Category Archives: Chemistry Project Sample

Chemistry Project Sample

THE PRODUCTION OF LITHOGRAPHIC INK

THE PRODUCTION OF LITHOGRAPHIC   INK

ABSTRACT

This research work was carried out in the production of lithographic Ink, which is commonly used in the printing industries. The practical work was carried out in PRODA, in Emene, Enugu.

Ink is defined as a viscous pigmented substance, which can be used for writing, printing and drawing.

The lithographic ink has the tendency towards quick drying. This is because of the presence of the unseed oil, which has a high volatile content.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of contents

Title page                                                                                ii

Certification                                                                                      iii

Dedication                                                                               iv

Acknowledgement                                                                             v

Abstract                                                                                  vii

Table of content                                                                      vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     introduction                                                                                      1

1.1     background of study                                                               1

  • The chemistry of ink 2
    • The vehicle 3
    • The pigment 3
  • Aims and objectives                                                           4
  • Statement of problem                                                                  5
  • Limitation of study                                                                      5
  • Justification                                                                                 6

CHAPTER TWO

  • Historical review 7
  • Explonation of terminologies 9
    • Damping types and foudtain solution 10
    • Rheology 10
  • Analysis of litho-ink 11
  • Lithographic formulation 12
  • Inkadditives 13
  • Ink tests 14
  • Tack of an ink 15
  • Types of inks 15
    • Writing ink 15
    • Printing ink printing ink 16
    • Duplicating ink 17
    • Special purpose ink 18

CHAPTER THREE

  • Methodology 19

3.1     materials                                                                                  19

  • Methods 20
    • Production of varnish 20
    • Determination of some useful parameters of the varnish 21
    • Solid content determination 21
    • Viscosity measurement for the varnish 21
  • Ink formulation 22
  • Mixing (grinding process. 23
  • Letting down process 23
  • Printability tests (test for some ink parameters. 24
    • Tackiness of ink 24
    • Length of ink 24
    • Pick resistance 25
    • Misting 25
    • Setting time 26
    • Drying time                                                           26
    • Print gloss. 26

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Results and discussion 27

4.1     Some useful parameters of the varnish                                             27

4.1.1  Solid content                                                                           27

  • Viscosity of varnish 27
  • Characteristics of ink 27
    • Ink character 28
    • Tack                                       28
    • Length 29
  • Effect of papers on the print quality of

the lithographic based ink                                                       30

  • Effect of papers on the print quality of

the commercial ink (carbon black pigmented)                         31

  • Effect of papers on the commercial ink 33
  • Discussion           34

CHAPTER FIVE.

  • Recommendation and Suggestions 35

References                                                                               36

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY.

This production and use of inks in history can be traced back to Egyptian and Chinese writings around 1100BC. These inks were probably a combination of carbonaceous materials such as lampblack or sooth and vegetable oils or animal ghes.

The coloured inks appeared later in the Roman era and employed ochres and lapis blue pigments. The Chinese experimented with printing, at reast, as early as AD500, with inks from plant substances mixed with colored earth and sooth or lampblack.

Johannes Guterbera, (1440) in Germany invented printing with movable type in about that century. At that time, inks were made by mixing varnish or boiled linseed oil with lampblack. This was used as the printing ink for the cast (movable) metallic type.

Following the discoveries by coutenberg, topographical printing process spread throughout Europe. Typographic or letterpress printing became a full-fledged industry and was not challenged until the early 19hth century. During this period, chemical-drying agents appeared making possible the use of a wide variety of pigments for colored inks. Later, varnishes of varying stiffness wered developed to make inks for different papers and presses Louis allies, in 1769, invented a new printing process, known as lithography.

It was not until the beginning of 20th century that ink making became a complicate industrial chemical process. Modern inks are manufactured taking into account the surface to be imprinted, the printing process, and special requirement for job, such as colour opacity, transparence, brilliance, light fastness, surface hardness, wet ability, purity and Odourlessness. Bloy, (1977).

 

  • THE CHEMISTRY OF INK

Ink can be defined as any liquid or viscous pigmented substance used for writing, printing or drawing. It can also be described as a fluid or a viscous material used for writing, drawing or printing to record or transmit information.

The composition and consistency of ink vary according to the purpose for which it is used. All inks however, contain two basic components. A pigment, or dye called a colorant, and vehicle. Other substances are frequently added to impact special properties like quick drying time (dryers) etc.

 

  • THE VEHICLE

Vehicles are the solvent in which the colorants (pigments) are dispersed. The vehicles are usually solvents in which the pigments are dispersed easily ie have good dispersion properties. They may consist of solvent alone but most are composed of a solvent and a resin or other compounds to form a varnish or of treated or untreated oils. The vehicle in most inks are usually drying oils. The molecular structure of a typical drying oil linseed oil is;

CH2-O-Co-C7HI4-CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH-C5H11

CH-O-Co-C7H14-CH=CH-CH2-CH2=CH-C5H11

CH2-O-Co-C7H14-CH=-CH2-CH2=CH-C5H11

Fig.1.1 LINSEED OIL STRUCTURE.

 

1.2.2  THE PIGMEN

Pigments are natural or synthetic organic or inorganic substances that impart a colour either black or white to other materials. In  the case of  inks and paints, they are usually in from of powder or easily powdered substances. To make ink, they are dispersed in suitable solvent alongside with other important ink additives like dryers.

Pigment can also be described as fine powdered substances that scatter light strongly, to yield white effect. Typical white pigment are inorganic oxides such as titanium dioxide (Tio2 ) antimony oxides (Sb203)  and ziro oxides (Zno). Black pigment includes soot, carbon etc.

Ink, therefore can be described as an solution having the solvent (pigment) well dispersed in the suitable solvent (vehicle) in which the colour was imparted by the pigment, being the colorant, Apps, (1974).

 

1.3     AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The research work is aimed producing Lithographic ink, the objectives of this work include:

 

  1. the ink production tends to develop pan economical and indigenous way of producing the Lithographic ink in order to reduce cost
  2. it helps to generate an avenue for employment, if such production could be commercialized.

 

1.4     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The problem of the ink production centers on one of the most serious effects of the present global economic recessions as it affects Nigeria is the problem of importing industrial inks, hence this project has imperative order to improve the effectiveness of the ink production and to reduce the cost of production.

 

1.5     LIMITATION OF STUDY

The Limitation factor experienced involves the in variability of Literature material about the topic which gave room for traveling to places for Relevant materials needed for accomplishment of the work not minding The Cost and the risk involved.

 

 

 

  • JUSTIFICATION OF WORK.

There are numerous printing inks imported into the country, which owe their production and characteristics to local raw materials endemic in our environment. One of the most serious effects of the present global economic r

Recessions as felt in Nigeria is the problem of importing litho-ink which Most Nigeria printing industries require for their operations.

This imported ink can be locally made and improved upon by Nigeria. Scientists to match or even out class their foreign counter parts. In order to alleviate the problems now facing these printing industries and to stabilize their deity operations with the national aim of self-reliance, hence this research on the production of litho-ink.

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ISOLATION OF ALKALOIDS FROM A MEDICINAL PLANT (MORINDA LUCIDA)

ISOLATION OF ALKALOIDS FROM A MEDICINAL PLANT (MORINDA LUCIDA)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
  • AIM OF THE STUDY 3
  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 3
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 4
  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY 4
  • LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 4

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • LITERATURE REVIEW
  • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE ALKALOIDS

5

  • GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF ALKALOIDS 7
    • HETEROCYCLIC ALKALOIDS 9
    • EXOCYCLIC, NITROGEN AND ALIPHATIC AMINE ALKALOIDS 14
    • PUTRESCINE, SPERMIDINE AND EPERMINE ALKALOIDS 16
    • DITERPENES 16
    • PETIDE ALKALOIDS 18
  • NOMENCLATURE 18
  • OCCURRENCE AND FUNCTIONS IN PLANT 20
  • PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKALOIDS 21
  • DESCRIPTION OF MORINDA LUCIDA 22
  • DETECTION OF ALKALOIDS 24
  • ISOLATION OF ALKALOIDS 25

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

  • MATERIALS (SEE APPENDIX) 28
  • COLLECTION AND PREPARATION ON PLANT MATERIAL                                 28
  • EXTRACTION 29
  • TEST FOR ALKALOID 31
    • MAYER’S TEST 31
    • WAGNER AND LUGOL’S TEST 31

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • RESULTS 33

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • DISCUSSION 36
  • CONCLUSION 37
  • RECOMMENDATION 38

 

REFERENCES

APPENDICES


LIST OF FIGURES

Table 1:    Result for goo of 1, 1 – dichloromethane. 33

Table 2:    Result for goo o hexane and methanol extract.

34

Table 3:    Result for methanol extract with 1m hydrochloric acid extract.                               35

 


ABSTRACT

The isolation and detection of alkaloids content of Morinda lucida (Ezeogwu) from rubiceae family, a medicinal plant was carried out using solvent-extraction process. The dried powdered leaves of the plant were divided into batches. Different solvents were used on them. After 6 days of occasional shaking, it was filtered. The filtrates were used for testing the presence of alkaloids in Morinda lucida. Mayer’s reagent Wagner and Lugol’s reagents and 5m sodium hydroxide were used as detecting reagents. Mayer’s reagent yields cream precipitate in both acidic and alkaline extracts. Wagner and Lugol’s reagent yield reddish brown precipitate in both acidic and alkaline extract. 5m sodium hydroxide gave white swirling precipitate. Other coloured precipitate like orange and pale orange was gotten as a result of different solvents used for isolation. The presence of the above precipitates indicate the presence of alkaloids in Morinda lucida.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Alkaloids are large group of basic organic substances of natural origin usually plant which contain certain, hydrogen and one or more nitrogen atom. The nitrogen content is usually present in pyrrole, pyridine, pyrrolidine, quinoline or isoquinoline. It can be naturally occurring chemical compounds containing basic nitrogen atoms (Finar I.L 2007).

According to Rogers M.F. and Wink M. (1998), alkaloids are specific class of chemical compound found in plants and occasionally animals. Many have long historics as poison, narcotics, hallucinogens and medicinal agents. Generally, alkaloids are basic or alkaline substances, i.e. they neutralize acids. The basicity of alkaloids depends on the lone pairs of electrons on their nitrogen atom thus forming salts with mineral acid such as HCl and H2SO4 and organic acids such as tartatric acid or malic acid. Alkaloid must be a product of plant or animal metabolism and must contain at least one nitrogen atom that can be active as a base in acid-base reaction. In principle alkaloids could be classified either by the biological systems in which they occur or by their chemical structure.

Hesse M. (2005), said that most alkaloid contain oxygen but occasionally, as in nicotine, this element is absent. Such oxygen free compounds physically are usually volatile and liquids. They vary widely in a substance and properties. Some are relatively simple with as few as five carbon e.g. Xanthine, Solanine is complicated with as many as 44 carbon atoms. The basic nature of alkaloids is not a constant. Many alkaloids have an oxidation state of -111 but some have quaternary nitrogen and oxidation state as high as +111 e.g. aristolachich acid 1 from Aristolachia, these are acids. Many compounds are excluded from the group because it is simply practical to do so; purines, pyrimidine, pyrazine, vitamins, antibiotics and amino sugars are all excluded.

 

1.2   AIMS OF THE STUDY

This project work is aimed at isolating of alkaloidal content of Morinda lucida a medicinal plant and detecting it with some diodal.

 

1.3   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Herbal medicinal is neglected because it lack scientific analysis and most plant have physiological effect on human but its chemical and organic constituent are not determined.

 

 

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The research work is important because it will help to know the alkaloidal content of this medicinal plant (Morinda lucida leaves). It will also help us to know if any of their constituents will be extracted and used in other sphere of human endeavour like the chemical industries, cosmetics, specialty food and insecticidal industries.

 

1.5   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Fro the purpose of the work, proximate analysis was carried out in the laboratory using solvent extracting process. Detection of the extracted alkaloid was also carried out using diodal reagents.

 

1.6   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The project work was limited only to isolating and detecting of alkaloidal content of Morinda lucida a medicinal plant using solvent because of high cost of spectroscopic instrument like UV, IR and NMR as these would have help in further analysis of the extracted alkaloid.

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POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, LEAD AND CADMIUM CONTENTS OF CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED WATER SAMPLES FROM WARRI, DELTA STATE

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, LEAD AND CADMIUM CONTENTS OF CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED WATER SAMPLES FROM WARRI, DELTA STATE

ABSTRACT

          Water sample were collected along these river at various location, and were studied. The parameters determined were P4, temperature, conductivity, total hardness, alkalinity, ca hardness, maghardwen Cation (Pb2+ Fe2+ Cu2+) were also determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (DDS).     From the analysis showed that PH ranges from 6.10 – 6.80 temperature from 63.10 us/cm – 63.90 us/cm-1 while were hardness 6.00mgk – 6.60mgk alkalinity rages from 7.00 – 9.00 Ph2+ ranges from 0.2mgk – 0.16mgk CU2+ ranges from 0.01mgk – 0.03mgk Fe2+ ranges from 0023mgk – 0.23mgk Nl2+ ranges from 0.11mgk – 0.70mgk.

The result of the analysis revealed that the sample are soft and would leather easily with water.

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER OF CONTENTS

 

 

CHAPTER ONE
  • Introduction 1

1.1     Statement of problem                                                    2

  • Objective 2
  • Limitation 2
  • Hypothesis 2
CHAPTER TWO
  • Literature Review 3

2.1     Effluent                                                                          6

  • Effluent Quality 7
  • Type of Pollution 8
  • Classification of Water Pollution 9
  • Effects of Water Pollution 11
  • Quality Criteria 15
  • Portable Water Standard 16
  • Storage and Preservation of Water Sample 18
CHAPTER THREE
  • Materials and Method 23
CHAPTER FOUR
  • Results 28
CHAPTER FIVE
  • Conclusion/Recommendation 33

Reference                                                                       34

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

 

  • INTRODUCTION

Water is one the most abundant substance in nature. It was previously considered to be an element, not until Canvendish proved it to be a compound consisting of hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 2:1 by volume.

Water covers approximately three quarters of the entire surface, but in spite of this apparent abundance, several factors have limited the amount of water available for human use.

It is of fundamental importance to all kinds of plants and animals and therefore to man. It is of equal importance with the air we breath in maintaining the vital process necessary for life and growth. But since it is not every available, its provision has form the earliest part of villages and town to the places where water supply exist.

Water is a vital commodity to industries for process field stock (reacting raw materials) solvent compound and cooling process. It is distributed in many forms such as rain water, spring water, sea water and water.

 

1.1     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The oil industries along this river discharge their waste sample into the Aleasa river, this effluent posses environmental hazards when disposed by the industries into water bodies, thereby causing effect on the life of the people.

 

1.2     OBJECTIVE

The objective is to determine the nature of the pollutant and its quantitative concentration level.

 

1.4     LIMITATION

A detail study of this work should have been carried out, but to the following factors there is limitation in the work. The factors include: (a) finance (b) time (c) non-availability of equipment to carry out most of the test (d) chemical to be used in carrying out most of the test.

 

1.3     HYPOTHESIS

          It is assured that the rate of water borne diseases among the people living along this Aleasa River, is as a result of polluted water caused by effluents waste products from the industries.

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EXTRACTION OF TANNIN FROM INDIGENOUS WOOD SPECIES

EXTRACTION OF TANNIN FROM INDIGENOUS WOOD SPECIES

ABSTRACT

 

A general analysis of bark and leave of some indigenous wood species was carried out with the aim of establishing whether their percentage tannin content is high enough to be of commercial value.  The results obtained from the four species examined, show the percentage tannin to be 12.7%, 7.1%, 5.3% and 8.4% for the bark of four species pterocarpus osun, pterocoupus soyaixii, Burkea Africans and khaya senegacensis respectively.  Also from the leaves, the percentages obtained where 3.2, 2.8, 4.4 for pterocarpus osun, pterocarpus soyauxii and khaya senegacensis respectively.  These results are comparable with the empirical data and so are enough to be of commercial value.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction                                                                                      1

  • Statement of problem 3
  • Aims 4
  • Objectives                              4
  • Limitation and delimitation 4
  • Hypothesis 5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature review                                                                     6

  • Extraction of natural products 13

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Materials and preparation                                                                17

  • Raw materials 17
  • Apparatus 17
  • Preparation 18
  • Extraction/method 18
  • Flow process for extraction using hot water 19
  • Method 20
  • Quantitative analysis 21

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Result                                                                                                22

  • Percentage tannin 23
  • Discussion 23

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Conclusion And Recommendation           24
    • Conclusion 24
    • Recommendation 25

References                                                                               26

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

          The tissue of wood, bark and leaves of trees contain a great variety of chemical substances of considerably scientific interest and some of the practical values.  Tannin is a generic name for widely occurring group of substances of vegetable origin.

Tannins from the bark, wood and leaves of certain species of plants is one of the most important commercial extractives which also form the basis of some important industries.  The main local source of obtaining industrial vegetable tannin in Acacia nilotica pods, obtained principally around Kano and Maiduguir.  Due to ever increasing demand for this materials by the producers of particle boards and leathers, there has grown a scarcity which normally manifest itself in the cost of materials.

Even in the southern parts of Nigeria where new leather industries are developing, the problem of obtaining transporting and storing these pods cannot for too long be over – looked there is therefore the need for a search into other alternatives in order to avoid a heavy drain on foreign exchange because of the importation of synthan (synthetic phenolic polymers).

Again the mangrove (Rhizophora species) found largely in most tropical coast lines contain reasonable amount of tannin.  But when used in the heavy tanning industries.  They a re known to produce an extract which has the major set back because of its hard red colour, which is prone to further darkening on exposure to sunlight during drying Fasina (1974) suggested that after full tannage is achieved, that the leather or particle board is bleached and then retanned using a light coloured fast penetrating vegetable tannin extract.  But one cannot over look here, the cost factor, since an industry is usually profit motivated.

This project is therefore an investigation carried out the determine other sources of vegetable tannin of commercial importance and which can sustain the available tanners industries in the country that is the species (bark and leaves) investigated were Pterocarpus Osun Pterocarpus Soyaureii. Burkea africana and Khaya senegalensis.

 

 

1.1     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

          For too long, there has been the importation of synthan (synthetic phenolic polymers) which is a heavy drain on foreign exchange.  The importation adds much to the cost factors of the materials which tannin can be used for, thereby decreasing the profits of the products.  This factor lowers the growth of some tanning industries, since industries are usually profit oriented.

Again, mangroves Rhizophora species contain a reasonable amount of tannin which has a major set back, even cacia nilotica pod is a good source of tannin but it is very for away.  That is Kano and Maidguri.

Due to ever increasing demand for this material (tannin) by the producers of particle board and leather there has grown a scarcity which normally manifest itself in the cost of this materials especially around Southern parts of Nigeria.

Therefore, there is need for a search into other indigenous wood tree species that has a lot of tanning in them to minimize the problems of obtaining, transporting and storing this pods from other wood species that contain tannin.

 

 

1.2     AIMS

  1. To educate students on how to use tannin in production of hides and skin.
  2. To educate students on how to use a local indigenous source to manufacture goods instead of foreign ones.

 

1.3     OBJECTIVES

          The main objectives is to investigate into other wood species that has a greater percentage of tannin in them.  Since there are other indigenous wood species that contain tannin eg focus (Ogbu) bark, cashew (Anacardium occidentale) bark etc, but they contain a lower percentage of tannin in them.  This to avoid wastage of time and money pterocarpus Osun, Pterocarpus Soyauxii Burkea africana, Khaya Senegalensis are indigienous wood species that were investigated to contain a greater percentage of tannin.

 

1.4     LIMITATION AND DELIMITATION

          The higher percentage of tannin in wood/trees depends on the condition of the climate upon which the tree species grow, it must be a fertile land, tropical region.

 

Poor laboratory equipments for extraction lowers the percentage of tannin extracts.

 

Extraction with a polar solvent extracts materials like glucocides, tannins, salts etc.

 

1.3     HYPOTHESIS

          A good tannin of commercial importance must be soft.

It must have acceptable colour of light straw to dark reddish brown or colourless on purification.

It must tan rapidly when in contact with hides and skin (protein of the skin galatine) and particles of wood (wood residuals “saw dust”).

It must be noncrystalline colloidal particle.

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RECYCLING OF USED LUBRICATING OIL

RECYCLING OF USED LUBRICATING OIL

 

ABSTRACT

In almost all human activities especially in industrial lubricating oil is required. A large quantity of used lubricating oil is wasted in milling of liters yearly. Spent lubricating oil is recovered using methods such as Acid treatment and activated charcoal/clay method. The results obtained show that the recovered lubricating oil compared favorably with the standard.

There will be a reduction or complete elimination of environment Pollution due to the present method of caroler’s disposal of spent oil is very clad. The level of lubricating oil in the market will not only be improved upon also will be sustained and easily available to the consumer

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                                      1

1.1 Aim                                                                                   1

1.2 Origin of petroleum                                                                    2

  • Brief History of petroleum in Nigeria 3
  • Waste Lubricating Oil Dumping 4
  • Objective 5
  • Statement of problem 5
  • Hypothesis 7
  • Scope of work 8

 

 CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review                                                                   8

2.1     Composition of lubricating oil                                                8

  • Performance characteristics of lubricating oil                          9
  • Lubricating oil in service                                                         12

2.4    General Characteristics of lubricating oil                       15

  CHAPTER THREE

Experimental work                                                                  23

3.1       Materials and method                                                  23

  • Quality Test                                                                 29

CHAPTER FOUR

Results and Discursions                                                                    33

4.1       Guideline for Quality Acceptance                                33

  • Results                                                                         34
  • Discussions                                                                 40

4.4     Comparison of the two methods                                             45

   CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion and recommendations                                           47

5.1        Conclusion                                                                 47

  • Recommendation 48

References                                                                      50


CHAPTER ONE

 

  • INTRODUCTION

Lubricants are unique among the petroleum products in the market especially if the product is of high or improved quality which guarantees a longer period of usage and a relative volume of sales.

It is good to recycle the used lubricating oil in order to prevent health harzard of dumping used lubricating oil, because of small percentage of lubricating oil gotten from petroleum products, also because of the high rank of lubrications as an energy conservation measure. The idea of recycling the used lubricants was first practiced   To an extent in 1930s during scarcity of adequate supplies of crude oil Which encourage the reuse of all types of materials including the lubricating oil.

 

1.1     AIM

The title of this project Recycling of used lubricating oil clearly speaks for itself, it simply means a process where by used lubricating  Oil can be brought back to its original form for further use. Also a process where by the quality of used lubricating oil can be up graded.

 

1.2     ORIGIN OF PETROLEUM

Petroleum is another name for crude or mineral oil, a thick dark Vicious liquid  used to make a wide rang  of liquid and gas fuels. Petroleum is a fossil fuel formed millions of years ago from decayed dead plants and animals that lived in some types of rocks where oil Is often found. Over 200 different hydrocarbons can be identified in a sample of crude petroleum. Owing to the great thickness of the sediment high pressure  built up which probably in conjunction with biochemical activity   led to the formation of crude oil although detailed mechanism isObscure, accumulation of crude oil believed to involve three steps

(i) Generation of oil: Oil is generated in sedimentary basin which

Have intermittent been covered with seawater or offshore basin on a continental area.

(ii) Primary Migration: The oil from source to reservoir rock.

(iii) Secondary Migration: The redistribution of oil within the  reservoir rock.

 A more complex organic matter known, as kerogen may be formed in sedimentary rock. Kerosene is a complex disseminated organic matter present in sedimentary rock that remains undisolved   by sequential treatment with common organic solvent such as benzene methanol mixture, toluene and ethylene chride followed by treatment with non oxidizing mineral hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid.

 

1.3     BRIEF HISORY OF PETROLEUM IN NIGERIA

Nigeria is blessed with a lot of natural resources of which include clude oil. Oil exploration kicked off and took shape in Nigeria in 1908 when a German company the Nigeria Bitumen Corporation (NBC) began successful exploration in the Araromi area of the present Ondo state.

The pioneering effect however terminated owing to the outbreak of the first world war in the year 1914 with the up roar and catastrophe however oil exploration resumed in Nigeria in 1937 and shell D” Arey  (the forerunner of the present shell Development company (SPDC) of Nigeria was awarded the sole concessionary, right covering the whole territory of Nigeria. The activities were again paused by the Second World War.

 

1.4     WASTE LUBRICATING OIL DUMPING AND ENVIROMENT.

The activities of the oil industry are aimed primarily at the production of fuel into a lubricants as by products also.  Many nations are now addressing the problems of environmental pollution posed by waste or used lubricating oils and Nigeria will not be an exception. There has been uncontrolled dumping of used lubricating oil generated by oil changers. In U.S.A about 2billion gallons used oils are generated annually. Because of this, industries and government of USA are now working seriously to find a lasting solution to the contribution of used lubricating oil to pollution and also to recover this valuable hydrocarbon. Also in USA the magnitude of the oil changers improper disposal problem is conservation ally estimated to be in excess of 300 gallons of used lubricating oil per year. Unlike USA where several groups have come up with suggestions on different way of eliminating this problem of dumping of used lubrication oil.

 

  • OBJECTIVE

The objective of this project centers mostly on

obtaining a high quality production of lubricating oil from used ones by recycling of the used lubricating oil thereby reducing environmental pollution minimizing action of importation of

lubricating oil, equipments and also to reduce unemployment.

Lubricating oil is one of the product obtained from tradition distillation of petroleum and is among the most indispensable commodity of every motor fuel stations and industries. Because of high demand of clued oil, it has increasing been scarce and expensive. This trenc is further compounded by the difficulties in obtaining the used clued oils, and equipment which are produced

by foreign countries.

 

1.6     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Used lubrication oils are contaminated with sludge, liquid contaminants such as unburned fuel, water originating from fuel unburned fuel, water originating from fuel combustion in the engines, and accidental contamination by rain and also solidabrasive particles.

Also used lubricating oils are known to have lost some of its operating properties such as viscosity, densely, cloud point and pour Point water content, Total Acid number etc. Lubricating oil, Nigeria has not in any way made an attempt in preventing the pollution that is being posed by this and there is no statistical information as to the quantity of this used lubricating oil that is being dumped Indiscriminately in all parts of the country.

In disposing used oil, many people use it to prevent dust. It is believed that about 75% of the oil disappears with dust and run off about 24% vapors adheres to vehicles or is degraded by bacteria and 1% remains on the road. The load bearing dust and run off  constitutes air and water pollution.

Sludge:- This is the mixture of the oil and carbon part ides from incomplete combustion of the fuels or from water, dust and dirt that deposit in the lowest part of the oil system and clogs small oil passages. When sludge is subjected to heating, it forms a hard gummy substance called cacquer which causes sticking of valve, mitigates against the continuous operation of oil pumps and also can interferes with oil circulation.

Liquid contaminants such as unburned fuel from engines will dilute lubricating oils and possibly reduce their viscosity beyond a safe load caring capacity. Contaminate with heavier oil increases viscosity and interferes with the oil circulation thereby affecting capacity.

Water even in small quantity causes rusting of iron or steal and helps to form water sludge, which may clog oil passages, pumps, values and other oil handling equipment. Water contributes to the retribution of lubricates and may also contribute foaming problems.

Solid abrasive part ides of dirt, dust and metallic part ides circulated by the lubricants obviously have a serious effect. Excessive and possible failures due to seizing or metal fatigue are commonly the result of this type of contamination. Smaller part ides may even become embedded in the soft bearings surface such as engine bearings and act as a sort of lapping, which action is cumulative and thus greatly accelerates wear.

 

  • HYPOTHESIS

Quality of lubricating oil deteroriats because of carbon particles present, metallic particles and water droplate. Removal of the contaminants of used lubricating oil can restore the quality.

 

  • Scope of work

This work is limited to Mobil and unipetrol.

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