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Hypothesis Testing Steps, Examples And Formula

Hypothesis Testing Steps, Examples And Formula


A hypothesis is an intelligent guess of the solution to the research problem. A hypothesis is a statement which guides a researcher by providing a tentative solution to the research problem.

A hypothesis must be the problem under investigation. It must be testable, clesrly stated and unambiguously.

A hypothesis provides direction to a research project, and also enables the researcher to assess information collected.

Examples of hypothesis:

Research Topic: Influence of computerization in operational efficiency in commercial banks: a study of UBA Plc Station road branch Abuja.

Statement of Hypothesis:

  1. Computerization has enhanced operational efficiency and effectiveness in UBA Plc.
  2. The use of computers has increased customer satisfaction in the Bank.


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Role Of Research Supervisor


The relationship existing between a supervisor and students ought to be like that of a leader and his subordinate.

By virtue of his training and exposure, the supervisor is expected to influence and motivate his students to carry out their research projects successfully.

Student supervisors’ responsibility and his role towards students’ research for effective project works are as follows:


  1. Guiding students to select and present appropriate project topics for his/her project.
  2. He ensures that students comply strictly with the research procedure or research methodology.
  3. He ensures that students do not deviate from the approved project topics and research objectives in their collection and analysis of data for the research work.
  4. He exhibits a high sense of maturity, patience and understanding in handling students’ problems.
  5. He takes time to thoroughly and systematically scrutinize the students work at every stage of the research project.
  6. He sometimes acts as a liaison between the student and the organizations the students are using or intends to use for their case study.


Read also: How To Write A Literature Review For A Research Paper





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Importance Of Research Writing To The Students

Importance Of Research Writing To The Students


The importance of research works for students cannot be over-stressed. A student ought to take research writing seriously for the following reasons:

  1. Research work enables the students to develop an inquisitive mind, always wanting to find out why things happens the way they happen.
  2. The usefulness of research work is that it enables the student to be methodical in his approach to solving the research problem.
  3. Research work makes student to cease to depend on the rule-of-the-thumb but to be scientifically minded.
  4. Research work enables the student to be more organized with his work and do things in an orderly manner.
  5. Acquiring appropriate research writing skill gives the student a sense of independence and self-confidence which propel him to always insist on producing original research report.
  6. Mastery of the techniques of research writing enables the student to develop a sense of proportionality.
  7. Research writing develops the student the habit of tenaciously pursuing his goals to a conclusive end, which is the achievement of result.


Read Also: How To Choose A Good Research Topic


Causes Of Students Poor Performance In Research Work


There are many reasons why students perform poorly in research work. Some of the causes for poor performance are as follows:

Wrong choice of research topic is the greatest factor responsible for students’ poor performance in research work.

  1. Lack of basic research writing skill.
  2. Students lack of interest in research work.
  3. Students prefer to copy other research reports. Students these days engage in plagiarism which is the criminal act of copying other people’s work.
  4. Encouraging students to switch supervisors. Students do bribe supervisors to fall out of favour with them. They also tip the staff of their academic department to affect changes of supervisors.




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Latest jamb news 2017: Jamb Directs Candidates To Check Utme Centres Today

All appears set for the conduct of this year’s Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) as the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) yesterday directed candidates to check for their examination centres with effect from tomorrow on its website.


Head of Media and Information of the board, Dr. Fabian Benjamin, who disclosed this in a telephone interview ahead of the board examination billed to commence on Saturday, May 13 assured that necessary machinery has been put in place to ensure a hitch free exercise.


“We are good to go, every machinery has been put in motion, we enjoined parents and candidates to give us their support and on our part, we are assuring of a level playing filed for everyone.”


Benjamin disclosed that the board had so far registered more than 1.7 million candidates for the 2017 UTME across the country.

The board concluded the sale of 2017 UTME application document in a grand style recording over 1.7 million candidates at the close of the site by 12 midnight on Friday, May 5, 2017.


According to JAMB’s spokesman who described the figure as unprecedented however assured that adequate facilities had been put in place to accommodate the upsurge in the number of candidates.

He said, “In 2016, about 1.2 million candidates wrote the examination. It was the same in 2015 and that was why we projected for 1.5milion candidates this year. Although registration period was reduced from six weeks to one month, despite this, we have recorded 1.7million candidates. This shows the effectiveness of our processes. It also shows that whenever you have a setback you should not give up.


“We have put everything in place to ensure the success of the examination. We have the capacity to accommodate 1.7million candidates. In 2016, we used 510 computer-based centres, including six foreign centres for 1.2million candidates. This year, we are making use of 633 centres. There is an increase of more than 100 centres to take care of the additional candidates.’’

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How To Choose A Good Research Topic


Choosing a good research topic is important to any researcher. Every researcher must look around his environment and beyond to pick out problems which individuals. Organizations and society are having.  A research topic reflects a particular problem facing an individual, organization or society.



A good research topic should address the issue which the researcher intends to tackle. A good research topic must be of interest to the researcher. It should be sufficiently original and be significant. Research topic must make contributions to learning and should allow for feasible research.


  1. Pick a topic that has been of special interest to you.
  2. Look through a list of research works previously carried out by individuals or institutions.
  3. Focus attention to a different time span, or
  4. Choosing a geographical area, or sample,
  • Adopting a different design for the study.
  1. Read through the sections of a few research reports under the heading, “suggestions for further research”
  2. Consult a staff member, especially your academic adviser and discuss the issue of identifying a problem with him.
  3. Select a topic from a list drawn up your department or have a topic assigned to you by the department from their list.



Suppose a company like ZENOX Nigeria Ltd, is sustaining losses instead of making profit, then based on this problem, we will frame the topic: ‘internal Control in an Organization. A study of ZENOX Nigeria Ltd



Again let us take the second example of a real problem which occurred in Nigerian Bottling Company. The Nigerian Bottling Company Plc introduced a new soft drink called Fanta Chapman in the Nigerian market. The product attracted much attention at the time due to the television and other medium advertising used to promote it. Many consumers were stimulated and they wanted to try the new product. People desires on the product were not satisfied, and this turned the expectation of the company. The product failed in the market. Based on the manifesting phenomenon, the researcher can frame a research topic to reflect the problem. The research topic can run thus; “Product performance in the Nigerian Market, A study of Fanta Chapman”. The research topic can be stated as “Causes of Product Failure in the Market, A study of Fanta Chapman”.





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To talk of research is to talk about problem solving. A particular way of solving problems has been recommended by scientists and this method is what we adopt in research work.

What is research?



Research is the systematic and scientific method of finding solution to a problem. The operative words here are “systematic” and “Scientific”. By “systematic” we mean that to solve a problem we adopt a particular or laid-down process which we call the “scientific method”. Research is a planned process of conducting investigations in order to achieve a pre-determined objective. The objective is usually a solution to one or more specific problem, or an addition to current knowledge in a particular field. The scientific method encourages doubt and criticism so that what emerges (the solution) is the real evidence which has stood the test of reasoning.




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We will now discuss the sequence of steps involved in conducting a research project.

  1. Definition or statement of problem.
  2. Review of related literature.
  3. Formulation of hypotheses.
  4. Designing the study or research design.
  5. Collection of data.
  6. Organization of data.
  7. Analysis of data.
  8. Interpretation of data.
  9. Writing the research report.


Read also how to write a project proposal and proposal writing format



The starting point of research is the definition of problem. Every research begins with the researcher focusing his attention at identifying and defining the problem whose solution is considered to be useful to the organization,


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