Category Archives: Communication Project Materials Samples

Communication Project Materials Samples

CHANGING HOSTILE ATTITUDE OF OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITIES THROUGH, EFFECTIVE PUBLICATION (A CASE STUDY OF SHELL PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT COMPANY)

CHANGING HOSTILE ATTITUDE OF OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITIES THROUGH, EFFECTIVE PUBLICATION

 (A CASE STUDY OF SHELL PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT COMPANY)

PREFACE

 

In this life, every activity we indulge in is bound to affect the lives of others directly or indirectly favourably or otherwise.

In an age such as ours, where the dynamism of modern technologies, global economics and world populations are disputably unprecedented the attendant changes witnessed in the peoples lives attitudes and world perceptions are as odious as they vary.

These changes have found their way info communities today, on a narrower scope what with the numerous  causes of crises inherent.

For oil producing communities the situation is volatile and the operating oil- exploration and production companies are left at the mercy of the indigenes. How then do the companies being the most accessible victims of raging communities, react to such crisis situation in order to quell or completely avert such incidents? The case of  shell forms the backbone of this study.

latest project materials and topics

The work lays claim to importance because the objectives, which seek to analyze the public relation strategies employed by  shell. BP in avoiding very form of crises in the host communities should expose identified lapses from available statistics and recommend and possible solution or alternatives where necessary. Therefore the entire staff of shell – Nigeria, indigenes of the oil producing communities observes, the government of Nigeria at all levels, academics, students and social commentators should find this work useful.

Comprising five chapters, the first is the introduction, in which a background of eh study, problem, statement and objective of the study are expressed. The basic research questions importance of the work relevant theories and the definition of operational terms form the rest of the chapter.

 

Chapter two and three are the review of related literature to the study and the methods with which the researcher went about gathering relevant data for the study.

Chapter four shows that presentation, analysis and description of data available and also, the discussion of the  result while chapter five is the summary of the work, conclusion and the presentation of recommendations.

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

This study aims at investigating the techniques being used by shell to avert and keep under control, the cases that frequently I\occur between it and the host communities in which it carries out its oil exploration and production activities.

Apparently, problems have continued to exist in oil producing communities which  is the nations treasure base owing to  oil production and consequence under development in the area as witnessed in the communities where the operations exist and the entire oil producing communities as a whole is it ironically indeed the fact that the area is largely under developed and eh majority of Nigeria wealth comes from there.

In the process of finding out strategies employed by shell, the largest oil company operating in the oil producing communities, hypothesis bordering on the peoples perceptions of the situation the degree of shell’ is involvement the company’s  public relation efforts relevance and satisfactory level were evaluated and recommendations proffered. These data were collected from questionnaires and interviews responses from indigenes of Port- Harcourt and shell public affair  department staff.    The findings were a bit more positive than negative.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background study and history of case study
  • Statement of problem/ purpose of the study
  • Significant of the study
  • Research questions
  • Scope
  • Definition of terms

References

CHAPTER TWO

  • REVIEW OF LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research methodology
  • Research design
  • Areas of study
  • Population and sample of study
  • Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     data analysis and presentation

4.1     analyses

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary,
  • Recommendation
  • Conclusion

Bibliography


CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Petroleum is as of now, the bedrock of the Nigeria economy. It provides 80% of the nations revenue and 90% of its foreign exchange with a production rate of two million barrels a day, the country is Africa largest exporter of crude oil and among the  top ten oil producing countries in the world  of today in the world. Ever since the oil boom era of 1970s, the Federal Government has depended on the income generated has depended on the income generated from petroleum to develop and sustain the nation and its people. As such the petroleum industry is a entree of attraction for all Nigerians.

Oil  prospecting in Nigeria began as far back as 1908 by the German company, Nigeria Bitumen corporation in the Araromi areas of the present Ondo state in western  Nigeria, but is was not until 1956 that the shell followed by the first oil exports two years later, ever since than, news on petroleum exploration drilling and marketing have become indications as to how buoyant and stable the Nigeria  economy is every interest of this nation for these activities to continue smoothly. So far this has  not been the case as these oil related activities have been constantly disrupted in the past four to six years. This  is the  major reason why the interest has manifested into the research world developed.

There are oil-producing companies in Nigeria who have licenses to explore, drill and market petroleum jointly with the Nigeria national petroleum corporation (NNPC). The NNPC is the federal government representative which implement governments polices and directives and at the same time controls and supervises the activates of the oil- producing companies.

Petroleum which sustain Nigeria is derived from the lands and territorial  waters of Nigeria. The people form these oil prosodic  areas claim ownership of this mineral since it derived from their soil. In this light these communities demand royalties for petroleum drilled for their land, compensation for any environmental damage such as oil spillage and pollution as well as kind rents and other levels.

In the past the oil companies paid royalties, compensation and land rent to the communities where petroleum was explored  and drilled. But with the coming of the 1979 constitution the situation changed section 40, such section 3 f eh constitution states that “ the entire property in and control of all minerals, mineral oils and natural gas in under or upon any land in Nigeria or in under or upon the territorial waters

 

  • THE HISTORY AND ACTIVITIES OF SHELL PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT COMPANY

The discovery of oil in Nigeria was developed in 1937 with the establishment of a consortium owned by Royal Dutch Shell and British petroleum. This consortium was know as shell D’ Arcy exploration parties and later became shell British petroleum development company of Nigeria.

On November 4, 1938, the British colonial government granted this company an oil exploration license (OEL) covering all of Nigeria. By 1857 shell BP had reduced its average to 40,000 square mile oil prospecting licenses , narrowing down to the Niger delta, with its headquarters at Owerri.

Between 1938 and 1941, Shell BP undertook preliminary geological reconnaissance. After a five ears interruption by the world war II, it intensified and followed up this activity with geophysical surveys. In 1951, Shell  had its first exploration well at Ihuo. Bu\y 1956 Shell drilled its first commercial well at Oloribiri in what is now River state. Since then, the company has been drilling one successful well after the other.

Two years later, 1958, with a modest production of 6,000 barrels of crude oil, shell contributed t the first shipment of crude oil from Nigeria. By 1961, the Bonny terminal of the company was commissioned and the Port- Harcourt office, the eastern base of the company was officially opened. In 1965 the Trans-Niger pipeline was commissioned and later in the year shell commissioned Nigeria’s first refinery in Port- Harcourt.

The company accounts for about 50% of the total crude oil produced in Nigeria, it operated on lad swap, offshore and of recent deeper offshore.

The objective of the company is to find, produce and deliver hydrocarbon safely and responsibly for the  refit of its state holders. The state holder are the federal government the host community the shell group employees, the NNPC the joint venture partner state and local government, suppliers and contractors, customers, the Nigeria public the world publics.

Shell is the operator of NNPC/ Shell Agip/ ELF joint venture partnership. The joint venture arrangement is in the proportion of NNPC controlling 55% of he venture. Shell 35% while Agip and Elf control 5% each.

The joint venture companies meet to draw an operations budget to which each company contributes terms of their share holding. The profit is shared also according to this proportion.

The operational structure is such and the exclusive economic zone of Nigeria shall react in the government of the federation and shall be managed in such a manner as may be prescribed by the national assembly. With this law, land no longer belonged to the people but to the government.

The oil companies now paid royalties and taxes to the government and gave compensation to the communities for causing environmental damage. Following these laws, the federal government appropriate over 90% of the oil revenue with an insignificant share  going to the state and the oil producing communities.

This has not gone down well with the communities. The people feel they are being deprived of their God- given wealth. This has lead to agitation by the oil producing communities for a greasers share in the wealth  which heir land producers.

In the 1980’s these agitations were mild and almost unnoticed bet since the  1990’s the situation has become very tense agitations have become aggressive and have many a time disrupted the activities  of some oil companies were seriously disrupted by the oil communities who were on rampage for a long time, especially the Ogni land in River state.

At  present the people have become more aware of how the wealth which is derived from their lands is used to develop the nation. They went this development which petroleum brings about to come to them too as well as awareness the communities are increasing their demands from the oil companies and federal government.

There is still a continuing debate and tissue between the oil companies and the federal garment on who should be  responsible for producing the soil amenities and other things which the communities demand. The federal government often as cause the oil companies of being insensitive the plight f their host communities and thus including their agitations and hostility. In the words of the former petroleum minister, chief Don Etiebet, the extreme disparity  in the standard of living oil workers company an their hast communities coupled with the refusal  of the companies to extend electricity and pope borne water enjoyed in such camps to the communities is what is causing the problem.

The oil companies on their part claim that it is the responsibility the government to develop these communities since  they, the oil companies blame the government for not producing these areas with social amenities resulting to the problems which affect them that the headquarters of shell is located in Lagos with Weston and eastern bases in Warri and Port- Harcourt respectively. The headquarters takes care of policy formulation and liaising with the government while the Warri and Port- Harcourt office are mainly operational.

 

  • THE PUBLIC RELATION DEPARTMENT

Soon after shell BP came into being, a public relation department was established after due consideration of what is involved in the activities of an oil corporation, the need for good relationship with eh communities where oil fields, administration and staff quarters flow  station and other facilities are located. However, it was in 1951 that he PR office was official opened and put under that name.

The first section created was the press unit, which gave out information to the government and acted as a medical between management and staff. The second was the community relation unit to create a favourable atmosphere between the company and the communities it comes in contact with.

Today, the PR department, which goes by the name public and government affairs, is decontrolled into three units based in Lagos, Warri and Port Harcourt. The Lagos office development the major PR polices and does the  planning and co-operation of PR activities of the whole company. The Warir and Port- Harcourt offices implement these polices in their zones for uniformity. However, the zones make some polices incases that affect there specifically without having  to watt for directive from Lagos.

In the past, before the office of the divisional manager, the head of the public and government affairs reported directly to the divisional manager. Today the head f public and government affairs reports to the manager, health, safety environmental and community affairs.

The report is focused on the eastern division based in Port-Harcourt. Hence the public and government affairs department (PAGE) is split into five units- Agricultural services, government and community assistance survives.

The agricultural services unit offers help to farmers and fishermen in the communities to help them improve their work and gains. The lands unit is responsible for land acquisition and paying compensation for such lands. This unit is responsible for getting lands for locations, access roads, plants, offices and homes. The business   support unit gives business aids in terms of business advices and loans to small and medium scale assistance unit is an engineering unit and affects programmes drawn by the government and community relations unit and he agricultural services unit.

The  government and community unit is further split into three sub-units the government relations, media relations and community relations.

The government relations unit is Port Harcourt, it is headed by a doctorate degree holder and services opt lisaeable legislation and win government support is headed by a seasoned media practitioners and functions to maintain an understanding with the media as regard security good publicity and avoiding wrong information in the media. He community relation unit liased with  the communities handles their grievance and advice both parties on how to settle the matter amicably. In the course of liaising with the communities the unit recommend as projects that the company can do to help he communities the key men here are the communities liaison officers.

The public and government affairs department of shell has its operating philosophy which tells one o what the department is all about.. enshrined in its operating philosophy are the objectives of achieving a better understanding of shell role and contribution as well as contributing  toteh improvement of life in the communities. Also included are the reduction of the disruption of generation, improving communication within shell and with the communities and improving operational co-operation with  relevant government functionaries.

 

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM/PURPOSE OF STUDY

The problem, which this work will attempt to tackle in the hostility antagonism and antipathy of the oil-producing areas towards the oil companies.

The purpose f the research is to identify the hostile attitude and behaviour of the communities, the reasons behind these attitude and behaviour what the oil companies have done so far and hoe successful they have been as well as what further can be done through public rations so that coordinal relationship can exist between both parties.

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This work is expected to be of value to everybody in the oil sector of the Nigeria economy. At the same time, it will be valuable to the average Nigeria, to inform him about this issue which has generated a lot of interest, publicity and tension in the country.

This research is expected to be valuable to oil producing companies in Nigeria who are presently facing a hostile working environment in the communities where they operate. This work intends to provide them with information with which to tackle with this problem. Also public relation practitioner n the oil sector will find this worlds handy as it will provide  them with  reasons why the communities are hostile to the oil companies and some ideas to use in developing and maintaining cardinal relationship with the communities. This work will also expose the pitfalls of their previous public relations programmes.

The oil producing communities will find this work useful as it will help them understand the roots of their problem and thus know how to go about soiling it. It should help them understand the oil companies  position and in the process be able to relate to them.

In the same vain, this world is expected to be useful to the federal government which  relies on this “ controversial” oil to keep  the nation going. This project will pinout the responsibility’s of the government in the quest to maintain peace and harmony in the oil sector.

Finally, this work will be a valuable aid to Nigerian public relations practitioners who are battling to ensure the profession is given its due respect commerce and industry. There are some problems that can only be solved by employing the specialized techniques of public rations. The problem of hostility if oil communities towards the oil companies is one of such problems.

The federal government before now was allocations special funds to the oil – producing stats to develop eh oil producing areas but this was not enough in the eyes of the people. Due to increased agitations by this communities,” the oil mineral producing area development commission (NDDC) was established under decree No. 23 of 1993 to address the difficulties and suffering of inhabitants of the oil producing areas and administer  the monthly sums from the allocation of the federation account in accordance with conformed ratio of oil production in each stat for the rehabilitation and e\development o foil-producing areas and tackling ecological problems that have arisen from the exploration of oil mineral. The commission was allocated the 3% funds from the federation account to carry out its function.

The oil producing companies in their own capability provide different forms of community assistance projects such as electricity, pipe borne water, educational aids like scholarship and build classroom blocks, building roads and helping with agricultures and health facilities.

Despite al these, the oil- producing areas like Oliver, Twist are still asking for  more. The communities are becoming more aggressive and hostile towards the oil companies and the government .one cannot predict the extent and dimension will take for “ reparations” and “ reclamations” will take. What can be said for now is that this awakening in the oil areas is indeed  casting  a new course in the b\history oil in Nigeria.

This research work after tracing the factors leading to the problem in the petroleum industry will seek to find out what can done by the oil companies to put an end to the unending problems posed by the oil producing communities.

 

 

 

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The research questions which this report seeks to provide answers to are.

  1. What hostile attitudes and action have the oil- producing communities taken towards the oil companies?
  2. What factors have led to these hostile attitudes and actions.
  3. What public ratios strategies have the oil companies employed in developing cordial relationship with their neighbors- the oil- producing communities these putting an en to hostilities?
  4. How effective have these measure been in achieving the desired results.
  5. What alternative approaches could the oil producing companies adopt in correcting the hostile attitudes and actions of the communities.?

 

 

 

 

  • SCOPE

The problem which the work will look into is a wide one. However, due to lack of time and resources the work ha been delimited to ensure thoroughness in research and presentation .

Firstly, the work is delimited to its oil-producing communities in River state. Oil producing communities exist in eight states of the federation River, Delta, Akwa Ibom, Ondo state, Imo, Abia and Cross Rive. It would be  Pi actically  impossible to cover thoroughly the oil producing communities in these states. Thus, as the largest producer for petroleum and being the most volatile states as regards agitations by oil- producing areas, River state was chosen as the locality for the study.

Secondly, there are several companies operating in the oil sector. There are oil- producing companies who have the license for prospecting in certain defined geographical areas. Any oil well in such      areas belong to these companies. There are the oil-servicing companies who are the contractors to the oil-producing  companies handle rig building, drilling wire lining geographical survey and in some cases, marketing of drilling tools. The oil-servicing companies are contracted when there is a job for them to do. These companies deals with the  oil- producing companies but do  nit have much responsibilities to the communities as they are mere contractors and have no licenses covering such oil- producing areas,.

In the light, the research will focus on oil- producing companies who are the  people who usually encounter problems with the communities. Tops among these oil-producing development company, Chevron Nigeria limited, Agip Nigeria limited, Mobil oil Nigeria limited and Elf Nigeria limited.

This project has chosen shell petroleum development company as case study for a number of reasons. Firstly it is the biggest of a the oil-producing companies ad  produces about 50% of the total oil produced in Nigeria. Secondly, shell is the company which has faced most of the community disturbances of hostile communities and has been declared an enemy in Ogoni Landland oil- producing community in River state in 1992, shell in its eastern zone experienced 62 incidents of community disturbance and in 1999, it had 128 cases of community disturbance. Thirdly shell is the company with the most installations and plants in River state, the locality of study being present in all local government areas except one.

Apart from these delimitations, due to the very sensitive nature of this topic, the researcher could not risk going to any of the oil-producing areas proper to ask questions. Eh issue of oil-companies the communities and the disagreement  going on between them is one that generates a lot of tension in Rivers state.

As a result of the materials, used for this research were there fore obtained from the residents of Port- Harcourt metropolis. Aside the issue of safety it was in Port – Harcourt that the researcher could get enlightened and literature Nigerians for  on the oil-producing to the questionnaires and answer oral questions

 

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS

Before delving into the complexities of this report, I would be proper to give operational definitions of terms that will be constantly used in the work.

  1. Hostility – This is a feeling or showing of enmity and ill will. It entails opposition and unfriendliness in thought and action towards an identified enemy.
  2. Attitudes- Attitudes are our evaluations of objects, our likes and dislikes. The objects of attitudes very, could be tangible objects, people groups, ideas or behaviours. It its worthy to note that an attitude is a learned stat which predisposes a person to behave in a particular way. Behaviour is usually an expression of one’s attitude.
  3. Oil – producing communities: The oil- producing communities are those communities in whose territory petroleum has been discovered and is being drilled the communities that have plants and installations such as flow stations administrative and staff quarters also fall into this category. Even the people whose land is passed in the transportation of petroleum and across whose land pipeline are laid for oil transportation fall into thus group.

These oil-producing will, in the remaining chapters of this work be referred to as the communities.

  1. Oil-Producing Companies: As previously stated, for he purpose of this research these are those companies which have licenses to prospect explore, f\drill and market petroleum.

In the reaming chapter of this work the oil- producing companies wall  just  be teemed “ oil-producing companies “ and the term oil and petroleum will be used int4rchanginably. Shell petroleum development company  will be simply referred to as shell.

  1. Public relations: “essentially public relations is about creating an understanding through knowledge and this often involves affecting change.

Public relations practice entail every thin that its calculated to improve mutual understanding between an organization and  all with  whom it comes tin contant and all rations to discover and eliminate sauces of misunderstanding.

 

References

Ajala, Victoria O. (1993) Public relations in search of professional excellence (Afriklink books, Ibadan- Enugu – Abuja)

Hoadly, Walter (1994) An instrument of change in Human rights – The new consensus (Regency press humanity) Ltd. Gordon houses 6 Lissenden Garden, London NW5 KX)

Offonry, Kanu H. (1985)  Guide to public relations in Nigeria(New Africa publishing company ltd).

Download our android mobile app for more materials

ORDER NOW

COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

Share This:

THE ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN ENHANCING CUSTOMERS’ SATI STATION (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN AIRWAYS ENUGU)

THE ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN ENHANCING CUSTOMERS’ SATI STATION

(A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN AIRWAYS ENUGU)

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed at pointing out the function of pubic relations officer in customer’s satisfaction in Nigeria Airways Enugu.

Research method: The data for this study were collected through questionnaire.

Thereafter the data collected were analyzed using chi – square method (X2) =  (0  -e)

E

 

Which served to out qualitative characterizes

In the data into numerical form and relationships.

The research finding the essentials of public relations officer in an establishment.

The effect of public relations in promoting the image of an organization.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION                                                      1

  • Background of the study 9
  • The objectives of Nigerian Airway 10
  • Statement of research problem 12
  • Objective of the study 14
  • Significance of the study 15
  • Research questions 17
  • Research Hypothesis / Null Hypothesis 17
  • Conceptual of Operational Definition 18
  • Definition of terms Operational 20
  • Assumptions 21
  • Limitation of the study                                        22

CHAPTER TWO:

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • The origin and concept public relations 23
  • The place of public relation in an Organization 27
  • Publics 31
  • Corporate Image 32
  • Social Responsibility 34
  • The pubic relations practitioner 38
  • Summary of Literature review 40

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                    43

  • RESEARCH Method 43
  • Research design 43
  • Expression Instrument
  • Measuring Instrument 45
  • Method off data analysis 46

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data analysis and interpretation 47
  • Table 1: Measurement on image problem

of Nigerian Enugu                                              49

  • Table 2: Measurement on the role played by the public relations                                                             50
  • Table 3 :- Measurement of the basic steps

top  be taken                                                    52

  • Table 4:- Measurement of effects of

political interference                                           55

  • Discussion 57

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary and recommendation for further study 62
  • Recommendations 65
  • Conclusion 68

Bibliography                                                               71


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In any organization, the need to maintain the image of the organization is in our contemporary societies a private one hence this  study survey the role of public relations in enhancing consumer’s satisfaction. We set out to find   whether Nigeria Airways Enugu, has in any  way satisfied or disssatidied the total number of  people or customers that  have been satisfied or dissatisfied by the organization. This study will also x – rays how far the PR roles have helped or will help to co-ordinate the organizations perception of the Nigeria airways image when determined are bed, them the researchers would be in a better position to advise and make necessary recommendations in order to enhance it’s image. And also, to contribute to the knowledge of mass communication and indeed to the acknowledge  of geniality of Nigerian in their quest for the effect of customers satisfaction in government and in parastatals.

The Nigeria Airways is a public interest and business enterprise and as such is required to succeed.   

        As a public institute devoted to the servicing of the public interest , it must have its customers, satisfactions as its prime motive  to  enhance and achieve public co-operation and acceptance. As a business institute, the Nigeria Airways must use business principles to operate in such a way that  it be comes economically strong enough to  depend and sustain its independence against crumbling.

Against the background the Nigeria Airways, instituted  the public relations department to help foster the activities of the organization in order to achieves it aims and objectives. This is so because no business oriented organization can make any meaningful achievement without the it is easy identifiable that the basic philosophy underlying public relation practice is prime importance in all spheres of activities. The public relations man engages himself in doing he has done. This involves winning friends, keeping them and influencing them, as well as others it also involves looking good by building and sustaining good image or goodwill through good deeds that will wim favourable consideration for Nigerian Airways Enugu among members of the public.

Public relations by definition according to frank Jefekins states “that public relation is the process of assessing consumer wants establishing communication fastening good will so that consumer wants or needs can be profitable satisfied”. I

Another definition of public relations according to the editors of public relations news, PR is a philosophy and function of management, which evaluate public attitudes, identities the policies of  an individual or organization  with public interests and execute a programme of actions to earn public understanding and acceptance”.

From these definitions, it is obvious that the public relations man blends the public interest with that of the organization for optimal achievement. It also identified the need  for the public relations man to evaluate the public attitude and conception of the organization with the area of attaining and eliciting favourable actions  where necessary. As a result of this, customers satisfaction in the activities of Nigeria Airways, Enugu among others should pursued. One way of doing this is to map out a programme of action that is, customers oriented and favourable to the generality of the people.

In actual sense, Nigeria Airways, Enugu cannot exist in a vacuum. It cannot grow if it neglects the existence of its customers it must function as an institution ready to compute the customers.  This includes expressing her policies and practices through communication for general awareness.

However, this communication function can best be formed if public relations manager is given its appropriate place in the management of Nigeria Airways, Enugu.

Sincerely speaking, the  Nigeria Airs, is fast recognizing the enormous function which public relation would perform if allowed into the strategic decision making level of the organization. In this contemporary society, the public scrutiny and accountability is on the increase. It is imperative therefore, that good public relation should enhance good will and customers satisfaction in the organization.

The image of the  Nigerian Airways, Enugu depends on the her behavior and financial performance her making policies and the quality of her products or services, the management style, approach and the resultant satisfaction. The protection and maintenance of the Nigeria Airways Enugu image is the fundamental responsibility of public relation. As the conscience of the organization and its public and monitors the diffusion of the programmes of the organization to know when it impinges public opinion and warfare.

George Flangan stated that “if an individual contact and experience with  co-operation is extensive, his proposed image of the coronation is likely to be  strong, positive and relatively stable if , on the other hand, the individual’s familiarity with corporation is slight, as is most of the case, the mage will probably be weak, (negative) Lazy and unstable” 2

The only meaning drawn from this statement is that, if the level or degree of customer’s satisfaction in any organization is high; the customer tends to maintain more cordial relationship and vice-verse. It is the image of  the organization that attracts popularity among the potential customers. In this sense, the only image that can last long is the one that its stand is valid, true and authentic.

Candidly no organization can satisfy its mummeries customers with out being perceived first by the customers or trusted and dependable, so far Nigeria Airways to maintain the line of dependability, its policies , performance and pubic reactions have in his interaction with a company constitutes to the attitude he forms about it.

The dependability of the organization depends on the degree of the comfort given to  her customers and her good will. As regards to these facts Walter asserts “ No administrative scheme is workable with put good will and good will aboout strange practices is impossible new development in Nigeria Airways, Enugu, that is not communicated to the potential customers in clear terms and with clear evidences show so as to elicit favourable actors to attain mutual understanding will be an effort in futility.

It is therefore important  that Nigeria Airways Enugu should acquaint it self with the customers for cordiality through continuos and systematic public relations practice. It is essential that all public reaction activities of the Nigeria Airways are within the frame work often agreed and understood the corporate personality.

The modern business organization, quick to recognize the changes in the environment, has adjusted. It has more comprehensive and positive programmes by responding to community  expectations and pressures. This, for short, is the spring board of the concept of goodwill and customers satisfaction.

However, the activities of Nigerian Airways and prospects c an better be under of view of its origin. To this end, below is the mark off point of Nigeria Airways.

 

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

  • THE HISTORY OF NIGERIA AIRWAYS

The history of the organization would traced to 1945 when it was incorporated as West African Airways corporation (W.A.A.C) to understate operation which the Royal Airforce left behind at the end of would war “., was then jointly owned by former Bristish colonis manly; Nigeria, Ghana, Gambia and Sier Leone. The African Airways corporation (WA.A.C) was managed by West African Transport Authority (W.A.A.TA).

On attainment of independence in 1957, Ghana pulled out to set up its own Air line, the Ghana Airways, leaving Nigeria, British overseas Airways cooperation (BOAC) and Eldr Dempstr lines as the owner of what remained (WAAC) .

The Federal Government took total controls of the business in Augusts 23, 1958 by buying out the shares of its partners, the B.O.A.C and Elder Dempster lines. In this sense the airline because 100 percent Nigeria owned and the name changed to Nigeria airways limited. In the same vain, after some years Nigeria Airways Enugu was established.

 

  • THE OBJECTIVE OF NIGERIA AIRWAYS

The objectives of the air line as a national earner is to operate a scheduled and chartered air  transportation services for the carriage of passages, cargo, mails and any other related business in most reliable, efficient  and profitable manner on both domestic and international routers.

Apart from its commercial objectives, the organization also has social defense, security and political responsibility to the government and people of Nigeria as the nation’s national carrier.

For example, the airline could give back up services to the military authorities as a transportation auxiliary in a period of national emergency such as war. In other works, the line as a true is different from other commercial airlines since it must perform governments functions without profit when directed to do so by the authorities.

For the above reasons , Nigeria, Airways is duty bond to separate in the country whether it is commercially viable or not.

In situation where communication is poor, Nigerian Airways is used by government as an effective institute to bridge people, goods and mails through he ought and breath of the country. This is a great social and economic responsibility to the nation. Based on these reasons, the Federal Government offers its protection  to the airline through diplomatic channel in international traffic negotiations guarantees the airlines to secure local and foreign loans to purchased aircraft and equipment.

Due to the numerous aims and objectives of the Nigerian Airways her zeal towards making them a reality the  origination is department allied to case activities and foster developments in a way of satisfying its cutworms.

 

  • STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS

There have been a good number of complaints from the Nigeria Airways Eniugu public relation  is operation of the organization. There is no efficient, effective and systematic public relation in the Nigerian Airways, Enugu does not communicate to it customers a as and when due.

The Nigerian Airways, Enugu seems to be undergoing image problems. The problems of financial constraints, deferring regulatory policies down by the government negative attitude of employees to work management problem, flight delays and conciliation, inefficient services and generally rising costs of goods and services seems to point to the that public relations has failed its role in finding out what actually satisfied the customers of Nigeria Airways Enugu.

There has been absence of direct incentives to customers, which now brings about low persuasive sales strategy.

The acceptance of forged tickets, defected tickets and checking about passenger with infects or children tickets and affects the customers satisfaction badly.

The refund of unused tickets takes a very long time, hence the customer involved unusually get displeased because of the undue time spent before they are finally satisfied.

Another problem is that the management of the parastatal makes it impossible for airline public relations manager to do his job satisfactorily. The resultant effect here is that is compelled to take actions and execute some programme that are not of the interest to the various customers.

 

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of this study is to identify more efficient and effective way of using public relations to enhance customers’ satisfaction and goodwill in Nigerian airways Enugu.

The study wills analysis the public relations strategies and management policies of the organization in question

It is much better to identify and know the various aims and objective of Nigeria Airways to see how far the organization has achieved them or not.

The direct incentive due to the customers are they really persuasive sales strategy or not.

To analyze erratically the customers remark and responses that shall be made when questionnaires are collected to see whether the Nigeria airways will succeed as a business enterprises and social institution.

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

In every organization, be it a social or business enterprises, there is need for thirty, harming and peace prevail between the organization and its customers. Any organization that tails to recognize the existence of its customers will definitely fail or fact up. And if any organization fails to take cognizance of public relations dependent of the organization , such organization will not accomplish its aims and objectives.         To this end, the Nigerian Airways, Enugu, should always give the public relations manager his proper place in the organization and should help hi, function fully by giving ho, the necessary tools and equipment needed for his operations.

To identify total number of people or customers that has been satisfied and dissatisfied by the organization.

To know how public relation help to solve the problem of inadequate communication in  the organization.

To identify and know the type of direct incentives given  to customers.

To ascertain how the customers perceive the image of Nigeria Airway, Enugu. If the customers perception of the organization image when determined is bad, then one would be in a better position to advise ad make necessary recommendation n order to enhance its image.

To know some of the communication barriers faced by public relations department in the organization.

Finally, to contribute to the knowledge of mass communicators and indeed to the knowledge of generality of Nigeria their quest for the effect of customers satisfaction in government parastatals.

 

 

 

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  • Does the image of Nigerian Airways, Enugu satisfy its present customers so as to help induce , attract and sustain the potential
  • Is Nigerian Airways Enugu facing image problems in execution of its duties ?
  • Does non – satisfaction of the customers’ needs, desires and aspiration tarnish the image or goodwill of Nigeria Airways ?
  • Does the political internee hampers or under the public relations department in Nigeria Airways ?

 

  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The researchers will list the following: –

H1 – The pubic relation role go along way in enhancing customers satisfaction in Nigeria Airways.

H0 – The public relations role does not go along way in enhancing customers satisfaction in Nigeria Airways.

H2 – The Nigerian Airways faces image problem in execution of her duties.

H0 – The Nigerian Airways Enugu cannot face image problem in the execution of her duties.

H3-  The more political interference, the more effective the performance of public  relations department.

HHhh   H0 –         The more political internee, the less effective the performance of public relations department.

H4 –  The higher the  price of Nigerian Airways Enugu tickets the more the tendency of customers to with draw the patronage.

 

  • CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

CONCEPTUAL DEFINITIONS

  • Public relations:- The procedure of programmed of activities of ensuring a link between an organization and it’s customers.
  • Public Relation:- The procedure of programmed of activities of ensuring a link between an organization and its customers
  • Image:- This is a method picture , idea of concept of somebody or something. It could also be seen as a sensual thing perceived s an entry or a coherent, which does not necessarily have something to do with reality of situation.
  • Customers:- This is a person who buys tings.
  • Customers’ satisfaction:- This is a state were the customers are placed and contended with the produce or services given to them.
  • Airline:- This is an air transport business that runs a regular services.
  • Organization:-This is a group with special purpose of coming together as one to operate a business ventures. It could be government or private owned.

 

  • OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
  1. Public : The number of customers or people who receive the services of Nigerian Airways, Enugu
  2. Public relation :- Mutual understanding between Nigerian Airways, Enugu and it publics, carried out by the public relation department.
  3. Image :- The metal pictures that the public of Nigeria Airways, Enugu have on the effect efficiency of services varied by the number.
  4. Customers’:- Those who patronize the Nigerian Airways, Enugu by way of traveling with them.
  5. Customers’ satisfaction:- Thee extent to which the customer’s are pleased or satisfied with the service of the Nigerian Airways, Enugu.
  6. Airline:- This means the case under study, which is the Nigerian Airways, Enugu.
  7. Organization:- Government owned parastals know as the Nigerian Airways, Enugu.
  8. Discount :- Scores made on question on sell discount of tickets by each respondent.

 

  • ASSUMPTIONS

It is assume that after this study ,  the pubic relations officer would b in a between position to know the best strategy to get his internal and external public satisfied.

How would he be in a position o make very nice good will for the organizations, as to increase it profits.

However, the management of the organization would be a position to equip the pubic relations officer, that he can discharge his duties efficiently.

 

  • LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study is limited by the logistics, time and found problems. This is because the subject matter of this study is one, which should have made the study a national one. The topic is one, which attracts public attention and interest on a nations scale. Unfortunately, it would not be handled on  the require scale.

As a result of this, Researches limited their research work at Nigerian Airways, Enugu because of the limited time available. This sampling is done in Nigerian Airways, Enugu chapter.

Download our android mobile app for more materials

ORDER NOW

COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

Share This:

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISING ON ORGANIZATIONS PROFIT MAXIMIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED HOTELS IN ENUGU URBAN)

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISING ON ORGANIZATIONS PROFIT MAXIMIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED HOTELS IN ENUGU URBAN)

ABSTRACT

 

This research work is a survey on the effectiveness of Advertising in the maximization profit, with survey of some selected hotel business in Enugu Urban.

Among the objectives of this study is to find out whether the advertisement on hotel  services and products actually lead to profit increase. This problem I necessary in view of the fact that some people do believe that hotels could go on with their businesses with or without advertising.

Respondents were randomly selected from Enugu metropolis and the data they provided were analyzed with simple percentage and the statistics techniques. The result obtained indicated the effective advertising is a necessary stimulant of profit maximization in hotel business.

It also shows that the awareness level of hotel advertising by the public is low. The study was able to show that television  remains the most fastest medium of hotel advertising, closely followed by Radio.

Finally with some recommendations proffered. The conclusion was also drawn based on the result of the findings.

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

  • Introduction
  • Statement of problem
  • Objective of the study
  • Research questions
  • Research hypothesis
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope of the study

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

  • Introduction
  • Summary of the review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

  • Sources of data
  • Sample size
  • Sample selection techniques
  • Limitations of the study of data analysis techniques

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • Questionnaire distribution and returns
  • Analysis of data

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, discussion, recommendation and conclusion

References

Bibliography

Appendix

 

 

 

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

  • INTRODUCTION

Prior to the era of industrial revolution, the pattern and method of salesmanship was both crude and cumbersome because the gap between the productive and consumption sectors of society was small and manageable. However with the present complication and sophistication among both the producers and consumers occasioned by high level of economic and technological developments, business are now re-shaping, re-focusing, re-positioning and re-directing their operations and marketing strategies in order to face obvious challenges posed but modern day marketing.

Every business concern has a major objectives for which it was established but whatever may be the  goal, the overriding force undoubtedly remains profit maximization.

To accomplish the foretasted, these business make conscious efforts of findings out what their customers want, producing them, creating the needed awareness on the availability of these goods and services and offering them at the right place, time and cost. It is by so doing that such a business can assuredly claim greater percentage of the market share and at the center of these activities is the pivot, the stimulant, the propelled, the sole of business called advertisement.

Advertising as one of the strangest  promotional tool remains a strong force in the hands of business entities. A popular saying has it that, if you do not blow your triumph, no body is going to do that for you, for only when actually know where you are. Advertising does this and more for organizations especially the hotel business. It creates awareness, package the product services etc. present it to the intended consumer and assists him in making the right choice.

The following definitions and opinions by some authorities and schools of thought on the meaning and roles of advertising, will perhaps give more insight into the concepts.

According to Staton W.I, advertising consists of all the activities in presenting

to a group of non-personal oral or visual openly sponsored message regarding a

products services or idea.

Jones (1955:14) sees it this way: in England in the early days of the point to twin the attention of voters.

The American marketing association (AMA) defines it as:

An paid form of non- personal presentation and promotion of ideas and services by an identifies sponsor.

The advertising Age (1932:4) an Ad magazine) has a summary of the views of some professionals in the filed thus: advertising is the printed written spoken or pictured representation of a person, product, services or movement openly sponsored by the advertiser and at his expense for the purpose of influencing sale, use vote or endorsement

Finally, Starch (1966:2) sufficiently defines advertisement as: the paid

form of  mass communication designed to influence people to favour a product in order to induce them to buy it.

From the foregoing definitions and views we can begin to see that advertisings has the following more purpose for business, especially the hotel entities:

  1. To create awareness on the availability of a product uses, vote. Person, idea, etc.
  2. To educate the target user on the constituents of what is being advertised.
  3. To offer other services, such as how to use the product, where to get it, what the cost is etc.
  4. To induce sales.
  5. Ultimately to increase and maximize profit thereby enhancing the revenue base of the business –hotel

These (above) are only a tip of the iceberg on what advertising is capable doing for hotel business.

 

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Hotel businesses market their goods and services to both internal and external publics in order to real profit for further survival and growth of the variables. Advertising as one of the variable of the marketing communication helps in actualizing not only marketing objectives of the organization

It is however, said to note that some hotels especially in Enugu urban  hardly  utilize  or avoid themselves of the  unique services offered by modern advertising. In some cases, it is hard to identify the location of these hotels what they offer, their modus operandi and the likes to such (these hotels) the minimal revenue accruing to the business is enough. Therefore to  involve advertising is to insure unnecessary cost, they  ignorantly consider advertising a chasmal waste of time and resources. This indeed is a sad commentary.

The unavoidable consequences are:

  • These hotels remain perpetually hidden and unknown.
  • They end up operating below their capacities.
  • Business yields continually decrease over the years.
  • Some end up paying the supreme sacrifice of untimely demise.

It is therefore the intention of this study to critically review the likely benefits hotel business will make in terms of profit maximization by availing themselves and using the communication tool of advertising.

 

  • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The prime objective of this study is to find out the effectiveness of advertising in profit maximization of hotel business in Enugu metepolis.

Additionally, the study will also aim at the following th determine the general impact of advertising on consumers.

To determine the  extent of consumer awareness of hotel advertisement.

To identify what consumer patronage of these hotels are as a result of advertising.

To make recommendations in line with our observations.

 

  • RESEARCH QUESTION

Does effective advertising lead to increase in profit of hotel business in Fnugu urban

Are customers and the general public aware of hotel advertisement?

To what extent do these adverts influence customer patronage of these hotels?

What medium of advertising is most effective for hotel advertisement?

 

  • FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS

Ho: the effectiveness of advertising leads to profit maximization of hotel business in Enugu urban.

Hi: The extent of customer and the general public awareness of hotel business is unsatisfactory.

Ho: Advertising influences customers patronage of hotel business.

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will be of importance to advertisers, hotel business and the general public.

It is anticipated that results from this study will help to evaluate and identify better ways of making hotel advertising and business operations more effective.

It will additionally add to the existing  body of knowledge of advertising and other related fields.

 

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study will cover only major hotel in Enugu urban. Hotels outside this zone will not be studied so as to make more realistic investigation

 

 

 

 

  • LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Time and money constant constituted a serious log in the wheel of progress of this study

Literacy level and the culture of secrecy nearly hampered the success of the work pressure of work was also a major source of worry to the researcher.

With all sense of humility, the researcher lacked the requisite expert knowledge on data analysis- the use of high scientific equipments such as the computer which could have aided and speeded up the effective analysis of collected data, such aspects of the investigation were done normally.

Download our android mobile app for more materials

ORDER NOW

COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

Share This:

AN APPRAISAL OF NIGERIA MEDIA AS INSTRUMENT OF ERADIATING CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA (CASE STUDY OF NTA EFFECT ON OBASANJO’S ANTI- CORRUPTION CRUSADE)

AN APPRAISAL OF NIGERIA MEDIA AS INSTRUMENT OF ERADIATING CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA

(CASE STUDY OF NTA EFFECT ON OBASANJO’S ANTI- CORRUPTION CRUSADE)

ABSTRACT

 

This research work has investigated the media as an instrument in eradicating corruption. Using Obasanjo’s anti-corruption crusade (a case study of  the Nigeria television authority)

The objectives of this work among other thing was to find out the problems that follow corruption and also to find out solution to the problems based upon which hypothesis were formulated.

The research work was carried out by using primary and secondary data like interview method, questionnaire personal observation and the review of related literature.

The literature reviewed include the journals, magazines, textbook periodical news papers lecturers, seminars. Response from the respondents show that the major problem in Nigeria is corruption like illegal ward of contracts, lobbying syndrome, indiscipline like brown envelope, godfathers, unpatriotic pracfraudster bad name and bloody  practices etc. which promoted president Obascanjo to launch crusade against corruption after the military regime brining them to book for offence and punishment due for any offence committed without fear on favour of  personality whereby he used Nigeria television authority for quick enhancement.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of problem
  • Objective of the study
  • Significant of the study
  • Research questions
  • Research hypothesis
  • Definition of terms
  • Assumption
  • Limitation of the study

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

  • Sources of literature review
  • How have
  • What has the media done about review
  • Summary of literature review
  • Theoretical framework

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Research method
  • Research design
  • Measuring instrument
  • Data collection
  • Data analysis
  • Expected result

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1     Data analysis

  • Summary of results/ findings
  • Discussion

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary
  • Recommendation for further study
  • Suggestion for further research

Reference

Appendix

Questionnaires


CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

It is necessary to glorify the minds that made ventures to the establishment of media. Media as a watch dog and the mirror of the nation perform crucial roles in the society media educate entertain analyses interpret ,motivate, create avenue, to failure and to success. Media as well monitor evaluate and correct al wrong activities concerning human existence. It executive and recommends, encodes and decodes and ensure feedback etc.

Media is metaphoric when we termed it to be a watchdog of eh nation and as well the mirror through which the  nation see and recognize itself. it is the importance of the media that place it to that position in that somebody cannot just get up and started printing or criticizing a nation  or society without having in mind any channel of dissemination of his information whether good or bad informational concern sense to the  target audience . It is therefore at this junction that journalist uses media aid to bring the nation what their society is like and how their government is  like and how good or bad the  personalities involved are like, then it is through this means that they will know what the are and how their activities moves whether it encourages the audience or discourage them.

It was through this mirror media the news that exposed the forgery certificate of Alhaja Salisis Buhari which he did at the University of Toronto Canada . the made president Obasanjo after taken over the government to launch crusade that will redress what he saw in the mirror . this made Alhaja Salisu Buhari to be brought down from his position of speaker of house representative

The media educate the ignorant it teaches them from known to unknown without it was when media publishes or air what people know that they will analyze was through media that people get to know what brought about the removal of Evans Ewerem from the position of senate president because of his falsification of age. The Nigerian media therefore exposes them, he evil operator of  their evil deed and drag them down from the success to failure through mentoring of their movement and activities and  evaluating and correcting their wrongs by disseminating it on air and preparing the audience to feedback recommending to the government the punishment that the deserve for the issue of awareness to be accomplished.

Furthermore, in Nigeria society, the role of broadcasters and the broadcast media, as agents of rural and motional development,, especially at the information dissemination, watchdog level, is now generally recognized and accepted by experts and policy maker alike. Also, a critical appraisal of the socio-economic development of he people of he world indicates that the sits a spectrum of levels of development of he people of the among he nation stake and that within a given country there also  exist a spectrum of levels affluence poverty

Importantly he development spectrum of the nations is demonstrably corrected with the amount of natural resources, indigenous technology and political stability whereas the affluence or poverty of  individual within a nation, may be  corrected with family background, ethnic origin, educational statement etc. depending on the character of the nation in question. Nigeria as a typical developing country to day has a citizenry with a multiplicity of ethnic groups, language, dialects, rural patterns, religious beliefs, and traditional institutes that lend to defy the best of intonations internal integration and development. usually only a small percentage of the people are literate in nay language, indigenous or foreign.

Meanwhile, the national government the enlightened segments of the society are aware of the need for wide spread education for both children and adults in order to achieve prescribed goals in economic growth, health care, political and special awareness, political stability, self reliance and nation identify, among other things for national development.

From the above points, broadcaster media is a powerful and effective instrument for achieving these national goals, it has been recognized all over the world and in Nigeria in particular as the role of  broadcast media. In national development according to ADSDI, Uyo in the book the mass media and social change, he identified the functions performed by the  media of mass communication especially broadcast media as , information, education, entertainment, persuasion which he referred to fondly as the media pile- an acronym derived from the four basic function,

Therefore this study is an attempt to discover how media as an instrument for eradicating corruption of Obasanjo’s anti—corruption crusade. A  case study of NTA.

Since assuming office in May, 1999 president Olusegun Obasanjo has never hidden his intention to fight corruption which has permitted the social fabric of Nigeria from the top to bottom.

In order to raise that goal, he set up the independent corrupt practices and other related offences commission, otherwise known as the  ICPC, handed by justice Mustapha Akanbi, a retired judge of the court of appeal. But since then, the commission has remained a came dulk and toothless building until recently. In what observes sees a departure from the past and  a renew vigor in the anti-graft campaign the ICPC in early December imitated the arrest of prominent politicians and former government officials. In one fell SWOAP a serving of corrupt was fired over allegations of corrupt practices. not only was former minister of labour and productively, Alhaji Hassani Akwanga sacked he was  later arrested by security agencies for involvement in a $214m scan in the Jinx national identity card schema being handled by the minister of internal affairs. He was permanent secretary of that ministry before retiring and being appointed a minister.

The ICPC is currently prosecuting about sixty-two persons for various offense, these include politicians, judges, academic and members of the commission is said to have received over 942 petitions since inception out of which about 400 are still being investigated,. Firstly ,in view of this study.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

The problem of study is the effect of the media and instrument for eradicating corruption. A case  study of Nigeria television authority inform of Obasanjo anti-corruption crusade. Opinion of the researcher to see if there is any significant effect on media being a powerful instrument to Obsanjo’s  crusade against  corruption. Truly, the has been series of struggle to attain this objective’s

Similarly, the legal philosophers and various notions of the nature, meaning and scope of corruption. Today the struggle to bring to the public the notification of their freedom from corruption by the media had been  respected attempt done by the media for its is the obligation of he media to carry out government opinions, translate it and analyze it to layman’s understanding.

Today, it is a mater of a national and internal affairs or concern in that that the rule of law has no meaning as some government as some government in African countries are dictatorial in nature and operate above the law, thereby something or action that above he law of its laud is a problem and that is the statement of problem of corruption and Obsanjo crusade against instrument to enforce awareness and motivates actions which was achieve a last.

For instance late Abacha chose Bariabas Jabilla (Nick names Roger) as his killer squad leader who carryout a lot of assassination for him therefore instead of investing money on development be rather used the money to send segment Rogers to North Kores to learn self defense and assassination and as well was given asset to presidential jet and many carts of which was announced that Tell magazine describe his appearance as lefty bearded Rogers who always poses a deceptive look with his athletic physique and cherubic face who usually decked in a special black Arab captain when on a mission to kill, al enemy of evil like assassination of Kurdurat Abiloa late and other simply because of the interview grange to her by the British broadcasting separation where she exposed late Abacha she was killed because she vowed to fight Abachs’s corruption to the last. She was killed  her husband Abiloa late won a free and fair election which was announced on June 12.

Problem are imminent in very aspect of human edeavour. As scholars researcher student are know that the Nigeria nation as Bedeviled with so much corruption which has hitherto been a constraint to national development. A category of corruption in synomious with Militaries, politicians, some are caused by employer government agencies, the common men, leader of thought the youths, the aged ad these are the component that make up the federation. A sample of corruption which this work tends to address is crime, drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, cultism, bribery and disobediences.

Therefore, in a situation like this, as the powerful instrument for r\eradicating corruption is at work but suffers in that there is no freedom of media activates yet that does not stop the media from motivation and action, through some personnel lost their lives in the process a good example is late Giwa founder of Newswatch, who was assassinated.

 

  • OBJECTIVES FO THE STUDY

The researcher intends at the end of this work to provide a lading solution of the problem of corruption in Nigeria. It also intends to asses the Obasanjo anti-corruption crusade to tell the public how far it has gone in trying to eradicating corruption in the society it also tends to form a frame work or basis for further research as far as corruption in concerned in Nigeria.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The  research work will go a long way toward using the media to address the issue of corruption practices in Nigeria.

We must not fail to welcome the constitution democracy, be it as benevolent ad it may be a military regime still, falls short of the mark. It is a government that owes its origin and authority to sheer force and not to the people. we would  like to have a government that will owe its origin and authority to the people and as well as give its accountability to the people and have an air of change in mind when he did not account to his people fine otherwise was promised by president Olusegun Obasanjo on the day of the launching on 9th September, 1999 at Bayalsa state in  yewe gua, he promised to be cooperation with the staff and to work towards the upliftement of he standard of living of the  people manifestoes. With that will be reduced and media will perform its roles effectively without hindrances

 

 

 

 

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  1. Do media aid anti-corruption crusade
  2. To extent does anti-corruption crusade help to sustain Nigeria democratic growth?
  3. To what extent ahs the ant-corruption crusade helped in eradicating corruption
  4. To what extent had NTA gone about the anti- corruption crusade?

 

  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Hi: The media aid anti-corruption crusade

Ho: The media do not aid anti-corruption crusade

H2: Anti-corruption crusade help to a great extent in sustaining democracy in Nigeria

Ho: Anti-corruption crusade  does not  in any way help to a great extent in sustaining democracy in Nigeria

H3: Corruption poses serious problem to democratic growth in Nigeria.

Ho: Corruption does not poses serious problem to democratic growth in Nigeria.

H4: The anti-corruption crusade has to a great extent helped in ridding Nigeria of corrupt leaders

Ho: The anti-corruption crusade has not in anyway  helped in ridding Nigeria of corrupt leaders

H5: NTA has been an affective instrument in the anti corruption crusade

Ho: NTA has not  been an affective instrument in the anti corruption crusade

 

  • CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

In order to made far adequate clarity of purpose and presentation, such words will be defined in this section in accordance with the usage That will be made of them. In dong so the author hope to present an ideal aid towards the effective understanding of the day set up. Such worlds explained include

Appraisal

Appraisal is the act of appraising valuation, especially official valuation

 

Eradication

Is the process of pulling up by the root or destroy thoroughly media

Media is usually with sign, mass communication examples are television, radio. Media is a medium of exchange of idea is it a channel by which messages or information and decoded to the final audience.

Corruption

Corruption as has been reviewed by oxford advanced learns dictionary of current English as an immoral actions depraved ailment dishonest through offering and accepting bribes impure through bloody practices debased by errors or alternation falsifying of age, embezzlement of or illegal passion of equitation of wealth

 

  • ASSUMPTION

In following the investigation, the researcher made the following assumption NTA Enugu is very active in championing anti- corruption crusade of government to its staff.

NTA carries programme aimd to create awareness to the public on the need for sanity in public office among political office holder.

This study will serve as platform for future researcher in this area

 

  • LIMITATION OF STUDY

In the course of this writing a lot of problems were encountered as in adequate material. Easy assess to materials for this work becomes difficult even in the school library, the ones been could not bring the demand of he study in the course of this, I had to travel far in obtaining materials that make this writing a reality.

Download our android mobile app for more materials

ORDER NOW

COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

Share This:

PRESS FREEDOM IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF GOVERNMENT AND RELATIONS UNDER IBRAHIM BABANGIDA REGIME

PRESS FREEDOM IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF GOVERNMENT AND RELATIONS UNDER IBRAHIM BABANGIDA REGIME

ABSTRACT

 

The study  on “press freedom in Nigeria” was a historical event of the past military directorship from 1985-1993 under Ibrahim Babangida regime.

This work used survey method and the purpose of this study is to find out it there was a press freedom under IBB’s regime or not. It also carried at  knowing the extent by which press freedom was curtailed or favoured during IBB’s regime.

This work found out that IBB’s regime intact killed press freedom to its highest level. Journalists were jailed, detained while newspapers organizations were closed.

Decrees were unlawfully promulgated to he detrainment of the journalists and other media practitioners.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Statement of problem
  • Objective of the study
  • Research questions
  • Significant of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Limitation of the study
  • Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

  • REVIEW OF LITERATURE
    • Sources of review
    • The review
    • Press freedom
    • Conditions and actions that promote and bridge press freedom
    • Press freedom in Nigeria.
    • Theoretical background

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research methodology
  • Research method
  • Research sample
  • Measuring instrument
  • Data collection
  • Method of data analysis
  • Expected result

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Data analysis and result

  • Analysis of demographic
  • Result
  • Discussion
  • Prior and subsequent censorship

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Findings, conclusion and recommendation
  • Conclusion and recommendation

Reference

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

In independent society a major test of a nation’s freedom is the amount of liberty its people have in speaking writing ns publishing, indeed, one can say that life of a nation depends on the extent of freedom of speech and press that the people enjoy. One can also say that extent by which a nation enjoys this freedom depends on the relationship between the government and the press.

As a result of importance of this right the countries of the world have emerged through the limited nations organization (UNO) in a bid to protect this right s other. These countries signed the universal declaration of human rights in 1945.

Article 18 of this universal human rights established that “ every one has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion (worship).

Article 19 of the same declaration also asserts that every one has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, this right includes freedom to hold opinion without interference and to seek receive, impact information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

The guarantee of freedom of the press in the universal declaration of human rights is the right to freedom of expression which includes freedom of speech and if the press.

In compliance with the declaration, many countries of the world have in various degrees provided in their people constitution and opportunity for their people to express themselves within the limits of law.

However, although almost al nations of the world have subscribed to thee universal ideas and replicate them in their constitutions, the ideas  have remain in effect general principles as their interpretation and implementation have always been, subject to the political philosophy of the state applying them, the level of political freedom in such a state, the states history as manifest in some of its economic system and general societal influences.

In spite of differences in interpretation and implementation, certain patterns seems to have emerged. Due to the librarians of democratic societies the rights of citizens to take precedence over those of the state in such societies and whatever right are enjoyed by the states are meant fro larger fulfillment and protection of he right of the citizens. In democratic societies, freedom of the press is usually paramount and will protected.

This is the difference from what brains in totalitarian and authoritarian societies where the emphasis respectively is largely on the welfare of the state and of the cities.

Therefore in authoritarians and totalitarian societies, freedom of the pres or of expression isles protected when compared with that of democratic societies.

Nigeria as member of the entitled nations organization (UNO) has UNO’s declaration of human right in-cooperated into constitution from independence until the present day.

In Nigeria 1963 republican constitution provided that “everyone shall be entitled to freedom of expression including freedom to hold opinion and receive and impart ideas introduction without interference.

The 1979 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria, also contains in its provision son freedom of expression section 36.

  1. Provides that “every person shall be entitled to freedom of expression — section 36
  2. Further provided that “every person are entitled to own, established and operates any medium for the dissemination of introduction, ideas and opinions —— 5”

However, the Nigeria constitution did not grant any person or body to operates a television wireless broadcasting stations apart fom these especially authorized by the president or the state and federal government. when compared with at of the united state of America (USA0 however, this is a limit to press freedom in Nigeria.

As in the united nations declaration of human rights it is the freedom town establish and operates any information that serves as a guaratee of press freedom in Nigeria.

However, the implication of the provision on press freedom in the Nigeria constitution have varies depending on the administration that is in power some  administration has greater respect for freedom than others.

From 1960 to 1993 Nigeria had series of civilian and military administration with varying attitudes to press freedom before the regime of Sam Abacha cam to power

It is behaviour of the Babangida administration which came to power in 1985 as regards to freedom of the press that forms the subject of this study.

 

  • STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS

This study aimed paramount at examining press freedom under General Ibrahim Babangida regime in Nigeria. The study also extended its horizons on the military directorship on the image portrays internationally in terms for restrictions of press operations in external and internal point of view.

Since 1985 to 1993 the press freedom has emerged with much problems such as the following.

  1. Detention of the press members
  2. Government control over citizens expressions
  3. Totters and willing of the journalists by the military regime
  4. Embargo on establishment of individual media house
  5. Confiscations of daily and periodic publications.

The press freedom from 1995- 1993 has its mark of identification and irrespective of the  irrespirable remarks on the populace of the regime. It will go along way in rephrasing the major actions against maltreatment to journalists profession during the regime of Ibrahim Babangida. The study will ensure the infringement and inefficiency of Ibrahim Babangida during his rulership as been undemocratic to the press.

The  infringement of the press freedom under Babangida regime became a channel of its own in comparative to other military regime and heads of states order than tyranism to the administration and also to the citizens of Nigeria.

 

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

There is this view hold by some political personalities,. They strongly believe that the administration of Ibrahim Babagida is unjustiable to other  military regime which has  taken place here in Nigeria before the 1985 over-thrown by Babangida. The experience gotten from dictatorship was sequentially syndromenied on Babangida regime.

The objective of the study incredibly foster adventure to democratically elected government by MKO Abiola and other  to actualize the lost of the press freedom in Nigeria.

In 1993 the upsurge of the Babangida administration agonist press freedom tactically cursed June 12 election annulment in which press liberty was regime to both citizens and press operations in Nigeria.

 

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The stud will answer the following questions.

  1. What degree of freedom did the media have under the Babangida regime?
  2. How did Babangida administration guarantee or curtail freedom of the press?
  3. Did Nigerians experience greater press freedom under the Babangida administration of less?
  4. What was the performance for the Babangida regime in guarantying press freedom visa-vis the 1979 constitution?
  5. Do Nigerians collectively feel cheated when press freedom was trampled upon?
  6. How many citizens enjoyed private media ownership during the era?
  7. Where there freedom of information orientation to the press and citizens?
  8. What was the negative stigma left on the infringement of the press?

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study has been lay in the t\fact that there has been frequent claims that press freedom was on its lowest during the Babangida regime from 1985- 1993. The study will examine press freedom under the Babangida  administration to the variety of these claims. The study is also significant in that  it will ascertain whether there was more press freedom under the Babangida regime or less.

This became important because it would enable us to find out whether Babangida administration is according to the ascertain and opinion of the masses,. This study would help us to confirm or disconfirm that Babangida regime is as ugly as the mind of the both press and citizens on the freedom of the press.

The press freedom on the claim of the media practitioners is, may be seen the only rights that eh journalists and information organization have , this significant study will be highlighted on the both press freedom and practitioners of the media during Babangida regime. But here in this study precisely it is specifically rely in the nature of 1985- 1993 directorship events.

 

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study will be mainly examine press freedom under the Babangida regime from 1985-93. The study will equally include the major action taken for or against the freedom of the press by the administration. It will find out if the Babangida administration acted in line with the 1979 Nigerian constitution in its dealings with the press or not.

 

  • LIMITATIONS:

This research, no doubt encountered one or two setback in its effort to know the extent of press freedom in Nigeria under the leadership of president Ibrahim Babangida.

The first limitation is that I found it very difficult to get facts that would have helped us to bring this work together.

Fiancé was another limitation  encountered. I did  not have enough money to transport my self to various places, where to would have sourced vital and reide infractions in order to draw the ideas close into this study, money  to transport my self to various places, where I would have sourced virtual and ride information in order to draw the ideas close into this study. Money also restricted me from setting some materials from intents and also rock ticket for more investigations and research on this study.

 

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS

CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION

The terms used by the researcher have both their conceptual and operational meanings. The terms are: Press freedom.

Conceptually, according to the oxford advanced learners dictionary

  1. Press: news papers, magazines, the news sections of radio and television and the journalists who work for them.
  2. Freedom: the state of not being a prisoner or a slave the power or right or right t act, speak etc as one wants without any one stopping one.

Operationally:

  1. Press: this involves both press professionally media practitioners and all the equipments used in publications and broad casting
  2. Freedom: it means the right given to the media parishioners and journalists to operate and control the affairs of

The practicing filed of journalism without the interruptions or stopping of the operations of the publications and opinion and expression as a right  of he press.

Download our android mobile app for more materials

ORDER NOW

COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

Share This: