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Civil engineering project materials sample

COMPARING THE STRENGHT AS BLOCKS MADE FROM (1) CEMENT AND LATERITIC SOIL (2) CEMENT AND RED EARTH (3) LATERITE, SAND AND RED EARTH

COMPARING THE STRENGHT AS BLOCKS MADE FROM

            (1)   CEMENT AND LATERITIC SOIL

(2)   CEMENT AND RED EARTH

(3)   LATERITE, SAND AND RED EARTH

ABSTRACT

 

This case study is “comparing the strength of blocks made from: cement stabilized laterite blocks, cement stabilized red earth blocks and sand,  red earth and laterite blocks and mud blocks dried in the kiln.

This project implement the following analysis

  • To effect  reduction to the  rise in market price of sand (fine aggregate), cement blocks to substitute literate blocks.
  • To determine the strength of the cement stabilized blocks of literate soil in the soil laboratory with a view to have an alternative in the building industry.
  • To analyse the existing laterite soil and evaluate it’s suitability for use as a good building material by means of various tests.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

PROJECT BUILDING MATERIALS

 

CHAPTER TWO

PREPARATION OF MATERIALS

 

CHAPTER THREE

PREPARATION OF CUBE

CASTING OF THE STABILIZED MATERIALS

CURING OF SPECIMENS

 

CHAPTER FOUR

FIRING OF BLOCKS IN KILN

TESTING OF BLOCKS

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST

CALCULATION OF RESULTS

 

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION OF RESULT

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TABLE WITHT EH CMENT MORTAR BLOCKS

 

CHAPTER SIX

RECOMMENDATION

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

          This project was obligated to present in o n e volume of the fundamental and practical information in the field of comparing the strength of blocks made from: cement and lateritec soil, cement and red earth and sand, red earth and lateritic soil and mud blocks fired in the kiln which may be useful to people involved in civil and structural engineering and particularly those that found pleasure in the design and construction of buildings, bridges and culverts and related structures.

Due to high cost of sand in the market, the comparative analysis of stabilized laterite blocks, red earth blocks and sand blocks have revealed t hat one can definitely substitute the stabilized laterite blocks and mud blocks in place of sand blocks to reduce the cost of the entire building or used stabilized laterite blocks where there are no sand in such an area where the work is going to be sited.  A great have been done throughout this work, although it is limited in scope to assess their suitability as standard concrete aggregates.

 

THE PROJECT BUILDING MATERIALS

To obtain the materials used for these project such as red earth, laterite, sharp sand, and cement, we had to move to the outskirts of Enugu State.  Cement was bought from the famous Keyatta market in Enugu.  The market is well known for the sales of building materials in the state.  Cement was added to the mixture during mixing, to give the mixture a good binding when in shape and also increases the strength of the blocks.  The brand of cement used was ROCK CEMENT.

The red earth material known as mud was obtained at 9th mile corner in Ngwo, at the outskirts of Enugu.  It was dug from a depth, to make sure that it has not been mixed with foreign or any other material. The red earth is dark red in colour, which shows that the mud is of high quality.

Sharp sand was obtained within the school premises and was subsequently gotten from a nearby stream, while that of laterite was obtained from a site at New Layout, in Enugu town.

In conclusion, all the materials used was obtained within Enugu and was kept in good working condition.  We made sure that the materials were of best quality.

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BASIC SOIL TEST ON SUB-GRADE SOIL MATERIAL AND FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN ON ROAD LINKING – UGWUAJI AND CAMPUS III I.M.T., ENUGU, ENUGU STATE

BASIC SOIL TEST ON SUB-GRADE SOIL MATERIAL AND FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN ON ROAD LINKING – UGWUAJI AND CAMPUS III I.M.T., ENUGU, ENUGU STATE

PREFACE

This case study is an existing pathway or footpath linking Ugwuaji and campus III (I.M.T) for a proposal road construction by the government of Enugu state

This project enclose the following

  • The condition of the existing sub-grade and its suitability for use as a good sub-grade soil material by processes of different lab test

 

  • Using the group index method and CBC method to design a flexible pavement on the pathway under consideration.

 

  • The optimum moisture content (DMC) and the maximum dry density (MDD) which are obtained by various laboratory test with a view of applying corresponding values on the field.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 COLLECTION OF SAMPLE AND LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAM

CHAPTER TWO

  • MECHANICAL ANALYSIS

CHAPTER THREE

  • COMPACTION TEST

CHAPTER FOUR

  • ALTERBERG LIMIT TEST

4.1     LIQUID LIMIT

  • PLASTIC LIMIT

CHAPTER FIVE

  • CALIFORMA BEARING RATION (CBR) TEST

CHAPTER SIX

  • ANALYSIS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

6.1     FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN

  • BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

CHAPTER ONE

COLLECTION OF SAMPLES AND LABORATORY

TESTING PROGRAM

The test carried out in this project was on disturbed soild sample.

This implies collecting soil samples that are disfifured their natural shape.

Soil samples were collected in three (3) trial pit along Ugwuaji and campus III IMT Enugu. A total of three (3) samples were collected from the trial pits (one from each pit) using pick are and spade. The samples were put in polythene bags and labelled A,B,C. The samples were spread on the floor of the soil laboratory and stones the floor of the soil laboratory and stones – removed for seven (7) days to allow for air drying.

The laboratory testing program comprises mechanical analysis compaction test and atterbery limit tests, and the califorma bearing ratio (CBC) test.

The objectives of the laboratory testing program were

  1. To obtain a general information regarding the nature of the soil and their variation with depth throughout the length of the road under consideration.
  2. To obtain information regarding the strength characteristics of the soil.

 

  1. To obtain information which willenable engineers to group soils according to their appearances of the purposes of comparing different soils.

 

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COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
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Account Name : Host Link Global Services Ltd
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0138924237
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

Note:  We accept bank transfer, ATM cash transfer , Online payment using your ATM , Western union bank transfer.  We will respond to you anytime of the day. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 1 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

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STRUCTURAL DETAILING OF A SINGLE STORY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH RETAINING IN ALL

STRUCTURAL DETAILING OF A SINGLE STORY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH RETAINING IN ALL

PREFACE

 

This project is mainly concerned with the presentation of information basically on the structural detailing of reinforced concrete members of a story building, in a sloppy land with a retaining wall.  Structural detailing is a branch of structural work that transposes the idea of works of a structural engineer into working drawings for easier utilization in the building construction.  Working drawings are drawings produced by engineers for easy execution of a plan by builders.

The drawing also shows the interrelationship between the architectural and the engineering design, it shows all the construction detail properly as they relate to the other with no attempt of separation of diverse materials.

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction of Project

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Detailing process

2.1     Reinforcement size

2.2     Notation of drawing

2.3     Identification of bars

2.4     Bar bending schedule

2.5     Type of drawing

2.6     Profile drawing and reinforcement drawing

2.7     Detailed drawing

2.8     Drawing size, and margin and panels

2.9     Thickness of line lettering and sapling

2.10   Dimension and scales

2.11   Plan, elevation, section, grid lines

2.12   Equipment

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Retaining wall

3.1     Small height retaining wall

3.2     Cantilever retaining wall

3.3     Retaining wall for basement

CHAPTER FOUR

Project

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Engineering specification

5.1     Floor slab and beam and staircase

 

CHAPTER SIX

6.0     Detail of the element

6.1     Foundation column

6.2     Kicker and beam

6.3     Slab

6.4     Stair case

Bibliography

STRUCTURAL SYMBOL

 

          The following abbreviations are recommended for structural detailing works:-

Fdn                       FOUNDATION

DRG                     DRAWING

RC                        REINFORCED CONCRETE

CB                        COLUMN BASE

Conc                     CONCRETE

D/a                       DIAMETER

Vert                      VERTICAL

AOR                     HORIZONTAL

UC                       UNIVERSAL COLUMN

UB                       UNIVERSAL BEAM

 

 

 

B.      TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT

R                          MILD STEEL BARS

Y                          HIGH YIELD BARS

C.      COMMENTS RELATING TO REINFORCEMENT

C                          CENTRE LINE

B                          BOTTOM

T                          TOP

C/C                       CENTRE TO CENTRE

 


CHAPTER ONE

         

There is only one means by which information is transfer to a contractor in a construction industry, designers in the engineering sector communicate to each order by means of drawing and specification.  Before any construction work could be done properly, there must be an engineering drawing mostly done by architecture in connection with the design being provide by the structural engineer.

It is the work of a structural engineer to design an object such as bridges, railways, dams, roads, buildings and so on.   The design comes up in the hand sketch first after which the design are put together into a clear and presented working drawing used by builders or contractors often taken to the authority involve for approval.

The drawing will show the interrelationship of all the parks that go together to make the ground design drawing.  All the general construction details are shown properly as they relate to the other with no attempt of separation of diverse materials.

A good drawing should provide the following information.

  1. Overall dimension
  2. Interrelationship of material, equipment and the space schedule of finishes
  3. Doors and windows type and sizes

All detailing works developed by the detailer serves a good purpose of standing the risk of sudden of buildings.  It also helps to avoid unnecessary delay of work, which may come up doubts and frequent clarification.

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MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
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Account Name : Host Link Global Services Ltd
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0138924237
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

Note:  We accept bank transfer, ATM cash transfer , Online payment using your ATM , Western union bank transfer.  We will respond to you anytime of the day. 

OR
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Enter Amount

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 1 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

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STRUCTURAL DETAILING OF A SINGLE STOREY CLASS ROOM BLOCK

STRUCTURAL DETAILING OF A SINGLE STOREY CLASS ROOM BLOCK

PREFACE

This is the presentation of information basically on the structural detailing of reinforced conerate members. Structural detailing is a branch of structural works that trespasses the idea or works of a structural engineer into working drawings for easy utilization in the building construction works. Working drawings are drawing produced by an engineer for easy use by the contractors.

The process of detailing put in place was in conjunction with recommendations of the concrete and the institution of structural engineers. In building construction, a good interaction and relationship between the architects, structural engineer, quantity surveyors and contractors are required. The methods, scales, symbols and notations must be standardized and understood by all parties in a project to minimize risks and communication hindrances.

A structures is broken down into identifiable elements for detailing works like beam, column, slab etc which enables the different detailing aspects to be fully addressed and understood

 

STRUCTURAL SYMBOLS

The abbreviations recommended for structural detailing work are as follows:

  • C. Reinforced concrete

Hor. = Drawing

Verk = Vertical

Dia = diameter

Fdn = foundation

Conc = concrete

C.B. = column base

  • TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT

R = Mild steel bars

Y = High yield bars

  • COMPONENTS RELATING TO REINFORCEMENT

C = centre line

B = bottom

T = top

C/C = centre to centre

Chapters

  1. Introduction 1
  2. Detailing process 2
  3. Design condition and symmetry 9
  4. Reinforced concrete 10
  5. Engineers design specifications 11
  6. Detailing of the elements 13

Bibliography                                                                  18

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In order to convey information to contractors in a construction industry, drawings which serve as a means of communication are used by designers in every engineering sector.

It is mostly the work of a structural engineer to design a construction of structure such as roads, bridges, railways, dams, buildings and other relevant works. Most of the designs made should be free hand sketches. Then these sketches are put together into a clear and well printed working drawing used by buildings or contractors after taken to the authority involved for approval.

All detailing works developed by the detailer serves a good purpose of standing the risk of sudden collapse of building. It also helps to avoid unnecessary delay of works which may come up dounts and frequent clarification.

The methods and techniques involved for detailing reinforced structures are shown in this project.

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COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
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Account Name : Host Link Global Services Ltd
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0138924237
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

Note:  We accept bank transfer, ATM cash transfer , Online payment using your ATM , Western union bank transfer.  We will respond to you anytime of the day. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 1 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

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EFFECTS OF AGGREGATE SIZES ON THE CONCRETE STRENGTH

EFFECTS OF AGGREGATE SIZES ON THE CONCRETE STRENGTH

ABSTRACT

 

In the sense that the materials involved in this project were capital intensive more especially cement, so in carrying out the work one must hsve to be careful in the selection and collection of materials to be used in the casting of the concrete.

The materials used are coarse aggregate (granite) fine aggregate (sand). The coarse aggregates used in this work were collected from ishiagu while the fine aggregate was collected in front of the carpentry’s workshop on the campus.

The test conform to the standard method test, the ratio used was 1:2:4 and the method adopted was batching by weight, from the mix ratio the relative weight for each material to be used for concrete cube cast was 36, these cubes were tested for compressive strength of 7, 14 and 28 days.

The results of tests involved in the work and that of compressive strength tests were calculated and tabulated as shown in the final tabulation of results.

With the above information, I now recommend and therefore conclude.

CHAPTER ONE

  • The project objectives

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1     Materials for concrete

  • Aggregates introduction
    • Fine Aggregate/Sand
    • Coarse Aggregate/Granite

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Mixing of the concrete

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Preparation for placing and compaction

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Curing

 

CHAPTER SIX

  • Testing of hardened concrete and tabulation of results

 

CHAPTER SEVEN

  • Conclusions and recommendation

Bibliography.

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

THE PROJECT OBJECTIVES

The project has some aims of verification. One of the most important purposes of this project is to compare the strength of concrete made with granite of different sizes eg 20, 15, 10 and 5mm. These same types of concrete are made under the same mix proportion.

Another purpose also is to know the compressive strength of concrete at different ages.

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COMPLETE MATERIAL  COST  N2,500 Or $10.  FRESH  PROJECT MATERIAL  COST 50,000 NAIRA FOR UNDERGRADUATE, OTHERS 100,000 -200,000 NAIRA.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Host Link Global Services Ltd
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0138924237
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

Note:  We accept bank transfer, ATM cash transfer , Online payment using your ATM , Western union bank transfer.  We will respond to you anytime of the day. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

CALL OUR  CUSTOMERS CARE  OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 1 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

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