by their parents. Kinanee, (2004). As a result of these pressure from parents, the students may end up being dissatisfied, frustrated and unable to be effective on the said job that parents had chosen for them. But, an individual who has chosen career that he/she prefers may derive satisfaction and fulfillment in life and therefore contribute meaningfully towards national development.

In addition to these, a wrong choice is a bane to planning in terms of furthering education or technical training, which one is expected to undergo before actually entering the occupation. It may lead to job insecurity; faulty planning, can mar ones happiness for life and could cause occupational maladjustment. This may also directly or indirectly lead to emotional maladjustment. Secondary school students are likely to encounter conflicts with their parents and crises in their choice of career, if they are not properly guided before choosing their career. Lack of appropriate career information made available to the adolescent and career guidance by parents, teachers and counselors might lead to frustration and unhappy individuals. Therefore, there is need to empirically investigate if parents educational attainment and occupational status have any relationship with career preference of senior secondary school students in Ovia North East Local Government Area.

Research Questions

To guide this study, three (3) research questions were raised.

  1. Is there any relationship between parents educational attainment and career preference of senior secondary school students in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.
  2. Is there any relationship between parent’s occupational status and career preference of senior secondary school students in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State?
  3. Is there a relationship between sex and career preference of senior secondary school students in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.

Hypotheses

  1. There will be no significant relationship between parent’s educational attainment and career preference of secondary school students in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.
  2. There will be no significant difference between parents occupational status and career preference of secondary school students in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.
  3. There will be no significant relationship between sex of senior secondary school students in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.

Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to determine how parents educational attainment and occupation relate to students career preference in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. Specifically, this study seeks to find out if:

  • there will be relationship between parents educational attainment and career preference of secondary school students in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.
  • there will be a relationship between parents occupational status and career preference of secondary school students in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.
  • there will be relationship between sex and career preference of students in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.

Significance of the Study

The Nigerian education system is progressively becoming more and more complex. Studies have shown, that Nigerian youths and school leavers are vocationally maladjusted. This seems to suggest faulty vocational education system as school leavers are faced with the problem of inability to relate education to employment opportunities in the world of work. This problem is as a result of inadequate career information and decision making.

Based on this, the research work contains the researcher contributions that would be of help and useful to education planners, authorities, parents, school teachers/educators, guidance counselors and students in senior schools towards helping students to improve on their career choice decision.

It is expected that the result of this study will help the principals and teachers to embark on vocational guidance and counselling programme in other to prepare her students for entry into the world of work, transition from school to work or into t he wider society.

It is also hoped that this study will help the parents to always guide their children towards choosing career congruent to their intellectual abilities. It will also give students the opportunities of seeing their loopholes and knowing how to make amendments in a career decision.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The content scope of this study will cover investigation regarding how parents’ educational attainment and occupational status correlates students career preference. The study will be delimited to selected Senior Secondary School II in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.

Operational Definition of Terms

Career: An occupation or profession, especially one requiring special training, followed as one’s life work.

Career Preference: Career preference is the career field which one prefers or it is a job an individual shows more interest in.

Educational attainment of parents: That refers to the qualification of the parent of an individuals.

 Occupational Status: this refers the position of the parent in terms of occupation such as civil servant and so on.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHING RESOURCES FOR LEARNING AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHING RESOURCES FOR LEARNING AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EGOR LGA OF EDO STATE

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THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LGA, ENUGU STATE

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ABSTRACT

This study intends to find out the relationship between teaching resources for learning and students academic performance in English Language in Nigerian secondary schools, a case study of Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. The research instruments were direct observations, mini interviews, questionnaires and documentary sources. The result of the study showed that there are significant relationship between teaching resources and student’s academic performance. It was recommended that educational planners and all other stakeholders (parents, principals, governments and philanthropic organization) in education should ensure that the public schools are well equipped, properly maintained, adequately staffed and efficiently utilized in order to enhance students academic performance.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE                                                                     

1.1    Background to the study

1.2    Statement of the problem

1.3    Research Questions

1.4    Formulation of Hypothesis

1.5    Purpose of the Study

1.6    Significance of the Study

1.7    Scope of Study

1.8    Limitations of the Study

1.9    Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO                                                           

2.0    Literature Review

2.1    Introduction

2.2    English Language Education in Nigeria

2.3    Education and teaching Aids

2.4    Mode of Teaching/Teaching Methodology of English Language

2.5    Evaluation of Student’s Performance

2.6    Summary

CHAPTER THREE                                                                

3.0    Research Methodology

3.1    Research Design

3.2    Population of the study

3.3    Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.4    Instrumentation

Validity of instrument

Reliability of instrument

3.5    Method of Data Collection

3.6    Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR                                                         

Presentation of Data, Data Analysis and Discussion of Results

4.1    Results and Data Presentations

4.2    Observation and Inference on Result

CHAPTER FIVE                                                 

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1    Summary of Findings

5.2    Conclusion

5.3    Recommendations

QUESTIONNAIRE                                                      

REFERENCES                                                              

CHAPTER ONE

  1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

It is true that education is generally accepted as a great and very important tool for civilization of a nation, which is regarded as the excellent catalyst for national development. For critical and genuine actualization of the objectives of education in Nigeria as stated on the national policy on education NPE (2004), serious efforts must be made to ensure that proper teaching and learning takes place. The mode of instruction, personnel and materials for teaching have been noted by various educationists to have great effects on learning.

Generally, language is the main medium of instruction in Nigerian schools. Infact, the relevance of the language in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized. Basically, people who speak English language fall into three categories, those who acquired it as a second language due to the bi-lingual nature of their society and those who have to learn English for administrative purpose, for communication as well as education.

Despite the dependence and usage of English language in Nigeria a national language of unity, it has been observed that secondary school students especially the Junior Secondary School Level (JSS) speak and write poor/sub-standard English language. The most important thing in a language is to be skillful in it, which needs competence and performance as it is being used to refer to an individual ability of a particular language. How he/she can make use of the language skillfully without making mistake while speaking. Skillfulness refers to the acquisition of four basic skills of listening speaking, reading and writing.

One of the major problems facing education today is the poor  development of English language in our students as well as the problem of teaching resources in our educational institution. In a nutshell, this study takes a look at the relationshiop between teaching resources for learning and students academic performance in English language in secondary schools. A case study in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

A lot of problems affects the educational system. This includes the use of teaching resources and students academic performance. This study on the relationship between teaching resources for learning and students academic performance in English language in secondary schools. A case study of Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria is set out to understand the relationship and influence of instructional resources on students performance in the language study and development too.

In addition, is set to use it findings to make useful and appropriate recommendations to the school administrators, teachers and the government.

  1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In order to carry out this investigation some questions were raised.

  1. Does the availability and efficient utilization of teaching resources contribute to the student’s academic performance?
  2. What is the contribution of English language teachers to the student’s academic performance?
  3. In what ways do infrastructural facilities contribute to the student’s academic performance?
  4. How can we achieve effective utilization of the teaching resources to promote utilization of the teaching resources to promote very good or excellent academic performance?
  5. FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS

For the investigation to be carried out effectively, the following formulated hypothesis will be tested to ascertain the validity.

  1. The quality and availability of English language teachers affects student’s performance.
  2. Instructional resources affect student’s performance in the language study and development.
  3. Availability and utilization of instructional resources affects the student’s performance.
  4. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The following are the purpose of study;

  1. To identify and discuss the various performance.
  2. To note the relationship between teaching resources for learning and students academic performance in English language in the secondary schools.
  3. To suggest some useful and reliable  solutions on how to enhance high academic performance viz-aviz, effective provision and utilization of resources.
  4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of this study is as follows;

  1. This study investigates and note the type of relationship between teaching resources and students academic performance in English language in secondary schools in Nigeria with a case study of an urban settlement with some form of rural setting from one end of the local government to the others in Edo State of Nigeria.
  2. It would expose the causes of mass failure in English language examinations and offer useful suggestions and solution models to solving them.
  3. It contributes to educational research and knowledge which will aid educationist in making recommendation during policy making and decisions.
  4. SCOPE OF STUDY

This work shall be confined to the study of relationship between resources for learning and students academic performance in English language in secondary schools a case study of Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria.

This work shall include clear presentation of issues relating to the students performance in relation to the response from administered standardized questions, documented and edited materials as well as the mini interviews conducted and from some personal observations also.

  1. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Continuous Assessment (C.A): This is a periodic evaluation and recording on cumulative bases. Evaluation of students academic performance.

Data: They are group of information

English Language: It is an inherited language from the British which is used as Nigeria’s lingual franca.

Education (1): Product of learning

Education (2): Process of learning

J.S.S.E: Junior Secondary School Examination

NABTEB: National Business and Technical Examination Board.

NECON: National Examination Council of Nigeria

NPE: National Policy on Education

SSSE: Senior Secondary School Examination

Mass Failure: This is a situation whereby students perform very poorly, below expectation and below average.

 

THE EFFECTS OF EARLY PREGNANCY ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

THE EFFECTS OF EARLY PREGNANCY ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS:

CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ESAN NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

 

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THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LGA, ENUGU STATE

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ABSTRACT

This project work is aimed at finding the effects of early pregnancy on the academic performance of female secondary school students in Esan North East Local Government Area of Edo State. For ease of understanding and appropriate progression, the researcher divided the work into five chapters, each chapter dealing with a particular aspect of the research. In view of the delicacy of the topic to the educational growth in Esan North East Local Government Area of Edo state, the use of questionnaire and oral interview were employed to get the required information from the respondents and the data were analyzed using simple statistical calculation and percentage and at the end, useful recommendations were made to the female students.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter One

Introduction

Background of the study

Statement of problem

Purpose of study

Research question

Significance of the study

Scope and limitation of study

Definition of terms

Chapter Two

Literature review

Chapter Three

Methodology

Population

Sample/sample techniques

Validity

Administration

Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

Presentation of data analysis

Discussion of findings

Chapter Five

Summary

Findings

Conclusion

Recommendations

Reference

Questionnaires

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Each traditional African society knows its sexual marriage values, morals and educates the young ones to maintain those values. Those who hold firmly to the idea of traditional value in the society should bear in mind that there is no such thin in Africa today. It is expected that the people of Ovia-North East Local Government Area will find its disserved place in dealing with the issue of early pregnancy on the academic performance of female students. What have been said in recent years regarding this branch of study have been ill timed in view of the worlds great need of sober and satisfactory truth. Nevertheless, doctors and scientists are doing all at their reach to enhance the growth and development in the different communities in Esan North East Local Government Area of Edo State to meet the standard and aim of health in the society the researcher therefore decided to investigate the problem of early pregnancy on the academic performance of female students in Esan North East LGA of Edo State.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

The major problem in this study is to investigate whether or not there are effects of early pregnancy on the academic performance of female students in Esan North East LGA of Edo State.

PURPOSE OF STUDY

The purpose of the study is to investigate the case of early pregnancy on the academic performance amongst secondary school female students in Esan North East LGA of Edo State, and suggest possible solution to the problem of early pregnancy on the academic performance amongst female students.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The researcher at the end of the enquiry will achieve the following:

1.           Investigate the causes of early pregnancy on the academic performance amongst secondary school female students.

2.           To arrest the activities of secondary school female students without leading to youthful exuberant like the spread of venereal diseases.

3.           To counsel secondary school female students that are promiscuous to deviant from early sex and engage in meaningful activities during leisure time.

4.           To encourage victims of early pregnancy to find solace in better activities towards purposeful goals.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This work is important to the reader in the sense that, it will portray how best to cater for the need of our children if we want them to grow into respectable human being and have respect and value for the society as useful individuals to themselves and the society at large. It will also create in the parents developed interest, curiosity to a certain degree to arrest the activities of their children when they are becoming too fashionable with expensive materials beyond what their parents can afford. It also intends to make the reader aware that early sex is the quickest and easiest way of contacting germs that causes the most deadly communicable diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis and HIV?AIDS. it is also meant to reveal the fact that in either towns and communities or countries where early pregnancy is the order of the day, parents and guardians will know how best to grant their children freedom and face the consequences of such act either good or bad.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is restricted to students in some selected secondary schools in Esan North East LGA of Edo State.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS 

1.           Is there any difference between early pregnancy and the academic performance of female students?

2.           Does parent’s attitudes towards education of the female child encourage early pregnancy?

3.           Does lack of parental upbringing encourage early pregnancy among female students?

4.           Is there any difference between peer group formation and early pregnancy among female students?

DEFINITION OF TERMS 

Early: sooner than usual or than expected

Pregnancy: A state of being pregnant

Offspring: A woman having in her uterus offspring in a stage of development before birth.

Venereal diseases: This refers to those diseases gotten from, sexual intercourse.

Promiscuous: Having many sexual partners.

Sex: Physical activity between two people in which they touch each others sexual organs.

Solace: A feeling of emotional comfort when you are sad or disappointed.

Female: Being a woman or a girl

Effect: A change that something causes in somebody.

Communicable disease: A disease that somebody can pass on to other people or communicate to somebody else.

Victims: A person, who has been attacked, injured or killed as a result of a disease.

Exuberant: Full of energy, excitement and happiness.