THE PRODUCTION OF LITHOGRAPHIC INK
This research work was carried out in the production of lithographic Ink, which is commonly used in the printing industries. The practical work was carried out in PRODA, in Emene, Enugu.
Ink is defined as a viscous pigmented substance, which can be used for writing, printing and drawing.
The lithographic ink has the tendency towards quick drying. This is because of the presence of the unseed oil, which has a high volatile content.
Table of contents
Title page ii
Table of content vii
1.0 introduction 1
1.1 background of study 1
- The chemistry of ink 2
- The vehicle 3
- The pigment 3
- Aims and objectives 4
- Statement of problem 5
- Limitation of study 5
- Justification 6
- Historical review 7
- Explonation of terminologies 9
- Damping types and foudtain solution 10
- Rheology 10
- Analysis of litho-ink 11
- Lithographic formulation 12
- Inkadditives 13
- Ink tests 14
- Tack of an ink 15
- Types of inks 15
- Writing ink 15
- Printing ink printing ink 16
- Duplicating ink 17
- Special purpose ink 18
- Methodology 19
3.1 materials 19
- Methods 20
- Production of varnish 20
- Determination of some useful parameters of the varnish 21
- Solid content determination 21
- Viscosity measurement for the varnish 21
- Ink formulation 22
- Mixing (grinding process. 23
- Letting down process 23
- Printability tests (test for some ink parameters. 24
- Tackiness of ink 24
- Length of ink 24
- Pick resistance 25
- Misting 25
- Setting time 26
- Drying time 26
- Print gloss. 26
- Results and discussion 27
4.1 Some useful parameters of the varnish 27
4.1.1 Solid content 27
- Viscosity of varnish 27
- Characteristics of ink 27
- Ink character 28
- Tack 28
- Length 29
- Effect of papers on the print quality of
the lithographic based ink 30
- Effect of papers on the print quality of
the commercial ink (carbon black pigmented) 31
- Effect of papers on the commercial ink 33
- Discussion 34
- Recommendation and Suggestions 35
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY.
This production and use of inks in history can be traced back to Egyptian and Chinese writings around 1100BC. These inks were probably a combination of carbonaceous materials such as lampblack or sooth and vegetable oils or animal ghes.
The coloured inks appeared later in the Roman era and employed ochres and lapis blue pigments. The Chinese experimented with printing, at reast, as early as AD500, with inks from plant substances mixed with colored earth and sooth or lampblack.
Johannes Guterbera, (1440) in Germany invented printing with movable type in about that century. At that time, inks were made by mixing varnish or boiled linseed oil with lampblack. This was used as the printing ink for the cast (movable) metallic type.
Following the discoveries by coutenberg, topographical printing process spread throughout Europe. Typographic or letterpress printing became a full-fledged industry and was not challenged until the early 19hth century. During this period, chemical-drying agents appeared making possible the use of a wide variety of pigments for colored inks. Later, varnishes of varying stiffness wered developed to make inks for different papers and presses Louis allies, in 1769, invented a new printing process, known as lithography.
It was not until the beginning of 20th century that ink making became a complicate industrial chemical process. Modern inks are manufactured taking into account the surface to be imprinted, the printing process, and special requirement for job, such as colour opacity, transparence, brilliance, light fastness, surface hardness, wet ability, purity and Odourlessness. Bloy, (1977).
- THE CHEMISTRY OF INK
Ink can be defined as any liquid or viscous pigmented substance used for writing, printing or drawing. It can also be described as a fluid or a viscous material used for writing, drawing or printing to record or transmit information.
The composition and consistency of ink vary according to the purpose for which it is used. All inks however, contain two basic components. A pigment, or dye called a colorant, and vehicle. Other substances are frequently added to impact special properties like quick drying time (dryers) etc.
- THE VEHICLE
Vehicles are the solvent in which the colorants (pigments) are dispersed. The vehicles are usually solvents in which the pigments are dispersed easily ie have good dispersion properties. They may consist of solvent alone but most are composed of a solvent and a resin or other compounds to form a varnish or of treated or untreated oils. The vehicle in most inks are usually drying oils. The molecular structure of a typical drying oil linseed oil is;
Fig.1.1 LINSEED OIL STRUCTURE.
1.2.2 THE PIGMEN
Pigments are natural or synthetic organic or inorganic substances that impart a colour either black or white to other materials. In the case of inks and paints, they are usually in from of powder or easily powdered substances. To make ink, they are dispersed in suitable solvent alongside with other important ink additives like dryers.
Pigment can also be described as fine powdered substances that scatter light strongly, to yield white effect. Typical white pigment are inorganic oxides such as titanium dioxide (Tio2 ) antimony oxides (Sb203) and ziro oxides (Zno). Black pigment includes soot, carbon etc.
Ink, therefore can be described as an solution having the solvent (pigment) well dispersed in the suitable solvent (vehicle) in which the colour was imparted by the pigment, being the colorant, Apps, (1974).
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The research work is aimed producing Lithographic ink, the objectives of this work include:
- the ink production tends to develop pan economical and indigenous way of producing the Lithographic ink in order to reduce cost
- it helps to generate an avenue for employment, if such production could be commercialized.
1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The problem of the ink production centers on one of the most serious effects of the present global economic recessions as it affects Nigeria is the problem of importing industrial inks, hence this project has imperative order to improve the effectiveness of the ink production and to reduce the cost of production.
1.5 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The Limitation factor experienced involves the in variability of Literature material about the topic which gave room for traveling to places for Relevant materials needed for accomplishment of the work not minding The Cost and the risk involved.
- JUSTIFICATION OF WORK.
There are numerous printing inks imported into the country, which owe their production and characteristics to local raw materials endemic in our environment. One of the most serious effects of the present global economic r
Recessions as felt in Nigeria is the problem of importing litho-ink which Most Nigeria printing industries require for their operations.
This imported ink can be locally made and improved upon by Nigeria. Scientists to match or even out class their foreign counter parts. In order to alleviate the problems now facing these printing industries and to stabilize their deity operations with the national aim of self-reliance, hence this research on the production of litho-ink.
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