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The uses of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in nigeria public service

The uses of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in nigeria public service

(a case study of university basic education board, awka, anambra state)

 

Table of content

Chapter one

1.0   introduction                                                1

1.1   background of the study                             3

1.2   statement of the problem                            6

1.3   purpose of the study                                    7

1.4  significance of the study                              8

1.5   research question                                        9

1.6  scope of the study                                       10

1.7   limitations of the study                               11

1.7   definitions of terms                                     11

 

Chapter two

Literature review

2.1   the concept of communities and group meetings

In general                                                     16

2.2   history of universal basic education board 26

2.3  universal basic education board                  33

2.4  the chairman and function                          37

2.5    general overview of the laws of group meetings 39

2.6   uses of communities and group meetings

Universal basic education board                 47

2.7  the summary                                               53

2.8   gap in literature                                           53

 

Chapter three

3.0   research design and methodology        55

3.1  design of the study                                      55

3.2  area of the study                                         56

3.3   population of the study                                       56

3.4   sample size and sampling technique           57

3.5   instrument for data collection                     58

3.6  validity and reliability of the instrument     59

3.7    distribution and retrieval of the instrument       60

3.8  method of data collection                            61

 

Chapter four

4.0   data presentation and analysis                   62

4.1   presentation of findings                                      62

4.2   discussion/analysis of finding                     76

Chapter five

Summary, conclusion and recommendations

5.1   summary                                                     78

5.2   conclusion                                                   81

5.3   recommendation                                         82

References                                                   85

Appendix a                                                   87

Appendix b                                                    88


 

Abstract

The major purpose of this study is to examine the uses of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in nigerian public organization using universal basic education board, awka anambra state as the case study in the course of findings, the researcher made use of primary and secondary data in arriving at its findings. Simple percentage was used to answer and analysed the research questions. The researcher, however  discovered that the uses of committees and groups meetings in enhancing decision making in nigeria public organization ensures (i) quick decision making in an organization (ii) allow for an adequate treatment of issues that are technical in nature (iii) gives rooms for appropriate decision to be taken on matters that affect the whole organization. (iv) gives an opportunity to involve greater number of legislators in decision making in an organization. The researcher recommends that government at various level should try as mush as possible to enhance the uses of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in nigeria public organization in order to ensure greater participation legislators and welfare of citizens in general.


 

Chapter one

  • Introduction

Mckenna and flenning (1977) defined committee as “group of individuals which is formed to consider and report various matters which have been referred to them”. At the unset, it will be necessary to explain in a compendium the two major terms of the topic for better understanding.

A committee can be for an important issue and in that, it is responsible to the body which forms it and infact reports to it at the end of its assignment.

While there is a specific and special connotation on the formation of committees towards the performance of their indentified and specific task. A meeting according to shas (1965) is an assembly of persons and such assembly may arise in circumstance infinitely diverse in their character and combination. From these definitions, a group meeting is just a meeting of a group of people with common objectives and interest, and in that sense, it may be a committee.

The primary pre-occupation of universal basic education board (ubeb) anywhere is basically looking after the affairs of the primary school students in the state, this is because through them, the states can ascertain the condition of things comprehensively but only through their board of directors and such meetings decisions can be reached on its varied functions.

Since the organization time is limited, matters to be dealt with most times are either technical or highly specialized. The need therefore arises to form a committee to solve the problem. This is exactly the case in the universal basic education board, awka, anambra state, while a body of many members concentrate on discussing the principles the committee of few members are formed to discuss the details of the proposal and report back to the full body of the organization with recommendations.

 

  • Background of the study

The uses of committees and group meetings is a very important issue and that is the reason for the creation of the committees for the organization. They have the power to coordinate the activities of the state primary school. It aims at pushing the local people on the path to educational development. It means that committees and group meetings has to do with the group of elite or selected people superimposed authority to see affairs, social well being of the state primary school. The existence of committees and group meetings in the universal basic education board must not stand on its own, they must be dependent on the chairman of the board or have the total delegated power or authority from the chairman for smooth functioning. Most often, some matters in the organization requires expertise and specialist knowledge such matters are handle better of committee who  in turn reports to the board who takes the final decision. A committee must have a chairperson or can be headed by a chairman who directs the meetings proceedings.

The research study is concerned with the effect on the uses of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board, awka, anambra state. A close look at the evolutionary trend of the committee and group meetings in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board. The universal basic education board programme was established in nigeria with an act of the national assembly in 1999 during the general olusegun obasanjo’s administration. This led to the re-organization of the board to focus on promoting education and providing formal basic education encompassing the first nine (9) years of schooling, i.e. Primary and junior secondary education for all children in anambra state. For this reason, the board was renamed, the state universal basic education board and this has equally led to the board forming a committee with the commissioner for education among the committee members to establish and manage schools, and provide formal education to local communities as well as provides facilities and enabling environment for early stimulation of the young child.

  • Statement of the problems                

The universal basic education board in anambra state has been facing a lot of problems. The major reasons in which the universal basic education board was established are for administrative efficiency, provisions of education as well as provisions of social amenities. Unfortunately, most of the universal basic education boards in nigeria have not been able to perform those assigned functions expected of them. This ugly situation was caused by the following factors.

  1. Inadequate funds for the universal basic education to execute some of its projects in the state. Inadequate revenue from both the external source and that of internally generated revenue.
  2. There is lack of skilled man-power to implement policies aimed at achieving educational development, all these factors are combined to affect the quality of education.
  3. Corruption among officials: it is also instructive to note that the phenomenon of corruption is compounding the problem of shortage of funds in the implementation of the uba programme. Even, where the allocated funds is not enough, the little that is made available is usually embezzled by corrupt officials working in the board.

 

  • Purpose of the study

The general purpose of this study is to examine the use of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board, awka, anambra state.

  1. To know the extent to which committees and group meetings has helped in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board in anambra state.
  2. To determine the factors militating against the effectiveness of committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board, anambra state.
  3. To proffer solutions to the problems facing the effective and efficient committee and group meetings in anambra state universal basic education board.

 

  • Significance of the study

The significance of this study will contribute immensely to the enthronement of efficient and effective management in the uses of committees and group meetings towards enhancing decision making in anambra state universal basic education board.

To students and researchers, the findings will serve as reference materials when embarking on related research work of this nature. And to the general public, this study will serve as an “eye opener” to them in order to determine the major impact of the uses of committees and group meeting in enhancing decision making in the society.

Finally, the government of the country will generally benefit immensely from the study as it will substantially enable them to understand better how to use committees and group meetings top enhance decision making across the country’s public service.

 

  • Research questions

To arrive at the realistic finding, the researcher sought out the following research questions which are very relevant to the purpose of this study.

  1. To what extent has committees and group meetings helped in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board?
  2. What are the factors militating against the effective committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making the universal basic education board?
  3. How can the problems facing the effectiveness and efficiency of committees and group meetings be solved in anambra state universal basic education board?
    • Scope of the study

This research work is mainly carried out to discover how efficient and effective is committees and group meetings in enhancing decision making in the universal basic education board, with particular reference to ube, awka, anambra state.

 

  • Limitation of the study

The researcher faced time constraints and was enable to carryout a comprehensive research and visit as many universal basic education board as possible.

Also, there was inadequate fund for the effective financing of the research work. The reluctance of the people to divulge informations was also a major limitation. Despite the limitations, the researcher did a thorough study.

 

  • Definition of terms
  1. Organization: it is a body or association of persons united by common purpose, having various functions to perform.
  2. Development: this is a widely participation process of directing social changes in a society. It aimed at bringing both social and material advancement for the majority of the people through their gaining greater controls over their environment.
  3. Committee: a group of individual which is formed to consider and report on various matter which have been referred or assigned to them.
  4. Basic: forming the part of something that most necessary and from which other thing develop.
  5. Education: a process of teaching, training and learning especially in school or colleges to improve knowledge and develop skills.
  6. Board: a group of people who have power to make decision and control. A company or other organization.
  7. Committees and group meetings:

Committees are sessions and compositions of individuals or exports, set up to deal with issues in the organization at the formative state or to tackle other matters which are better discussed in camera/secret by a few people.

The committees in the universal basic education board are mainly but the most outstanding ones are as follows:

  1. The standing committee
  2. The committee of wages and means
  3. The selected committee.

Their major importance rest in their capabilities to arrive at decision within speed and precision and to address issues for which they are established.

  1. Universal basic education board:

The universal basic education board is the composition of people who are gainful employed into the civil service for comprehensive administration of the primary school students affairs in the state. The individuals who make up the board are admitted through examination or interviews.

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The role of non-governmental organizations in the development of rural areas

The role of non-governmental organizations in the development of rural areas  

(a case study of community self-help organization in awgu local Government area)

Abstract

This research work is designed primarily to examine and assess the roles being played by non-governmental organizations in the development of rural areas. The work is also designed to identify the causes of the low rate of involvement of the non-governmental organization in the development activities and the possible ways of making them more ideally effective. The study was carried out principally on community self-help organization in awgu local government area. A total population of 100 was selected as sample size through simple random sampling techniques. Primary and secondary sources of data collectively were used by the researcher which include oral interviews and questionnaires, textbooks, journals, document and newspaper. The researcher designed one hundred and twenty (120) questionnaires but one hundred (100) were selected retrieved. Statistical tools were also used for this research work. Questionnaires were employed in carrying out this research based on the historical nature. The relevant information which help and served as the foundation and construction of the questionnaires were the theory of development and rural development and related literature based on the roles of non-governmental organization in the development or rural area. Conclusively, lack of basic infrastructure and the problems of inadequate orientation reduces the numbers of projects being carried out by the development of rural areas. Government should endeavour to provide our rural areas with the basic social amenities so that these non-governmental organization will not be discourages by the alarming financial constraint that could mar the provision of these amenities before the operation of their organizations.

 

Table of contents

 

Chapter one

  • Introduction ———————————- 1

1.1   background of the study——————–      5

1.2   statement of the problem——————-      8

1.3   purpose of the study————————-      9

1.4   significance of the study——————–      10

1.5   research questions ————————-               11

1.6   scope of the study—————————              12

1.7   limitation of the study ———————               12

1.8   definition of the terms ———————               13

Chapter two

Literature review

  • Introduction ——————————–              15

2.1    the concept of non-governmental organization    15

2.2   the concept of rural development——– 24

2.3    registration of non-governmental organization    26

2.4   importance of registering an ngo ———       27

2.5   types of non-governmental organization –       29

2.6   objectives of rural development ————     33

2.7   community self-help in development ——     34

2.8   non-governmental organization as a means

To improve rural development —————   39

2.9   summary of literature review —————     41

 

Chapter three

  • Research methodology————————– 42

3.1   brief outline of the study ———————-   42

3.2   design of the study—————————–   43

3.3   area of the study——————————-    43

3.4   population of the study———————–     43

3.5   sample of the study—————————     44

3.6   instrument for data collection ————–     44

3.7   validation of the instrument —————-     45

3.8   distribution and retrieval of instrument —      45

3.7   method of data analysis———————–   46

Chapter four

  • Data presentation and analysis ————    47
    • Presentation of findings ———————- 47
    • Findings —————————————– 59

 

Chapter five

Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation

5.0   summary of findings—————————   60

5.1   conclusion ————————————–   63

5.2   recommendations —————————–    65

References ————————————–   67

Appendix —————————————-   69

Questionnaire ———————————-   70

Chapter one

Introduction

over the years, successive non-governmental organization agencies in nigeria have demonstrated appreciable interest towards the provision of amenities to both the rural and urban population of the country. The interest shown by this non-governmental organizational agency could be derived from their genuine intention of uplifting the living standard of the people. There is therefore no gain saying the fact that there have been some noticeable increase in educational institutions, health care centers, road constructions, water supply and so on as they strive to impress the people. Experience has shown that the provision and maintenance of amenities cannot be handled by government alone because it will be too onerous for government to satisfy the needs of all communities, bearing in mind the limitation of time and resource. It is therefore, necessary for the agencies of government to educate the people to appreciate the fact that the transformation of their country for enhancement of their standard of living should be a joint responsibility between the rural areas and the government or it’s agencies. This is why series of reforms and restructuring have been undertaken at local government level, all in an attempt to make it more responsive to the yearnings and aspirations of the people. It is also aimed to evolving an efficient and functional administrative and resources allocation system that will make for rapid growth and modernization of rural areas.

the impact of non-governmental organizational agencies (ngo’s) in rural development has attracted the attention of some great scholars. Nnoli (1981) refers development as “a natural fact in which the individuals and society interact with their physical, biological and inter human environment transforming them for their own benefit and that of humanity at large”.

also aroh (1997) viewed rural development as a process whereby rural dwellers come together to perform various functions in order to give a face lift to their immediate environment or rural area.

also obasi, oko and nnamdi erondu (2010) viewed rural development as the improvement of the living standard of the people of low income population risiding in rural areas and making the process of their development self-sustaining. The united nations children rural (1995) perceive ngo’s as organizations or loose association which are composed of people working together to address a need. They give basic elements of ngo’s.

  1. An ngo is primary an intermediate organization that is development oriented.
  2. Non – profit oriented
  • Non-government in term of organization, membership and funding
  1. A voluntary organization.

In all, non-governmental organization agencies role in rural development is aimed at making people self-reliant, able to participate in national development. It also ensure that both the rural and urban areas the provision of the necessary assistance, like funds, legal and structural framework, and technical and managerial expertise necessary for the programmes (aroh, 2002).

 

  • Background of the study

The study was carried out in awgu local government area of enugu state in nigeria. The local government area occupies an area of about 200 square kilometers with an estimated population of 8,000 people (npc, 1991). The local government is bounded in the east by orji local government, in south by udi local government, in west by abia state and in north by ani-nri local government.

In these very local government which is awgu more than 90% (90 percent) of the inhabitant living in the rural area of the local government area are igbo’s who are mainly from enugu while the remaining percentage are people from other parts of the country who must have come to settle in the area for the search of green pastures, such as farming, trading, schooling and business. The local government comprises of different communities like agbo-ogwugwu, mgbidi, mmaku, ihe, ituku, ozalla, owerre court, mpu etc. The occupation of the people is teaching, farming, trading, civil servants etc. The awgu co-operative union was formed in 1980 and it is one of the first co-operative formed in that area during that period and it’s aim is to help to improve the living standard of the people by indulging them into contributing money which is likely known as (isusu), so that any member that is in need of capital can take loan from the cooperative and later pay back without interest. After the 1980 co-operative come another one in (1982) which is called the umuene co-operative after that came another one in 1986 named umuanioke co-operative and all this tends towards enhancing the living standard of the rural dwellers and making life easier for them. This union has been noted to be a well recognized union of the development of the rural area and also has help in extending arms to the less privileged in the rural areas. There was a remarkable thing done by these awgu co-operative union on september (2002) they bought chairs and desks for the whole primary school in awgu local government area, also in december 2004 the awgu co-operative donated bags of rice and wrappers to the widows in the rural areas. The agwu history is something one cannot forget in a haste, the people of awgu are people of integrity, honesty and responsible, as i was told the awgu people are known for their hard work, zeal to help one another and have the spirit of oneness and believe in teamwork from the above indication it means that they live a life worthy of emulation.

  • Statement of the problem

Through the rural dwellers non-governmental organizations have continued to play a significant role in rural development by producing food and agricultural raw materials for export and local consumptions but yet so many rural areas still lack the basic amenities of life such as good roads, postal services and communication e.g. Mtn network, nitel, glo, airtel, etisalat etc anyanwu (1981). The unbalance in provision of these basic amenities and infrastructural between the rural and urban areas have occasioned an unprecedented rural urban daft with a depressive effects on the rural economy which the facts has been established in a way whereby the non-governmental organizational agencies is constrained in it’s efforts to provide citizens with all the required social and basic amenities for comfortable living anyanwu (1992). The truth is that non-government organizations have been established by various community members, who came together to compliment the effort government.

 

  • Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study is to highlight the role of the awgu co-operative development union, awgu local government while specific objectives of the research work are:

  1. To ascertain the personal characteristics of each member of the awgu co-operative development union, awgu.
  2. To ascertain the level of contributions of non-governmental organizations for rural development.
  3. To examine the structure of the development union.
  4. To identify the constraints encountered by the awgu co-operative development union in their rural development effort.

 

  • Significance of the study

The importance of this study is to ascertain the benefit of ngo’s to the society. It also include the beneficiaries and this means those who benefit from these study and they are:- teachers, student, farmers, communities/villagers and society at large.

However, it is important to note immense contribution made by ngo towards enhancing the standard of living of the people and also reduce the burden of over dependency on government.

 

 

 

  • Research questions

In order to achieve the objective of this research work the following research questions are designed to adviere that:

  1. What are the contributions of non-governmental organizations agencies in rural development in awgu local government?
  2. To what extent are people at the rural area involved in the development of their area?
  • In what ways do the people of the community involved in taking the decision for the maintenance of their area?
  1. To what extent are the people of the rural area initiating programmes and projects for the development of the rural areas.

 

  • Scope of the study

The scope of the study is the impact of non-governmental organizations in rural development with particular reference to awgu co-operative union in awgu local government area of enugu state as a yardstick for other state of nigeria as regards to development of rural areas.

 

  • Limitation of the study

In carrying out this research work i encountered so many obstacles. There were difficulties in getting the respondents, because most of them have gone to farm and some to market etc.

Some of them were afraid of feeding me with the proper information because to them they are seling out the secret of their community or area. I lacked the financial resources which affected the research negatively.

 

  • Definition of terms

In order to give easy comprehension of the entire research, it is required that some terms of importance used should be defined. Such terms are as follows: –

Government: can be defined as an institution of a state whereby the interest, welfare and need of the citizens are been protected.

Organization: is defined as a highly rationalized of persons co-operating with one another to announce and achieve a specific goal.

Community: referred to as a relatively small isolated centre with a stable population in which all economic and social service necessary for life can be realized.

Rural: a part of society that is relatively more natural than artificial.

Development: it involves improvement, progression, enhancement and change in economic, social socio-cultural, infrastructure, political of a state, development is a multidimensional changes in nature and attitudes of one’s life.

Role: it is referred to as the objectives.

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The role of non-governmental agencies in poverty alleviation and the development of community

The role of non-governmental agencies in poverty alleviation and the development of community

(a case study of ufuma prime movers association in orumba north

Local government area anambra state)

Abstract

The study focuses on the role of non-governmental agencies in poverty alleviation and the development of communities using ufuma prime movers association in orumba north local government area as a case study. The general purpose of the work was to highlight the role of non-governmental agencies in poverty alleviation and development of community which the specific objective is to examine the structure of ufuma prime mover in orumba north local government area anambra state. To identify the contributions of ufuma prime movers in oruma north in its community development effort. The data used for this research is derived from the administration of questionnaire, interview and also through internet, library research on the textbooks, percentage analysis and the hypothesis formulated were tested using the percentage test. The scope of this study is the impact of non governmental agencies in community development organization to the development of communities, area of the study which covers a particular geographic area which is orumba north local government which is used as the case study. Population of the study which is composed of five hundred and sixty two (562) workers, sample of the study which the researcher used random sampling techniques which stated that out of 562 workers in orumba north local government, 233 was selected.  The major constraint encountered by ufuma prime mover in orumba north local government area in its community development efforts were lack of finance and materials for carrying out development projects. From our finding, it was recommended that government and non-governmental agencies should make conscious effort towards supporting community members in self help community project.

 

Table of content

Title page                                                                       i

Approval page                                                               ii

Dedication                                                                     iii

Acknowledgement                                                         iv

Abstract                                                                        v

Table of contents                                                          vi

 

Chapter one

1.0    introduction                                                         1

1.1    background of the study                                      1

1.2    statement of the problem                                     6

1.3    purpose of the study                                    7

1.4    significance of the study                                      8

1.5    research question                                                 9

1.6    scope of the study                                                10

1.7    limitation of the study                                          11

1.8    definition of terms                                                11

 

 

Chapter two

Literature review

2.0    introduction                                                         14

2.1    the concept of non-governmental agencies 14

2.2    the concept of community development              16

2.3    registration of non-governmental agencies  18

2.4    types of non-governmental agencies            21

2.5    objectives of community development                 23

2.6    basic function on non-governmental agencies       25

2.7    non-governmental agencies as a means to

Improve community development                        26

2.8    summary of literature review                               28

 

Chapter three

3.0    research design and methodology                        29

3.1    design of the study                                               29

3.2    area of the study                                                  30

3.3    population of the study                                        30

3.4    sample of the study                                              31

3.5    instrument for data collection                             32

3.6    reliability and validity of the instrument             33

3.7    distribution and retrieval of the instrument        33

3.8    method of data analysis                                       34

 

Chapter four

4.0    presentation and analysis of data                        35

4.1    data presentation                                                 35

4.2    data analysis                                                        35

4.3    discussion/analysis of findings                   48

 

Chapter five

5.0    summary of findings, conclusion and        recommendation                                                   49

5.1    summary of findings                                    49

5.2    conclusion                                                            51

5.3    recommendations                                                52

References                                                            54

Appendix(es)                                                   56-57

 

 

 

List of table

Table 1:     position distribution of respondent             36

Table 2:     characteristics of the respondents              37

Table 3:     number of married and yet married            38

Table 4:     educational qualification of respondents      38

Table 5:     do the people of the community initiate programme and project for the development

Of the community.                                       39

Table 6:     does the people of the community involved

In the development of their communities   40

Table 7:     does the people of the community involved

In taking decision for the maintenance of

Their community                                          41

Table 8:     is there any positive relationship between

Orumba north local government and

Non-governmental agencies.                        42

Table 9:     do you think that the agency of orumba

North local government has helped well in community unemployment problem             43

Table 10:   do you think that non-governmental

Agencies  have a lot of in pact in

Community development                            44

Table 11:   does the people of the community provide

The amenities used in their community     45

Table 12:   do you think that some people have diverted

These basic amenities for their own personal use?                                                         46

Table 13: do you think that the amenities produced

have achieved the development of rural

community?                                         47

 


 

Chapter one

  • Introduction
    • Background of the study

Non-governmental agencies in nigeria have demonstrated appreciable interest towards the provision of amenities to both the rural and urban population of the country. The interest shown by these non-governmental agencies could be derived from their genuine intension of uplifting the liking standard of the people. There is therefore no gain saying the fact that there have been some noticeable increases in educational institutions, health centers, road constructions, water supply and so on as they store to impress the people. Experience has shown that the provision and maintenance of amenities cannot be handled by government alone because it will be too onerous for government to satisfy the need of all communities, bearing in mind the limitation of time and resources. It is therefore, necessary for the agencies of government to educate the people to appreciate the fact that the transformation of their country for enhancement of their standard of living should be a joint responsibility between the community and the government or its agencies. This is why series of reforms and restricting have been undertaken.

At local government level, at in an attempt to make it more responsive to the yearnings and aspirations of the people it is also aimed to involving an efficient and functional administrative and resources allocation system that will make for rapid growth and modernization of rural communities (non oil). The role of non-governmental agency (ngo’s) in community developed has attracted the attention of some great scholars. Aroh (1997), viewed community development as a process whereby community came together to perform various functions in order to given a face left to their immediate environment or community. Also non oil (1981) refers development as a natural fact in which the individuals and society interest with their physical, biological and inter human environment transforming them for their own benefit and that of humanity at large. Ngo’s as an organization or loose associations which are composed of people working together to address a need. Basic element of ngo’s are: –

  1. Non-profit oriented
  2. A voluntary organization
  • An ngo is primary on intermediate organization that is development oriented.
  1. Non-government in term of organization, membership and funding.

In all, non-governmental agencies role is poverty alleviation and community development is aimed at making people self reliant, able to participate in national development. It also ensure that both the rural and urban communities the provision of the necessary assistance, like funds legal and structural framework, technical and managerial expertise necessary for the programmers’, aroh (2002).

The study was carried out in ufuma, which is located at orumba north local government area of anambra state in nigeria. The local government area occupies an area of about 220 square kilo with an estimated population of 8,280 people (npc 1991).

The local government comprises of different communities like ajali which is the headquarter, oko, ufuma, omogho, awa, naka, amaokpala, ndiowu, ndikelionwu and so on. The occupation of the people is farming, treading, civil servants, etc. The ufuma prime movers was on the third development union formed in the area in 1984 but before the formation of the ufuma prime movers there was other union formed in february 23nd 1982. The cooperative union formed in march 2nd 1983 before the formation of the ufuma cooperative union in june 28th 1984. This union of the development of the community and also has helped in increasing the standard of living of the people and extending aims to the less privileges in the community. There was remarkable to which was done by these prime movers on march 8th 2000 disk and chairs for the umonyiba primary and nursery school in the area also in 2004 the prime movers donated wholesomely to the widows in umuogem community. The ufuma comprises of nine (9) villages and its history is something that one cannot forget in a haste, the people of ufuma are people with integrity, honest and responsible as i was told the ufuma people spread to different villages like umuagu, obiagu, umuogem, umonyiba, umuonyiuka and so on.

 

  • Statement of the problem

Though the community dwellers in non-governmental agencies has continued to play a significant role in the community development by producing food and agricultural raw materials for exploit and local consumptions but yet so many community still lack the basic amenities of life such as good roads, postal services an communication e.g. Mtn network, nitel, glo etc anyanwu (1981). The unbalance in provision of these basic amenities and infrastructural development between the rural and the urban areas have occasionally an unprecedented rural urban draft with a depressive effects on the rural urban economy which the facts has been established in a way whereby the non-governmental agencies is constrained in its effort to provide citizens with all the required social and basic amenities for comfortable living anyanwu (1992). The truth is that non-governmental agencies have been established by various community members, who came to government with the activity of the non-governmental agencies have been documented adequately in literature and it is such view that the study was conceived to examine the role of the ufuma prime movers in ufuma orumba north local government area, anambra state was regarded to the community development.

 

  • Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study is to highlight the role of the ufuma prime movers in orumba north local government which specific aim of these research works is to designed the following:

  1. To examine the structure of the development union.
  2. To identify the constraints encountered by the ufuma prime movers in their community development effort.
  3. After the completion, the research work will be an incentive and motivation factors in the behavior of the people towards community development.
  4. Ascertain the personal characteristic of each members of the ufuma prime mover in orumba north local government.

 

  • Significance of the study

The essence of this research work is to propagate the good role of non-governmental agencies towards community development and how they can contribute to the crusade against poverty after the completion of this products, so that the people of the community can see the need for self help project because non-governmental agencies have play a significant role in community development and their roles need to be understood very well by policy makers, the government and ngo, the potentials members that will gradually help in development.

 

  • Research questions

In order to achieve the objectives of this research work these proper solution will be attempt to in the research:-

  1. In what extent are the people of the community initiate programmes and projects for the development of the community?
  2. What is the relationship between non-governmental agencies in community development in orumba north local government?
  • How are the amenities given to the people of the community being provided and maintain by the people of the community?

 

  • Scope of the study

The scope of this study is the impact of non-governmental agencies in community development organization to the development of communities with particular reference to ufuma prime movers in orumba north local government area of anambra state. Findings here shall be used as a yardstick to other states in nigeria.

 

 

  • Limitations of the study

In carry out this research work, i encountered so many obstacles, like the day i was travelling to anambra state for questioning of the respondents, it rained heavily and the cost of traveling was very high as i thought. There were difficulties in getting the respondents, because most of them have gone to the farm, why some to the village market etc.

 

1.8  definition of terms

In order to give easy comprehension of the entire research, it is required that some terms of importance used be defined, such terms are as follows: –

 

 

  1. Government:

Can be defined as an institution of a state whereby the interest, welfare and needs of the citizen are been protected.

  1. Community:

This referred as a relatively small isolated center with a stable population in which all economic and social services necessary to life can be realized.

  1. Development:

It involves improvement, progressing enhancement and change in economic, social socio-cultural, infrastructure, political of a state. Development is multidimensional change in native and attitudes of one’s life.

 

 

  1. Agency:

A business or an organization that provides a particular service especially on behalf of other business or organization.

  1. Role:

The function or position that something has or is expected to have in an organization in society or in a relationship.

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The role of micro-finance bank in the development of rural areas.

The role of micro-finance bank in the development of rural areas.

(a study of oko micro-finance bank) 2004-2014.

Table of content

Chapter one

Introduction

1.0   background of the study                             1

1.1   statement of the problem                            6

1.2  purpose of the study                                    8

1.3   research question                                        9

1.4   statement of hypothesis                              10

1.5   theoretical framework                                  11

1.6  significance of the study                              12

1.7  scope of the study                                       13

1.8   limitations of the study                               14

1.9   definitions of terms                                     14

 

Chapter two

Literature review

2.1   introduction                                                16

2.2   concept of oko micro-finance bank              25

2.3  the record of micro-finance bank                 27

2.4  importance of credit to the development

Of the rural communities                             35

2.5    micro-finance bank offer a number of credit

Delivery schemes                                         40

2.6   products and services                                  41

2.7   summary of literature review                       42

Chapter three

Research methodology

3.1  design of the study                                      44

3.2  area of the study                                         44

3.3   population of the study                                       45

3.4   sample/sampling techniques                      45

3.5   instrument for data                                     46

3.6  reliability and validity of the instrument     46

3.7    distribution and retrieval of the instrument       47

3.8  method of data analysis                                      47

 

Chapter four

Data presentation and analysis

4.1   personal data                                              49

4.2   data presentation                                        53

4.3   analysis of research questions                     53

4.4   testing of hypothesis                                   58

 

Chapter five

Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations

5.1   summary of findings                                   63

5.2   conclusion                                                   64

5.3   recommendation                                         65

References                                                   67

Appendix i: letter of respondents                  70

Appendix ii: questionnaire                           71


 

Abstract

This study aim at describing the role of micro-finance banks in the development of rural areas. To this effect, a case study was used which is oko micro-finance bank 2004-2014. This study aim at unearthing the powerful strategy for alleviating poverty in general and rural poverty in developing country, to analyze the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of micro-finance institutions in the selected region, to access the problems encountered by micro-finance service consumers in the rural areas. To achieve this purpose, 4 (four) research questions were raised vis: how does micro-finance institution operate in selected rural settling in the country? What are the problems encountered by micro-finance service consumers in the rural areas? What are strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of micro-finance institutions in the selected region? In addition, hypotheses were formulated to guide the study namely: micro-finance banks helps in the development of rural areas. Oko micro-finance bank is aimed at increasing the level of per-capital income of oko-community in anambra state. The researcher uses percentages respondents’ opinion. The researcher also made some recommendations among which were: micro-finance banks should involve themselves in the catchments areas. Because is the last hope of rural dwellers.

 

 

Chapter one

Introduction

1.0  background to the study

A major development issue facing many developing countries has been the need to reduce the scale and depth of poverty among the growing population. Chandy and gerts (2011) estimate that there were about 878.2 million people living below the poverty line in the year 2010. Of this number over 700 million live in rural areas. African has 369.9 million population or proportion of poor people the elimination and reduction of poverty is a key concern of development thinkers and practitioner (coyle, 2007; ifrpi, 2008).

The beginning of the 1970’s saw attention general towards improving the wellbeing of the rural poor who formed the majority of the population in developing countries, many governments and international and local agencies shifted their attention and channeled their resources towards development of rural area. This idea was motivated by the intention of reducing the levels of unemployment, increasing access to public goods and services by the development of rural population and more particularly, lowering poverty and overcoming income inequalities in most developing and least-developed countries according to brad show (2006), the explanation of poverty may be structural, personal, social or economic according to (burgess & pande, 2002). In the fight against poverty it is believed that the introduction of banks in rural areas enhance the livelihood of the rural dwellers. It is assumed that intervention will change human behaviors and practices in a way that will lead to the achievement of desired outcome.

According to (van santen, 2010) said that financial services for the poor have also been proven to be a powerful instrument for reducing poverty, enabling poor people to build assets and increase incomes, and reducing vulnerability to economic stress and shocks the idea of establishing micro-finance banks in nigeria was initiated under the former head of state general ibrahim babagida in 1990 the   idea was to mobilize funds and sensitize people on the need for development particularly those in the rural areas. The micro-finance becomes effective on the 16th day of july 1991 with the inauguration of the national board for micro-finance bank implementation committee and subsequent opening of the first micro- finance bank in the country at althen which was located in kaduna state. Since then there had been major efforts at improving the understanding of nigeria about the objectives and modalities of establishing micro-finance bank.

Many communities have established their own micro-finance bank, already the country is having about 1,450 micro-finance banks as at the end of december 1999. Stood at n200m mostly is currently form of cash bank, balance loan e.t.c of the one hundred and five bank licensed before february 2004 about 52 fifty two have share capital of between n500,000 and n1million. Twenty seven banks, between n1billion and n3billion loan and advance range from 500,000 to 5.8million in zone. Over 20 micro-finance banks have asked to be allowed to increase their share capital to n1million while far ones are requesting to raise their share capital to n5million banks like ibeto micro-finance bank, oganiru micro-finance bank and so on have already assests worth over n10million each. As a mark of growth, so many micro-finance banks had qualified for a board matching loan repayment over a period of five years. The loan is being given to those banks that have met the condition of submitting the return for the first three months, board resolution requesting the loan and an understanding by the board of directors to guarantee the loan.

In 1993 precisely, there was a boom on establishing of micro-finance banks, which then was regarded as the last hope of the rural dwellers, this encouraged customers to deposit and granting loan to rural dwellers thereby developing rural areas through investment by the rural people, it was within this period that oko micro-finance bank was registered with the national board of micro-finance banks. Oko micro-finance bank has a staff strength of between 15-20 a share current capital of about n700,000 to n1million and numerous customers which are mainly students of the federal polytechnic oko. Their function includes to lend loans to their customers, to help in export financing.

 

1.1  statement of the problem

Micro-finance bank could be powerful strategy or instrument among several others, for alleviating poverty in general and rural poverty in particular in developing countries. Although many developing countries, such as african have scored relative successes in using micro-finance bank as an instrument for alleviating poverty in general, and rural poverty in particular, it has not been so for many other developing countries.

Most of the micro-finance programs operated in these countries have left the so-called beneficiaries in debts. In a similar vein, most organization involved in providing micro-finance service, including government institution, co-operatives and non governmental organizations (ngos) have in most cases performed very poorly. High rates of non-repayment of loans by clients have on several occasions led to the collapse of micro-finance institutions. Notwithstanding this, micro-finance has continued to gain popularity among rural developers as a visible tool for improving rural agricultural practice and the diversification of economic activities of small- holder farming householders.

Lack of adequate loan funds, inadequate institutional capacities, poor coordination, little or no participation of the beneficiaries in the planning of micro-finances programs, lack of effective training programs for the both beneficiaries and operators of the programs are some of the reasons behind the ineffectiveness of micro-finance as a strategy for alleviating rural poverty in developing countries.

 

1.2  purpose of the study

The main objective of this study is to critically examine how micro-finance can be used as an effective instrument or strategy to reduce the high level of poverty in the rural areas of respective developing counties especially in africa. The researcher have to look at the nigeria situation.

  1. To examine how micro-finance institutions operate in selected rural settings in the country.
  2. To analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of micro-finance institutions in the selected region.
  3. To access the problems encountered by micro-finance service consumers, in the rural areas.
  4. To investigate and analyze the types and nature of micro-finance service provided in selected rural settlements in the country.

 

1.3  research questions

  1. How does micro-finance institution operate in selected rural settlings in the country?
  2. What are the problems encountered by micro-finance service consumers in the rural areas?
  3. Does micro-finance bank alleviate poverty in general and in rural developing countries?
  4. What are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of micro-finance institutions in the selected region?

 

1.4  statement of hypothesis

The following hypotheses were designed to guide the study:-

H0:   micro-finance bank does not help in the development of rural areas.

H1:   micro-finance banks help in the development of rural areas.

H0:   oko micro-finance bank is not aimed at increasing the level of per capital incomes of oko community.

H1:   oko micro-finance bank is aimed at increasing the level of per capital income of oko community.

 

1.5  theoretical framework

Past studies on diffusion theory have shown strong influence of the awareness of idea and innovation by a member of the community in which it spreads to all other members of such community. Also is the influence of distance on diffusion process which shows that a further away member of the society may not be aware of the innovation or ideas from the source on time unlike some one else to the source. Thus, this theory depicts an application to development of rural areas through self-help projects by the process of social contract through spatial ranges and dimension and field of influence. A member of the community through     community unions and association in most cases, the expansion and diffusion process is most applicable in development of rural areas through self-help projects in which ideas, innovation and communication spread spatially and temporarily until increasing members of individuals in the society become aware of the need for self-help project for development of rural areas.

 

1.6  significance of the study

On the completion of this study, it is hoped that it will be useful and profitable to the micro-finance banks executives, students and the researcher in particular together with the rural people since micro-finance bank is seen as poor man’s bank. To the management of the micro-finance bank, it will help them to know the areas of services they are performing well as those areas that needed improvement in development of rural areas. To the students more of those in public administration will also use it as a guide for literature review in carrying out more research work on the topic. To the rural dweller’s the idea of micro-finance bank will enlighten them on the need to bank their money no matter how small which will help to combat the number of loses/stolen being encountered by these ones. The idea will also encourage savings in the rural areas.

 

1.7  scope of the study

The study would concentrate on the role of micro-finance banks in the development of rural areas a study of oko micro-finance bank in particularly including the staffs of federal polytechnic oko and staffs of micro-finance bank oko.

 

1.8  limitations of the study

Financing:     during this study there was limited finance in producing questionnaires and also going to other micro-finance banks around together information.

Time:             it was a problem combing the research work with other activities and assignment of the semester.

Data collection: it was a problem collecting data because of the busy schedule of staffs in the bank.

 

1.9  definition of terms

Roles: is a set of connected behaviour rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms.

 

Rural areas: are areas which are not town or cities they are often farming or agricultural areas.

 

Development: the processes of economic and social transformation that is based on complex cultural and environmental factor and their interactions. It is also a process of adding improvements to a parcel of land, such as grading, subdivision, drainage, access, roads utilities.

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The role of association in community development

The role of association in community development

(a case study of agulu in anaocha local government area)

 

                           Table of content

Title page

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Table of contents

List of tables

Abstract

Chapter one

  • Introduction

1.1 statement of the problem

1.2 purpose of study

1.3 significant of the study

1.4 scope of the study

1.5 research questions

1.6 definition of terms

Chapter two

  • Literature review
    • Summary of literature review

Chapter three

3.0 methodology

3.1 brief outline of the study

3.2 design of the study

3.3 area of the study

3.4 population of the study

3.5 sample of the study

3.6 instrument for data collection.

3.7 validation of the instrument

3.8 distribution and retrieval of the instrument 3.9 method of data analysis

Chapter four

4.0 data presentation and analysis

4.1 findings

Chapter five

5.0 summary of findings

5.1 reccommendation

5.2 conclusion

5.3 limitation of the study

5.4 suggestion for further study

5.5 references

5.6 appendix

5.7 questionnares

 

                                       Abstract

Community based association and community development has its own peculiar problems normally associated with it. Much of the performance of these community based association in community development of their areas cannot over emphases. So, this study is aimed at ascertaining the extent of which community based association could be energized for community development with particular reference to agulu in anaocha local government area in anambra state.the major thrust of the study is to appraise the performance or activities of community based association with reference to the contribution they have made to community development and also how activities effect the live of the people in terms of community development area.that is why we have given this sub-heading “the role of association in the community development” a case study of agulu in  anaocha local government area in anambra state. There is a general belief that rural development should be left to the government alone but this project tends to highlight the degree of contribution community associations can make in the development of local community especially anaocha. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of community association at its community development programme with particular reference to  agulu in anaocha local government area in anambra state.in a bid to achieve the above objective, this research work be instructured into five chapters . Chapter one of this project is primary concerned with the introducing part of this, under this chapter, we will also look at the statement of problems. Since colonial era, attempt has been to develop the areas. Why people should make efforts is developing their community we also look at other basic problems in project writing like significance of the study purpose of the, scope of study and concept definitions.chapter two of this work will look at literature review. Under this heading, we will look at different theories of this development as propounded by authors and scholars and their relevance to rural development in nigeria. Chapter three deals with the review of the research design and methodology. In those chapter, various sources of data, questionnaires design of determined and method of investigation discussed.chapter four of this work will look critically at the impact of community association in agulu in  anaocha local government area in anmbra state. Also in this chapter, we will look at our data presentation and analysis. Finally we will have a closer look at our data analysis and test of hypothesis. Chapter five will be the concluding part of this summary of our findings. The recommendation will tend to sake conclusion. And finally that references.

 

                                    CHAPTER ONE

                                  INTRODUCTION

1.1        BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Throughout  history,  human  societies  have  continually  strove to  develop in  one way  or the  other, although at different place   and  measure   the development is a  universal   phenomenon   commonly  linked with  human  beings.

Everywhere,  man   is faced with  the  task   of  rising  above his  material   limitations  through  providing   for his  needs   and improving  the  quality  of  his  material well  being and   efficiency   of tools.

In this study, the  concept  of  development  is  taken to the  sequence  of  changes that is aimed  as  improving   the  socio-economic, political and cultural  life of a   people.

In  this content of  this work, community   development may  be  defined  as operationally as the conscious  self  help  without  the  assistance  from  the  government  for  the  provisions  of certain  basic  socio-economic infrastructure  that basic necessary   or  required  in the  raising   of the  standard   of living   of the   people  while  discouraging  rural,  urban  drift.

In Nigeria, communities  in different  parts of the  country  have  over  years engaged  themselves  in several  development  activities  in  an attempt   to provide some  basic infrastructure  that  would   make   life  more   meaning  to the  members   of their  communities. They no longer wait   or depend   solely   on  their local, state   or  federal  for provision  of the development  community  has become popular, in  recent  times  communities  has become   increasing   more, and the  unability  of the   various government   to provide   for them, all  their  needs.  This trends of the  development further  call  on  various local   institutions  in the  private  sector, in  other   words  non-government  organization  (NGO)  to  supplement   government  efforts  in  development   of their  localities.

The  complementary role   played by there community based association (CBA) such  as  community   friends, age grade unions,  woman  associates , member  of  city  club in the  Agulu e.t.c  have  created  some  positive  impact  on  provision  financial  assistance  skills and  provisions specific services.

Our major  concern  here  is  the communities  based associates   with  participation   reference  to Agulu in  Anaocha local government area  in Anambra state.

It is  also  patient  to  mention  that he  role   gab in condition of living  existing between  the  rural and  urban area  has posed  as services  challenge   to   success  government  n  Nigeria. The  methods  adopted  to bridge   the   gap  have  even   proven  more   pragmatic  as  there   has never been  a   conscious on  the best  approach  to  use   in  developing.

This study   is an  attempt   to took at a  typical  rural area in  Anambra  state (Anaocha   local  government   area) and to   see how it has   been   trying  to surmount  its development problems.

1.2 STATEMENT  OF THE PROBLEM 

From the colonial  era  to the present  attempt  have been made  to  develop  the  rural   areas  with  titles   or no  results. This  the  concept   how has been  written  and   discussed  in  recent  years. Majority   of rural  area   live  in sub-standard  houses  poor environmental   and unplanned   rural  communities.  But   the  most  strictly   features   is infrastructure such as  hospitals, schools pipe-born   water electricity, industries, good roads   and recreational  facilities  are  generally   lacking  in   most   Nigeria  rural  areas. Further more, the  problems  of unemployment,  the  wide  different  income between  intellectual  and manual  labour of which is certain cases have reinforced each other cases have reinforced each  other to result  in  massive  rural  urban  migration especially  among  young  productive  age grade  group.

In Nigeria at various levels, government  have recognized  the problems  suffered  by rural residents  has  not only  been a top  of discussion  among  lanners, academicians pollution   and the press, but   also has  been  a subject  of significant  attestation.

Since  government alone cannot provide    for all the   needs   of rural  communities, it has  intensified   its dall on  the  rural communities  non- government  organizations   and  individuals to engage  in self- help  project as a way of   complementing government  efforts. Most  government  f  federal , state and   local levels in this  respect  have provided   marching  grant  to assist communities  and  completed  self help   projects.

To a large  extent, this  new orientation is rapidly  yielding  some good results as most  rural  communities  in  recent times embark  on various  viable  projects that  accord hem a face new lease  of life. Today  a good   number  of communities  in Agulu  Anaocha   local  government  area  in  Anambra state  have in  recent  times  especially  from  the 1970’s  became development  conscious  as various  organizations  begin to  emerge   and  successful  embarked  on several  development  projects  in the area. Indeed  community   based on  associations   constitute  a potential force in  the development  other their  communities.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY                     

The purpose of his  study   is to ascertain the impact of Community Base Association (CBA) in the development of communities, particularly Agulu,  Anaocha Local Government Area in Anambra State.

This work aims therefore, to example the contributions of Community Based Association (CBA) in the developmental process of rural communities in Agulu, it is also aimed at enlightening the public on the need or  importance and role (CBA) in buying a face lift to  the standard of living of rural communities development programmes by the association and the implementation of such programme Vis-a vis their effects on the development and welfare of the inhabitant of the Agulu people.

1.4  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study is intended to asses the role of community based association in rural development. The importance of this study lies in the hope that  its findings would help to correct the enormous impression that rural people are opposed to change the result which would also serve as panacea in bringing about a change in policy formulation and implementation which fails to incorporate the local people.. it is hoped that the solutions, if properly adopte4d would lead to the speedily development of the rural areas and make Nigeria neglect majority to have a taste of good living.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Scope of study covers the general evolution of the activities of community development actors in the areas of rural development in Nigerian local government and Agulu in Anaocha local government in particular. The analysis will cover the impact of community based association and community development committee (CDC) as agents and ling between the various communities and government in rural development.

The work focused on the former and its community development programmes such as roads, schools, health facilities, water projects, electricity supplies.

In the main research, it took at project aforementioned and the role of community development in Agulu forms essentially the basis of basis of this study. However, the role of the communities concerned is also of paramount importance in the study because realize are considered in the approach which depend largely on the community themselves.

1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

It is purpose of this research work address and provide answers to the following question

  1. What are the contributions of good/bad people in community based association?
  2. What are the role of community base association in community development to make life more meaningful to members of their communities.
  3. What are the contributions of community based association

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

  1. DEVELOPMENT;

The term development means different things to different people depending of the ideological beliefs on the issue in question and the period.

Perhaps Billy Dudley seems to pose the basic question about the meaning of the development, when the said “ to ask about unemployment” what has been happening to inequality.

Having seen the confusion inherent in attempt that we adopt a single definition as our working definition in this study. Nwogu observes that development therefore is the ability of a man to extract the natural and human resources for the betterment of the entire society.

The definition here, according to him, development is a multi dimensional process involving changes in structures. Attitudes and institutions as well as the in quality and eradication of true development. True development must means the development of a man unfolding and realization of his creative organized and discipline which is the moving force behind the socio-economic transformation of society.

  1. RURAL AREA

Available literature on rural areas revisal that populations is the main characteristic that differentiate rural from urban area especially in the develop countries. Base upon this single characteristic (which is inadequately) Nigeria classifies any area with a population of 20,000 people and below as rural areas. Using the 1963 census figure of 55.5 million of people, over 44 million is 80% population in Nigeria are rural dweller.

Population is not only character feature of rural areas in Nigeria, is includes also indicators such as depreciation, degradation and deprivation.

 

iii. RURAL DEVELOPMENT

In terms of conceptualization more often than not, we often go back to the united nations definition of development because it contains some useful element that are relevant to the third world countries. Community development is thus defined by the U.N.

The process by which the effort of people are with those of government Authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of the community to integrate these communities into the life of the nation and enable them contribute fully to national progress.

It was also defined at the Cambridge summer conference of Africa Administration held in 1984.

A movement designed to promote better living for the whole community with the active participation and if possible on the initiative is not forth coming spontaneously by the use techniques for arousing and stimulating it in order to secure its actions interest responses to the movement.

The distinguishing factor in community development is that, it signs a move by the people themselves in effort to improve their level of living through self help projects.

  1. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION (CDA)

C.D.A according to Steve Tamuno constitutes democracy and development. In other words, they are the vehicles through which the issues and aspirations of the people or issues affecting their lives are articulated, harnessed and executed.

  1. NON GOVERNEMENT ORGANIZATION (NGO)

Non governmental organization is organization that is not by government, understand the community where exist the government agencies. They usually constitute the catalyst for the self-help in rural communities as they make effective use of traditional customs value and authority structure.

  1. COMMUNITY BASED ASSOCIATION (CBA)

This is the third man group within the non-governmental sector, which operates in various forms and otherwise known as people association, grass-root association, self-help or membership support association etc. community based association refers to a broad or self help process and institutions with different structure and varying capacities and characterized by voluntary participation mutual benefits and accountable leadership.

vii. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE (CDC)

This is a group of elected official of a community for the purpose of co-ordinating the self help development of that community.

Membership will include representatives of improvement Union, development association, age group, woman and youth organization traditional rulers and community heads.

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