Category Archives: Chemical Engineering Project Topics Sample

Chemical Engineering Project Topics Sample

THE EFFECT OF GRATIFICATION ON THE PRACTICE OF JOURNALISM (A CASE STUDY OF (ESBS) ENUGU)

THE EFFECT OF GRATIFICATION ON THE PRACTICE OF JOURNALISM

(A CASE STUDY OF (ESBS) ENUGU)

ABSTRACT

 

The   pace of social development every where seems   to be quickened by the important roles the mass communication play in our society. Unfortunately effect of gratification on the practice of journalism is on   the increase and it has now posed seriously concern to enlightened Nigerian.

The   study is aimed to find out why   journalists demand    gratification and if the practice influences the selections of news to be aired.

A   survey was employed in the study responses were coded in percent tages and presented in tables.  The result of the study the study shows the lack of financial stability is the major reason why journalists demand and accept gratification.

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1 Background of the study ==       ==     ==     ==     ==     ==               1

1.2 Statement of research problem ==        ==     ==     ==     ==               1

1.3 Objective of study ==       ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     5

1.4 Significant of study ==      ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     5

1.5 Research question ==        ==     ===   ===   ===   ==     ==               5

1.6 Hypothesis ==         ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==               6

1.7 Conceptual and operational definition of   terms ==                  ==     6

1.8 Assumptions ==      ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     7

1.9 Limitation / scope of study ==   ==     ==     ==     ==               7

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

2.1 Source of literature ==      ==     ==     ==     ==     ==               9

2.2 Review ==      ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     9

2.3   Need for training ==       ==     ==     ==     ==     ==               10

2.4 Gratification and media resources ==            ==     ==               11

2.5 Theoretical frame work of study ==     ==     ==     ==               14

2.6    Summary of related literature ==      ==     ==     ==               16

 

CHAPTER     THREE

Research methodology

3.1 Research design ==  ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     17

3.2 Area of study ==     ==     ==     ==     ===   ===   ==     ==     20

3.3 Population of study ==               ==     ==     ==     ==               20

3.4 Research sample and simply procedure ==    ==     ==               22

3.5 Data    collection == ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     26

3.6    Validity of instrument ==        ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     27

3.7 Reliability of instrument ==        ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     28

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Data analysis and result

4.1 Data analysis and tabulation    ==        ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     30

Lists of tables

  1. pattern of response on the effect of financial packaging influencing the belaviviour of journalist (samples)
  2. Assessment of importance of journal is in over society.
  • Necessity of accepting gratification in practicing journals.
  1. Assessment of training and retraining in    boosting    better performance among jurists.
  2. Pattern of response on the effect official belowground influencing the behavior of journalists.
  3. Support and non support response on the possibility    of    the new anti corruption crusade eradicating gratification practice.
  • Patter of responses on whether gratification practice can influence news judgment.
  • Pattern of responses on whether gratification praction can increase   the credibility of ESBS.
  1. Pattern of freedom in eradicating the problems of journalists.

4.2 Result ==   ===   ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     31

4.3 Discussion ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     32

 

CHAPTER FIVE  

Summary and recommendation for further study    

5.1 Summary == ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     34

5.2 Recommendation ==         ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     ==     35

5.3 Recommendation for further studies ==         ==     ==     ==     ==     38

 

 

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

In this dynamic and challenging society of ours, the role of Nigerian mass media is too many to mention. Journalism practice has performed enormous and crucial roles   for meaningful rural and national development.   The Nigerian media serve as a pivolt upon which socio-economic   political and cultutural   activities revolve.  It is on   this basis is   that many succession government in Nigeria depend largely on the support of the media in propagating their polices and programmer   to   the people.

This rise in the mass media and mass communication as journalism practice has been stimulated in   various science.  The reason for   this     can be explained by the simple realization that people are curious beings.  Their in qursitive mind always seals   to comprehend and interpret the world around them and the occurrence therein.  Above all, people are social   beings; they are communicating creatures Umechukwu (20000).

The development of popular newspapers and periodicals broadcasting   has led to institutional and cultural innovations, this permitting efficient and rapid communication between a few individuals and large populations, these various   media of communication have been responsible for the rise in the social empowerment of citizen of modern societies. Additionally, the media have shifted though generally, from the traditional roles to more vocationally relevant objectives, which   embrace the promotion of people’s interest in society in all sphere of life.

Hoggert (1957) endorses the above view when he observes that, over the years, mass media have become an important force in society not only as a means for the expression of ideas also as a social force to be reckoned with and a vehicle for mobilization.

Geibner (1990) is right when he says that the mass media provide the broadest common currencies of public interaction in a society”.

Therefore, communication endenced   through the mass media becomes one of   the important and basic social processes in any society.  This is simply so because people, as social being, must communicate and by so doing, establish credibility and enhance their enhance for survival. Hence mass      communication performs a number of vital functions such as: information, education, agenda setting, watch dog, cultural promotion, integration cultural promotion etc, without which society would be in chaos and in the      dark.

In British playwriting, Tom slippardsplay, Night and Day, set in post colonial Africa a world weary press photographer has this to say. “I have been around a lot of places people do awful things to each other.  But it’s worse in places where everybody is kept in the dark. Information is light.”   By providing information for the people, the mass media, according to lass well (1948) summarized do the duty of keeping.  Surveillance on society, correlate the environment and transit social her tage from one generation to the other, and entertain the public.

However, journalist practice as noble profession demands for discipline and ethical behavior to uphold the crucial and dependency of the society on the mass media for survival. The public require information Mac Bride at all (1981) posit.

….  This is needed in order to react knowledgeably to personal conditions, as well as be in a position to take appropriate decision. Through numerous educational programmers, such as quizes, debates and document arise;   the public   can be concretized on the need   to accord people their proper position.

Unfortunately, due to government pressure on the journalism, poverty and lack of training, may journalism engage on some unethical practices such as sensationalism, yellow journalism, cheek book journalism, invasion of privacy particularly Brown Envelop  (CVM gratification) as

This study characterized the present Nigeria mass media landscape.

The development affects credibility of mass media on their audience. Because mass media audience: listeners, readers, viewers etc has lost confidence on mass media content owing to influence of gratification on journalist news judgment and objectivity. As opposed to the journalist ethics of the professional that should guide practitioners at all times.

Ukozor (2002) post, ethics should give the journal standard by which he can judge action to be right or wrong good or bad responsible or irresponsible that journalist today needs to know their limitation so as not to abuse the power of the media in coronation of this view, Okunna describe ethical journalist as in Bastion of democracy. The impact of this shows the essence of ethical responsibility on media practitioners for balance, objective and accurate reporting in news.

Regreetably, communication in Nigeria is mainly influence by economic extremism on one hand and government pressure on the other hand.  In developing nations like Nigeria, poverty debases human dignity and causes the scale of honour and trust for money through gratification to influence news as opposed to editors of sense of value.  Also, the remunention of average journalist is too poor considering their enormous task they perform in sociality thereby making him or her to compromise.

Thus, recognition of this views the researcher set out to examine critical the effects of gratification on the objective practice of journalism through empirical study for test of validity.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

Mass media is a powerful instrument and channel of information dissemination to the people.

In view of this crucial role of media in society as perveyor of information watch, education, integration, entertainment e.t.c is widely accepted.  But it is regrettable to observe in the resent time that most government policies and programmes in the media radio, Television, newspapers and magazines aimed to better the living standard of the chizenry in the country does not get to the target audience or achieved the desired impact on people’s life.  This situation, pose a serious setback on government developmental objectives in line with dividend of democracy of the present dispensation.

Consequently, this development has generated varied opinion among educated class, opinion leaders, government agencies stakeholders and general public on the officacy of the media and journalism profession in this regard.  Some critics was of the view that they don’t believe in the mass media message or content as they use to be.  Because Nigeria mass media today lack credibility and objectivity in their reportage of event owing to influences of gratification on the journalist news editors sense of news judgement while some said that they only use media for intertainment then for information play theory.

Thus, in realization of these view interest the researcher in this study to critically examine the effects of gratification on objective journalism through method for test of validity.

 

 

 

1.3     OBJECTIVE

  • To further the investigation properly, the researcher believe that the study will have the following objective.
  • To determine whether journalist demand or receive gratification as requirement to discharge their duty in present media practice.
  • To ascertain if acceptance of gratification influence their sense of news judgement.
  • To determine whether gratification effects journalism practice positively or negatively.
  • Finally, to identify factors responsible for this practice among journalist with a view of addressing them.

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will have the following significance:

  • To help put gratification among journalist in discharge of their duty.
  • It will help media houses to redirect and reoriented their staff on the effects of gratification on media credibility.
  • It will also serve as a useful guide for future researcher that may be interested in this area of study and policy makers on communication.
  • It will help reveal some factors that militate against journalism practice, like news commercialization, ownership influence, and poor salaries etc. on media performance.
  • Finally, this study will help to stress the need for process freedom and right of people to know for sound media practice in Nigeria.

 

1.5     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  • What are the impacts of journalism in our society?
  • Has demanding and receiving of gratification by journalist impact on the credibility of journalist.
  • What are the role of training of the performance of journalist?
  • Could financial background play a role influencing the attitude of journalist towards gratification?

 

1.6     HYPOTHESES

Hi:     Journalism practice impact negatively in our society.

Ho:    Journalism practice does not impact negatively in our society.

H2:     Demanding and receiving gratification affects media credibility.

Ho:    Demanding and receiving gratification does not affect media credibility.

H3:     Lack of training among Journalist is responsible for unethical practice of gratification.

Ho:    lack of training among journalist is not responsible for unethical practice of gratification.

H4:     Non Payment of salaries of journalist encourage gratification.

Ho:    Non payment of salaries of journalist does not encourage gratification.

H5:     Government consorship affects press freedom and efficient journalism practice.

Ho:    Government censorship does not affect press freedom and efficient journalism practice.

 

1.7     CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERM

  • Gratification conceptually refers to gift gives to somebody in point in time.

Operationally:      Gratification refers to money, and other incentive given to journalist in media houses, newspapers, magazine, radio and Television by newsmakers to influence their news coverage as opposed to ethics of journalism profession.

2)      EffectsConceptually means impact on something.

Effects:    Operationally means negative or positive influence of gratification on journalist sense of news judgement.

3)     Journalism conceptually means the act of writing and printing information through media.

 

Operationally journalism refers to the process of gathering, processing and dissemination of information to the he trogenous, faccless and diversified audience by news gate keepers.

 

4)      Objective conceptually means the publication of truth, fair, accurate and unbiased report by journalist in performance of information dissemination task in society.

And in line with ethical code of the profession.

 

1.8     ASSUMPTION

This research study is based on the following assumptions.

  • That demand of gratification among journalist effects the credibility of mass media and journalism practice as a noble profession.
  • That little or nothing has been done by government and mass media houses to improve on the remuneration of media workers as a factor for ethical behaviour that threaten the integrity of journalism profession.
  • Mass Media institution should engage audience research to repackage their programmes and news content to rest the confidence of the audience on the media.
  • That poverty and government presume the main causes of gratification as unethic practice on journalism profession.

 

1.9     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY/SCOPE

This study mordern journalism and the effect of gratification practice should have encompassed all the media in Nigeria, but due to poor finance and logistics, it was limited to Enugu State Broadcasting Services (ESBS) which is government owned media organization.  The scope of study is Enugu the establishment is Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS).

The project topic deals with the effect the gratification practice have among modern journalists and on mass communication and the public as a whole.

Moreover, the limitation of the time made it impossible for a further research wotk beyond one case study used (ESBS) poor access to textbooks and study reports, the study could not go beyond what we have commendable and reliable result at the end is generated.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE

1)      Ahshull  Herbert (1984):        Agent of power: Newyork longman incorporated.

 

2)      Adesanoye Festus A. (1990):   Mass Communication and Nigerian’s              Development in Ikechukwu Nwosu (ed) Mass Communication Aba:  Frontier Publishers Ltd.

 

3)      Laswell, Harold (1927):  Propaganda Technique in the world war.  New York Smith press:

 

4)      Mac Bride seen (1980):  Many voices, on world: Communication and society today and tomorrow.  Parris:  UNES Publishing Company.

 

5)      Okunna Stella (2001):  The critical journalist as the Bastion of Democracy (ed) Nwosu the Nigeria journal of communication Vol. 1.

6)      Ukozor Feb. (2002):      Media laws and Ethics.  John Jacobs classic publishers Enugu.

 

7)      Umechukwu Panta (2000):  Topical issues in the Mass Media and emocratic Nigeria society talladu publishing company.

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THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LGA, ENUGU STATE

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REFURBISHMENT OF A VACUUM OVEN

REFURBISHMENT OF A VACUUM OVEN

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                       1

1.1 Background study                                                         5

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                               6

1.3 Aims and Objectives                                                      7

1.4 Scope of the study                                                        7

1.5 Limitations of the study                                                  8

1.6 Significance of the study                                                8

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Literature Review                                                          9

2.2 Definition of Oven                                                          10

2.3 Types of Oven                                                              10

2.4 Characteristics of vacuum oven                                       14

2.5 Mechanism of Operation                                                 15

2.6 Uses and Advantages of Vacuum oven                            17

2.7 Safety Guidelines                                                          19

2.8 Heating Characteristics                                                   21

2.9 Design                                                                         25

2.10 Variants and Accessories                                              26

2.11 Compact                                                                     27

2.12 Principles                                                                    29

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Refurbishment Procedure                                               33

3.2 Faults                                                                          33

3.3 Refurbishment Process                                                  34

3.4 Reasons                                                                       35

3.5 Replacement of Faulty Ones                                           36

3.6 Observation                                                                  36

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Discussion                                                                         37

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion                                                                         39

CHAPTER SIX

Recommendation                                                                40

Reference                                                                          42

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With heart full of joy and appreciation, we give thanks to God Almighty for being our help in all situations

Special Thanks goes to our various parents and guardians for their support both financially, morally, spiritually and otherwise for the success of the project.

We remain indebted to our able mother Engr. Akaniro C.N, the project supervisor who tirelessly spent her time and effort in working with us to achieve the purpose of this project. Mum, we remain grateful.

We also acknowledge the efforts of all the staff and the Head of Department of Chemical Engineering, ENGR B.N ABALU for their care and encouragement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

The refurbishment of a vacuum oven was carried out in the pilot plant laboratory in the Chemical Engineering Department of Institute of Management and Technology Enugu.

The refurbishment involves the replacement of faulty components from the oven such as the heating elements and the lagging material for effective functioning.

The oven now works without the use of a step down transformer. The lagging material asbestos was introduced to protect heat loss from the oven. Also the heating elements were replaced.

The corroded part (external) of the oven was scrapped out using scrapper to remove the rust after which it was coated with and oil paint to reduce the effect of corrosion and attack from chemicals.

The equipment (oven) was refurbished for carrying out practical and also for drying and heating of substances. Finally, the equipment being refurbished was tested and confirmed working effectively.

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Heat-treating process takes place inside a vessel that is air tight in vacuum ovens. This process is responsible or makes the vacuum drawn inside the vessel. It also prevents surface reaction like decarburization. It removes surface contaminants like the residual traces of lubricants, also it removes dissolved contaminating substances from metal. This process or means of removing contamination substances from metal is called degassing.

They have a low temperature of (<1400 degrees F) thermal process units, usually without refractory insulation.

There are important things or rather parameters to consider when specifying this oven includes temperature range capacity and pressure range.

The temperature range is known as the maximum range i.e. temperature at which unit may operate and still maintain rated performances, the capacity is the capacity of heated interior space i.e. the space inside the vacuum and is known to be less than 0.63 cubic feet. While the pressure range is never constant because sometimes it can be rough/low, medium, high and elevated

There are few configurations of vacuum ovens which includes the tube or muffle, bench, vertical and wave in. In the tube, heating is indirect, i.e. the material is heated from the outside. The bench is an equipment mounted on integral stands, while vertical units are space saving configuration and walk-in is a larger size batch equipment with double doors and integral carts.

The reason why ovens are built of several kinds of high temperature (refractory) materials is to hold the process material and hold in the heat without breaking down during the months they run.

There are several heating sources for vacuum oven. These include arc, electric or resistance and induction.

  • In arc configuration an arc between graphite electrodes and the metal generates heat. Both carbon and alloy steels are produced in electric are oven and scrap metal rather than molten metal is used as the base material.
  • In an electric or resistance heated unit, the heat source is powered by electricity typically utilizing existing factory voltages.
  • Induction is a widely used process for the surface hardening of steel. The components are heated by means of an alternating magnetic field to a temperature within or above the transformation range followed by immediate quenching

 

There are common applications for vacuum oven which are pre-heating, quenching, sterilizing, aging, annealing, moisture determination, out gassing solids, backing, brazing and soldering, plating, chemical resistance studies, drying of paper, firing and sintering, foundry and melting, heat treating, hot pressing, industrial and laboratory, Rubber and textiles, Dry sterilization, vacuum storage and electronic process control.

 

 APPLICATION

AGING: This describes a time-temperature dependent change in the properties of certain alloys

ANNEALING: This is used to treat work hardened parts made out of low-carbon steels (<0.25% carbon), allowing the parts to be soft enough to undergo further cold working without fractioning.

BAKING: Heating to a low temperature in order to remove entrained gasses.

BRAZING: This is known as a method of joining metal parts together by fixing a layer of brass between the adjoining surfaces. Here, a red heat is necessary and a flux is needed to protect the metal from oxidation.

BURN-OFF: This is the removing of cured paint, epoxies and plastics from metal parts and other material

CURING: This is the using of temperature to alter heated media by chemical or physical processing change.

DRYING: Here, moisture from object within oven/furnace is removed by temperature.

FIRING/SINTERING: Here is the bonding of adjacent surfaces of particles in a mass of powder or a compact by heating.

FOUNDRY/MELTING: These are used for metal melting applications for jewelry manufacturing, mining, and die casting operation production, aluminum foundering and fine arts studies.

Other applications of a vacuum oven are the timers, alarms, logging/recorder options, explosion proof, search logic.

TIMERS: the oven has a timer that is used for process or to automate turn-on and short timing.

ALARMS: It has integral alarms that ring when temperature set points are excluded or fallen below.

LOGGING/RECORDER OPTIONS: The oven includes a data logger or chart recorder for monitoring operational history.

EXPLOAION PROOF: The oven is constructed to minimize the damages of exploding media within, date to extreme temperatures.

SEARCH LOGIC: All products with any of the selected attributes will be returned in matches leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question, products with all attribute options will be returned as matches

 

 

  • BACKGROUND STUDY

During the 19th century, ovens(evacuated) like geissler and Crookes ovens existed and the researches increased. Scientist like Eugene Goldstein, Nikola Tesla, John Wilhelm Hiltorf, Thomas Edison and many others experimented with these ovens. These ovens were mostly for specialized scientific application with the exception of the light bulb.

Though, the thermionic emission effect was originally reported in 1873 by Frederick Gurthic. It was in 1884 that Thomas Edison’s investigation of the Edison patented what he found, but he died not understanding the underlying physics, or the potential value of the discovery.

The English physicist John Ambrose Fleming worked as an engineering consultant for technology film, including Edison in 1904, as a result of experiment conducted on Edison, bulbs imported from USA and while working as scientific adviser to Thermaconi company, he developed a device called “oscillation Valves” (because it passes current only in on direction) Which can also be uses as part of an oven detector.

In 1907 Lee De Forest Placed a bent wire “grid” electrode, between the filament and place electrode. As the voltage applied to the grid was varied from negative to positive. The number of electrons flowing from the filament to the plate would vary accordingly. Thus, the grid was said to electrostatically control the plate current. The resulting three-electrode device was therefore an element and vary sensitive amplifier of voltages. Dc forest called his invention the “Audion” in 1907. He filed for a three electrode version of the device known as the diode. His device was not strictly a vacuum oven, but clearly depended for its action on ionization of the relatively high levels of gas remaining after evacuation.

The first true vacuum triode design were the blirton’s, developed by irviring Langmuir at the general electric research laboratory in New York in 1915. He (Langmuir) was one of the first scientist to realize that a harder vacuum would improve the amplifying behavior of the triode.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

One of the problems that have arisen in connection with vacuum oven is that of heat distribution in the oven. hat is all of the work area doesn’t see a similar radiation field. Inconsistent and irregular radiation Fields can result in hard spots or residual stress in metals, different surface finishes and color variation is ceramics and porcelains and a myriad of other issues is more exotic materials.

These inconsistent and irregular radiation fields necessitate new vacuum ovens that have more uniform radiation fields.

 

 

  • AIM OF THIS STUDY

The aim of this study is to keep the apparatus in top operating condition through repairs, maintenance and servicing of parts of the apparatus.

Through the refurbishment, it increases the workability of the apparatus (equipment) the degree of accuracy and precision as well the sensitivity of the equipment. It also improves the performance of the equipment, maximize efficiency and bring error to minimum. Through the maintenance or refurbishment of the equipment, quantity/quality control, cost effectiveness, strength of material and prolonged apparatus/ plant life span can be obtained.

 

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This involves detecting the faulty components of the temperature control apparatus and the repairing which includes general servicing, flushing of the slump tank. Disinfecting the oven interior and making sure while cleaning that it is not sterilized and ensure that there is no leakage.

At the end, it is expected that the vacuum will be in top and mint condition (operating), by also reducing fouling off the corroded parts.

 

 

  • LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
  • Most of the materials used in refurbishing these oven are imported, which can result to high price of the oven and that of the replaceable parts using various fastening and assembling device for joining components.
  • The oven has limited number of existing ones in the market because of the designers for economic reasons and profit marginalization like the selling price.

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The vertical press device is designed to apply significant mechanical force to the cube while it is heated in an oven chamber 34. The vacuum in the chamber can reach 10 – 3 ton or more and the temperature of the cube can reach 340 – 360 degrees Celsius. It is possible to construct a mechanical mass device for inclusion inside the vacuum oven chamber which will be capable of operating under this vacuum and when subjected to these temperatures, however, found preferable to construct a press device outside of the oven chamber. The jevile is constructed in such a manner as to prevent the loss of vacuum and to insulate as much possible the press device from the elevated temperature within the chamber.

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PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY FOAM

PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY FOAM

ABSTRACT

The production of high quality foam was carried.  The actualization of the production of polyurethane (fibre) foam was made possible by using the components / chemical raw materials such as polyol (polyurethes resin).  TDI (toluene di-Iso-cyanate, methylane chloride (MC)-(CH2CL).  Silicon oil, stannous octoate, calcum carbonate and water.

 

As a result of chemistry of polyurethane foams, properties of foams and fibre materials (physical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties) gotten from the literature, review including the functions and reactions of the components proper formulation was made and conversions / translation to actual weights also done which lead to the production of the desired product. The experiment was done at ambient temperature of 320c following the normal procedures.

 

The foam produced is of very high density, good quality, durable and profitable. The densities of the various samples are 35kg/m3 and 40kg/m3.

 

As a result of poor storage conditions of the chemicals mentioned above here in the pilot plant, the stipulated and specified environmental conditions, there is a slight deviation of the foam from the international standard specification of 155. The foam produced are measured to standard and can be used for applied to any field of engineering and technology. They can be used for any purpose and is expected to last longer depending on the handling.

Chapter One

  • Introduction

1.1     Problem statement

  • Aims and objectives of the project

 

Chapter two

  • Literature Review

2.1     Origin of foam

  • Structure of polyurethane
  • Properties of polyurethane foam
  • Classification of polyurethane
  • Flexible foam
  • Rigid foam
  • Basic chemistry of foam production
  • Polyurethane chemicals and functions
    • Man chemicals
    • Blowing agents
    • Catalyst
  • Foam stabilizers
  • Making / Agitation
  • Characteristic features of methyl come chloride
  • Some possible faults, causes and their remedies.
  • Characteristics of fibre foams
  • Physical properties of foam polyurethane
  • Thermal properties of polyurethane foams
  • Foam fibres applications
  • Factors that causes defect during process

 

Chapter three

  • Foam formulation

3.1     The roles of chemicals in foaming reactors

  • Determination of Chemical consumption rates
    • Water
    • Tohiene DI – Isocyate
    • Blowing Agents
    • Schlone
    • Amine
    • Stannous actuate
    • Colorant
  • Summary of the formulation

 

Chapter four

  • Production procedure / Analyses

4.1     Essential Raw Materials Used

  • Procedures / methods
  • Experimental Results / Analysis
  • General Thermal properties
  • Chemical properties
  • Optical properties
  • Electrical properties
  • Permanence and service properties
  • Characteristic Test
  • Sampling and conditioning
  • Storage and Handling of urethane raw materials

 

Chapter five

  • Discussion

 

Chapter six

  • Conclusion

6.1     Recommendation

  • Cost Analysis
  • References

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Polyurethane foam otherwise known as expanded polymer products are group of materials developed as gotten by there action between alcohol with two or more reactive hydroxyl group per molecule. This branch of polymer technology are finding increasing applications in many field of engineering including arts and sciences. Foam was discovered as a result of man’s strong desire in quest to his environment. There are many kinds of foam based on their inherent features such as high rigidity, stiffness per unit weight of polymer thermal and acoustical insulating properties. Cushioning properties or shock absorbency characteristics, low internal stresses of foamed mouldings and ease of forming. As a result of these, extensive range of materials and manufactured articles with different applications are produced from polymer.

 

The three types of foams are flexible, rigid and semi-rigid foams. It’s used in many structural applications where they form light weight care. Cellular products contains gas usually air, within their structures, they have lower thermal conductivity and are therefore good thermal insulants. Because foams able to dissipate energy reversible and storage capacity. They are used in cushions and are exploited in upholstery bedding laminated clothing and packaging.

 

Every polymer can be produced in cellular form but these that have been extensively used includes, polyurethane, polystyrene, polyethylene, polyethylene, poly- (vinyl chloride), cellulose acetate, phenolies epoxides, urea-formaldehyde resins, silicones naturally rubber e.g. later from which is made from liquid starting material; sponge rubber and expanded rubber, both made from solid materials.  Cellular plastics are basically of two types, flexible foam and rigid or structural foam.  They may also be classified according to density as low density foam (< 100kg/m3), medium density foam (600-1000kg/m3).

Cellular polymers may have either an open-cell structure in which the cells are closed separate units (unicellular foams) and may contain gas or air.  Materials with open-cell structures have high permeability’s to liquid and gases but because closed – cell structures contains air, their elastic moduli in compression are higher and they have the best thermal insulations.

Polyethylene foams can be produced by injection moulding or may be processed by special machines designed to measure the required ratio of chemical, mixing them together and dispense the reaction mixture in predetermined amounts.  There has been continuous development of machine for processing along side the development of polyethylene technology.

Based on the environmental impact and protechona, new dimensions to further challenges in the development of polyethylene technology has taken place which have contributed to the increasing application of polyethylene in our daily lives from foam resistant coating.

As a matter of facts, this research project is centered on flexible foam of higher density and characterization and different types of polymeric reactions could produce different materials like plastics rubber, filmos, fire surface coating and adhesive.  As a result of variation in reaction hydroxyl groups of alcohol and isocyanate, senies of polyethylene products have been produced.  This ranges from flexible soft and revilement material to hard, brittle and rigid.

Generally, four bare isocyanates and a range of polyol of different molecular weight and functionalities are used in the production of whole spectrum of polyethylene products/materials.

As the case may be, various types of foams with different characteristics features are produced by varying the medium, mixing ratio etc.

 

  • PROBLEM STATEMENT

Based on the fact that some raw materials are gotten from out petrochenueal industries/chemical industries, these unused materials are property channeled to effective use in producing polymer materials e.g. foam, such materials are toluenemdi-isocyanata, polyether, resin, polyol, etc.

 

  • AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

This project/research is aimed at producing polyethylene foam that could be used or applied in various fields to satisfy human wants in Nigeria particularly and the world in general.

It is expected that if this research project is successful, a medium-layer scale industries would be established to best foam production.

Thirdly, an employment opportunity would be created for many Nigerians and would also bring foreign exchange to the country and also attract foreign investors to come into Nigeria.

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CONSTRUCTION OF PORTABLE WHEEL-BARROW

CONSTRUCTION OF PORTABLE WHEEL-BARROW

ABSTRACT

After detailed study on machines and levers, the construction work started as follows:-

Making out, pattern development, cutting filling, drilling, machining, assembling, welding and finishing.  Detailed procedures carried out is located at the sequence of operation in subsequent pages.

 

The machine has scale of 1:5 in all parts of its dimensions.  However, brief dimensions are given below:-

Upper surface of bowl             –                  850mm

Inner surface of bowl               –                  335mm

Stand height                                      –                  325mm

Diameter of wheel                             –                  250mm

Diameter of shaft seating and the shaft      4mm

Thickness of type                    –                  75mm

 

The drawing of the project was done and enclosed at the end page of this booklet.  At last, a 150kg capacity of conveying machine was constructed.

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Historical background

  • Need for constructing the machine

 

CHAPTER TWO

THEORY/LITERATURE SURVEY

  • Types of load to be carried by the conveyor
  • Operation of the wheel-barrow

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Equipments/tools employed during construction of the wheel-barrow
  • Materials of construction
  • Construction procedure
  • Sequence of operation
  • Design calculations
  • Calculations basic on the bowl
  • Specifications
  • Project drawing

 

CHAPTER FOUR

COSTING OF PORTABLE WHEEL-BARROW

  • Material cost analysis
  • Labour cost analysis
  • Miscellaneous costs

Total cost

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Discussion
  • Precautions taken during construction
  • Cautions to users
  • Recommendations
  • Conclusions

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Few centuries ago, the task of conveying loads around was so cumbersome.  Very minor loads could be carried from one point of the other.  The distances covered during the period of weak was less whereas the time expended on the short covered distance were much.  Also, there were no appreciable accomplishment of words, there were continually loss of man-power as much effort and energy was spent on conveying loads.

Loads were carried on human heads which was generally unsafe.

 

Consequent upon these limitations, man started devising means on how loads could be carried from one point to another with ease.  Before 13trh century, wheel-barrow was first constructed in china.  The type of wheel-barrow then had its wheel under the cargo box.  This conveyor helped the Chinese then to execute most of their works.  But, yet, smaller quantity barrow due to the weak mechanical strength of material for continuation.

 

In 13th century proper an improvement on the type of wheel-barrow that were in China was constructed and used in Europe.  This type had its wheel at the front of the machine on like that of the Chinese which had its wheel at the back of the cargo.  These conveyors in those days could only convey less loads and could withstand less stress due to the deficiencies in the strength of the materials used for construction.

 

But, as time went on, there was and have been improvement and advancement in technology and there is how knowledge on how mechanical strength of construction materials can be improved thus, guaranteeing capability of machines to the function they are intended for.

 

  • NEED FOR CONSTRUCTING THE MACHINE

The need of constructing this machine conveyor, arose as a result of difficulty being encountered daily on carrying of loads from points to points.  By the construction of this conveyor, loss of man-power, money, time and difficulties encountered during load conveying is reduced.

 

To establish a convincing fact in terms of technological acquired knowledge.

To contribute to technological advancement of the society.

To leave a legacy for the upcoming and prospective Engeers.

 

THEORY/LITERATURE SURVEY

Wheel-Barrow is a level of second class machines.  The weight is between the fulcrum the (axle) and the forearms the (handles).  It is worth mentioning that the longer the handles, the easier loads can be lifted.

 

Machines are generally termed to device with which tasks and works are done with ease.  Mathew pails an European was the first man to get wheel-barrow in pictorial and drawing.  In 13th century, since then it has become pertinent that before any construction is carried out, the machine must be pictorially presented and the drawing pictorially presented and the drawing followed strictly as construction proceeds to the finishing.

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PRODUCTION OF BLACK AND BROWN POLISH BROWN POLISH

PRODUCTION OF BLACK AND BROWN POLISH

BROWN POLISH

ABSTRACT

This project is aimed at producing black and brown polish of good quality.  For clearity, polish is a substance rubbed on the surface of materials to make them smooth and shiny. Polish has being of immense importance in protecting leather surfaces and enhancing their beauty.

To produce a standard polish, hard waxes such as carnduba wax, candelhla wax and palm wax; semi-hard waxes which include, paraffin wax and ozokerite; solvents like tupentine and naphtha; dyes and dryers are essential. In this research project, paraffin wax, turpentine; paraffin oil,. Cobalt and lead dryers, vanish, black and brown pigments were used to obtain the desired result.

The apparatus was set up as can be seen in fig1. Using the measured quantities of the ingredients, the production started with heating to about 90oc to melt the wax and cooling to about 600c. This was preceded by the addition of the solvent, the colorant, dryer and vanish. As this was being done, there was continuous agitation. After obtaining a homogenous mixture, the product was filled into 50ml cans and allowed to cool. The best formulation was obtained from 45.2%, 24%, 21%, 2%, 2%, 2% of turpentine, paraffin wax,  paraffin oil, drier, vanish and colorant respectively. The major problem encountered were that of coverage and gloss or surface shine produced by the trial formulations. They were blamed on the particle size of the pigments and the absence of some other ingredients like hard waxes to blend the paraffin wax; and naphtha which could not be found dispite all effort made. Happily, these were reasonably improved by using finer pigments particles and vanish respectively.

From tests and evaluations, the research project was a success with a good produce formulation; importantly, a production. And packaging cost (for the formulation) on fourty one naira, thirty three kobo (N41.30) per 50ml polish content was carried out with the sum of six thousand eight hundred and forty naira (N6,840.00)

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The emergence of polish technology in engineering is apparent offshoot of complexities resulting from the induction of substances that produce desired gloss and provides a protective coating for the surface of the materials, changing it to a dry adherent film. Therefore, polish is a substances usually wax based, which when applied to a sequence was based, which applied to sequence protects, makes it smooth and shiny.

It has been discovered that shoe polish industries in Nigeria are at minimum even though the polish industry is economically very important due to its widespread usage. Shoe polish industry  as a surface coaling provider in a very important venture.  The manufacture of surface coaling materials of which shoes polish is a part, has been estimated with swales of more than 10,000 million yearly.  This in essence means that its usage is wide spread and in teams of employment, gives a lot of  opportunities.  The economic consequences as highlighted above have4 in turn spu7rred many into a continuous struggle for a good quality product.

Therefore, in a bid to reduce the degree of unemployment by establishing small scale industries, this research project is emback upon.

 

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

The aim and objective of this project among other things include;

  • To produce shoe polish which will suit the weather of this country.
  • Produce polish of high quality at minimum cost5
  • To conserve foreign exchange and help solve the problem of balance of payment resulting from, the importation of polishes to offset the unnecessary.
  • To help complement the efforts of existing factories toward meeting the rising demand of product.
  • To create employment opportunities by establishing polish industry.
  • To reduce the depending on government for emplyment by having individual investment and becoming self reliant

 

 

 

THE SIGNIFICANCE

Considering the fact that there are few or practically no functional polish industry in the country, and the imported polish most atimes do not meet up with the local weather conditions, this research project will help to find solution to these problems.  And at the same time offer local alternatives to these imported products.  It will equally be an avenue for finding means of increasing our domestic national product.

Importantly, exploiting the benefit offered by this research work will help in improving the qualities of polishes produced.  This will help in making the polish industry a viable venture, whose product could be exported thereby serving as a foreign exchange earner for the country.

 

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The research project covers feasibility study, scouting and acquisition of the necessary raw materials required for the production, formulations research and the production of the polish samples.  Other areas are, analytical test of product qualities as compared with some commercial brands, evaluation of the project, discussion, conclusion and recommendations.

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