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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER SOLD IN ABA

 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER SOLD IN ABA

 

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CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction and Literature Review –       –       –       1
  • Physical Characteristics of Water –       –       –       8
  • Temperature –       –       –       –       –       –       –       9
  • Turbidity –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       9
  • Conductivity –       –       –       –       –       –       –       10
  • Chemical Characteristics of Water –       –       –       11
  • Inorganic Nutrients –       –       –       –       –       –       12
  • Hardness of Water –       –       –       –       –       –       13
  • Cation –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       15

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   MATERIALS AND METHODS   –       –       –       –       16

2.1   Samples Collection  –       –       –       –       –       –       16

2.2   Samples preservation and Storage   –       –       –       16

2.3   Laboratory Analysis of Water Samples     –       –       17

2.3.1 Temperature   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       20

2.3.2 pH   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       21

2.3.3 Total Hardness       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       21

2.3.4 Calcium Hardness  –       –       –       –       –       –       22

2.3.5 Magnesium Hardness     –       –       –       –       –       23

2.3.6 Total Alkalinity       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       23

2.3.7 Dissolved Oxygen Determination    –       –       –       24

2.3.8 Biochemical Oxygen Determination        –       –       –       25

2.3.9 Chemical Oxygen Determination    –       –       –       26

2.3.10 Nitrate   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       28

2.3.11 Sulphate       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       29

2.3.12 Phosphate     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       30

2.3.13 Isolation of Micro-organisms –       –       –       –       31

2.3.14 Catalase        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       32

2.3.15 Coagulase     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       33

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1   Result      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       34

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   DISCUSSION   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       36

4.1   Conclusion and Recommendation   –       –       –       41

4.2   Recommendation     –       –       –       –       –       –       42

 

Reference –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       43

Appendix

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

The investigation carried out on the physico-chemical analysis of sachet water sold in Aba were conducted from January to February 2012 on these water samples (DINS, FAMBUS and GRAMCO). Their individual temperature varied from the range of (24.00 to 25.60)0C against (15.28)0C of WHO standard. Their pH were within the range of (6.90 to 7.60) against (7.00, 8.50). Their total hardness were far below standard from the range g2 940.00 to 44.00mgl) against (200.00). Their calcium were within the range of (30.00 to 32.00) against 975.00). Magnesium hardness (8.00 to 16.00), Total alkalinity (16.00 to 19.00), dissolved oxygen demand (12.00 to 18.30), Biochemical oxygen demand (8.95 to 10.50), Chemical oxygen demand (2.00 to 4.00). Their nitrate ranges from )0.0026 to 0.0030) against (10) sulphate were within the range of (0.20 to 0.05), chloride (9.20 to 11.00), phosphate (0.0003 to 0.0025). The other result obtained were the microbial assessment of the three water samples and it shows that in Table 3.2 MacConkey agar was used as an isolation medium and the following test colonial morphology, cell shape, catalase, coagulase was negative in NINS and GRAMCO water but for FAMBUS water the test was positive for catalase, the cell shape was rod like in shape, its colonial morphology shows small pink colour, Escherichia coli was observed as probable organism but was negative for coagulase test. ie in FAMBUS water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.1   INTRODUCTION

Water is a clear, colourless, testless and odorless liquid that is essential for life. Water is among the natural resources that occupies 708 of the earth surface (Willy et al, 2008). The human body needs about three to four litres of water per day for its normal functions. Apart form drinking and body functions, man needs water for various purposes including for use in transportation, recreation, water disposal, hydroelectric system (Onyeagba and Isu 2009).

Watear is a good solvent and is often reffered to as the universal solvent. It is transparent in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. Aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them. Ultraviolent and infrared light is strongly absorbed. Chemically, water is made up of two moles of hydrogen and one mole of oxygen in the ratio 2:1 the boiling point of water (and all other liquids) is dependent on the barometric pressure. For example, at the top of mount. Everest water boils at 680C (1540F) compared to 1000C (2120F) at the sea level conversely, water deep in the ocean near geothermal vets can reach temperature of hand reds or degrees and remains liquid.

Water has the second highest molar specific of any known substance, after ammonia, as well as high heat of vaporization (40.65KJ mol-1). Both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules these two unusual by buffering large fluctuation in temperature. Water plays a critical role in regulating body temperature, it carries nutrients throughout the body, it improves digestion, it eliminates waste and toxins from the body.

The total amount of water in the body of an average adult is 37 litres, human brains are 75% water, human bones are 25% water, human blood is 83% water. Water needs to be continuously replaced since, on average, 250ml is lost on a daily basis through breathing alone. By drinking an adequate amount of water each day at least 8 glasses/ 2 litres, you can ensure that your body has all it needs to maintain good health, of course, your fluid needs might be double or even triple that amount when you work out for more than an hour in the heart.

Water suppresses the appetite naturally and helps the body metabolize stored fat. Incredible as it may seem, water is quite possible the single. Most important catalyst in losing weight and keeping it off. Studies have shown that a decrease in water intake will cause fat deposits to increase, while an increase in water intake can actually reduce fat deposits.

The kidneys can’t function properly without enough water. When they don’t work to capacity, some of their load is dumped onto the liver. One of the liver’s primary functions is to metabolize stored fat into usually energy for the body. Water can help relieve constipation, when the body gets too little water, it siphons what it needs from internal sources which the colon is one primary functions. But when a person drinks enough water normal bowel function usually returns.

In order of importance, air, water and food are the three main’s necessities of life. A person can survive fro a mouth without food, about a week, without water and less than five minutes without air. The provision of an adequate supply of safe drinking water was of the eight components of primary health care 1918. Increase in human population have exerted an enormous pressure on the provision of safe drinking water especially in areas of developing.

Countries in the ear of colonialism in Nigeria. Water was supplied to the public free by the government. But Nigeria has moved form a mixed to capitalist economy. In cities and towns today, water now attracts rates and fees with insufficient governments supply private sector participation has evolved and the idea of packaged drinking water popularly referred as “pure water” is now a common phenomenon in eh country.

Drinking water is now commercially packed in easy to open 50-60ml polyethene sacs and is referred to as “sachet water”. This packed water is cheap and convent and have increasingly become popular. Arising from the abuse of its production leading to a situation whereby the pure. Although there is death of documentation of data in incidence rate. It has been widely observed that the advent of pure water has significantly increase the case of samonelosis and typhoid fever in recent years.

Water pollution has continue to generate unpleasant implication. For health and economic development in Nigeria (Adelegan 2004). There are several files and regulations for drinking water. In Nigeria, such regulations are monitored by the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) which was established by decree No. 15 of 1993 surveillance carried out by NAFDAC between 2004 and 2005 revealed that some producers of packed water indulge in share practices such as a packaging of untreated water, production under unhygienic conditions, illegal production of unregistered water in unapproved premises, use of non-food grade sachets and release of packed water for distribution and sale without data masking, these malpractices completed the agency to formulate guidelines for the production of wholesome packaged water.

However, deposit the policies formulated by public and internal agencies to address this problems, the situation in Nigeria seems degenerating and therefore demands increase attention in order to effectively solve the problem. However; there is need to fully asses the extent of the problem and it causes. Drinking water regulation require that potable water on human consumption be free from human diseases. Causing bacterial and specific of these pathogenic (Listw 1993). This does not mean that drinking water should be sterile, some bacterial are classified as pathogens. Examples of bacterial pathogens and their related diseases (dysenteric) and lagionella pnenophilia (legconneaire’s disease) this study was therefore aimed at investigating the incidence of pathogenic organisms in sachet packed drinking water sold in Aba, Abia State.

For studies (Olayemi, 2007; Adekunle et al, 2003; Asheye et al; 2001; Gyang et al; 2008) have been conducted in recent years on the quality of packaged water in Nigeria. These focused primarily on the end-product, leaving out the processes that determine the final rate of the package water, as well as the people (various stakeholders involved) in whose hands the will power to effect the desire changes consequently, practicable recommendations aimed at changing the statusquo have not yet emerged. This study set out to ascertain the bacteriological quality of the water in sachets, to identify contributory factors that determine the fate of the packaged water product as it moves form catchment to consumers, and to highlight unharnessed opportunities for policy improvement that would allow for sustained and improved regulation of the sachet water industry.

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

The biological assessment of water bodies has helped a lot in relating the presence and the concentration of certain minerals and ions to the condition of the water. This research has been embarked upon by many researchers both corporate and individuals and has till date succeeded in providing the bases for acceptance and resulting of certain water sources. These works have all been polished and there is now a strong belief that the degree perfection of a particular water is relative, considering its context of purposes. These standards depends on the properties of the water which automatically affects mineral concentration. These properties or characteristics can be physical or chemical.

 

1.1.1        PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER

pH: This is described as the general measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the water sample. The pH of water on a scale of 0 to 14, is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration, water contains both ions and OH ins. Pure distilled water contains equal number of H and OH ions and is considered to be natural (pH7), neither basic nor acidic (Mitihell et al 2007). Acidity measures the amount of base required to neutralize a given sample to a specific point, this certainly changes the quality of the water (APHA, 1999). Alkalinity is due to the presence of carbonates (CO32-) and bicarbonates (HCO3), (Frederic et al 2006). The level of alkalinity of water depends on the location of the sample sources. Rain water can be used to determine the solubility of chemical form of most substances, for example, hydroxides of many metals are insoluble, therefore the higher the pH, the less metal available in water (Frank, 2005). It has been noted that alkaline water are noted that alkaline water are not typical of Africa (Holden et al 2006). The pH may be determined by either electronic or calorimetric methods. The glass electrode H, meter is the most widely used method and it is quick and accurate. The color of the solution does not affect results, but accurate figures cannot be obtained if the water is oily.

 

1.1.1.2    TEMPERATURES

Temperature is significant because biochemical reactions eg. uptake of oxygen by bacterial proceed more rapidly at a high temperature. Temperature also affect the solubility of oxygen in water, with less oxygen available for aquatic life at higher temperatures. This means that aquatic life is more vulnerable during the summer period when the flows are low and water temperature are high. Elevated temperatures can occur where thermal discharges form power stations and this can lead to thermal pollution.

 

1.1.1.3    TURBIDITY

Turbidity may be used as an estimate of undissolved substances in the sample. It may be measured by visual comparison with the standards or photo-metrically using spectrophotometer (standard methods for examination of waters and waste waters 1999). Water turbidity is as a result of the pressure of suspended) material which could be organic in that water. The materials include industrial waters, agricultural wastes, microbial growth, erosion products, presence of human organs inputs.

 

1.1.1.4    CONDUCTIVITY

Conductivity is a measure of the amount of material dissolved in water. Conductivity generally increases over the length of a river but an unusual increase in conductivity can indicate the presence of polluting water. Conductivity is the reciprocal of the resistance offered by a solution with platinum electrode immersed in it each 1cm square, 11cm apart. It is usually denoted by the symbol K and defined by the geometry of the cell and RI the resistance in ohms. I is now a standard practice to express Nmho/cm. Sometimes the result will be shown as Ns. Conductivity varies with temperature and also with the nature of the ions and their concentration in the sample. Tests have shown that near neutrality, the effect of different ions at the same equivalent can give a raid and useful indication of the total ionic strength of water samples. Measurements are generally carried out using a conductivity meter at either 200C or 2500C. Values for natural water generally fall between the range of 85-120NSCM-1.

 

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER

1.2   Total Hardness: Total hardness in natural water are mainly due to the presence of calcium and magnesium salts and bicarbonate formed by reactions in the soil and rock through which the water percolates. Water with low alkalinity or hardness may be susceptible to pH reduction by “acid rain”, these can prevent the immediate formation of lather with soap and the formation of scale in pipes and fittings of hot water systems (Alpha 1999, Tebbutt 2002). Hard water can be softened on a larger scale by adding just enough line to precipitate the calcium as carbonate to remove the calcium salt.

 

1.1.2.2    INORGANIC NUTRIENTS

Nitrates: Nitrates is one of the inorganic nutrients in water it occurs as nitrate in water. Nitrate is known to be an important plant nutrient, thus it is used often as a fertilizer and is found in high concentration rare exceed 10mgll and are frequency less than 1mgll especially during periods of high primary production. Elevated concentrations in indicative of the influences of man such the use of nitrate fertilizer, septic tank failure and the vulnerability of the aquifer to infiltration be surface drainage. High level of nitrate greater than 20mglc may heat hazard to juvenile mammals (Lind, 2004). Nitrate level have been shown to be at the range of 0.4 – 0.55mglc in Africa water (Holden, 1960). Most sachet water in Nigeria, Aba to be precise have a nitrate range of 0.002 – 0.003mglc.

Nitrate is the reduced form of nitrite. This is common digestive systems. Nitrate is known to attack hemoglobin, producing methamoglobin this form of complex losses its oxygen carrying capacity in the red blood cell. The nitrate can come from nitrate drinking water or from food.

Phosphorus is usually present in water as phosphate. They are usually formed when metallic atoms replace. Some or all of the hydrogen in phosphoric acid. This is usually in small amount, except when there has been human course enrichment of water. (Dugan et al, 2004). The main sources of phosphates in ground water and surface water include fertilizers, sewage, detergents and rain water which enter the centre mainly as a result of surface runoff and blank erosion. The amount of phosphates that water can hold without becoming polluted varies in a stream draining into a lake, the phosphates should not exceed 0.025mgll. A stream not flowing into a lake should not exceed 0.025mgll, excess phosphate concentration can lead to eutrophication process, by inner algal growth. Generally the water lower the total phosphates value of water, the better. Total phosphorus includes organic phosphates. While organic phosphates comprise the ions bonded to soil practices, and those present in laundry detergents (polyphosphates) (Parreira, 2005).

Rocks and many other geological land marks have also proved to be very good sources of some element that are of great marine and aquatic values. These rocks formed as a result of sedimentation of carcasses of organisms over a long period of time and through the deposition of molten margin which on its own house these elements.

Calcium (Ca) is known to be present in water as a result of some runoff from these rocks. Such rock as limestone, gypsum and dolomite, provide a very high concentration of calcium, to water bodies. These concentration ranges from 40.00mgll (Lind, 2003). It known to have a very high aquatic productivity. Suort as bone tissues in fishes and nollus shells and also function in bone calcification in humans. It is very important in bone maintenance (David, et al, 2000) and also in regulation of nerve and muscle function (Robert, et al 2003).

Magnesium (Mg) which is mostly produced from runoff from igneous and carbonate rocks. It is very important in water hardness, just as calcium. It is important as a nutrient in plants where it aids growth and production of some porphyrings eg. Chlorophyll (Wetzel et al 2004, David et al 2005). It also has a very important function in humans where it is involved as constituents of bones, teeth; and also acts as an enzymes co-factor (Robert, et al 205).

 

1.1.2.3    CATION

Sodium is another important element which is also a macronutrient. It is found in high concentration in igneous rocks and in Africa water (Gaudet, et al 206). In humans, it is the principal cation in extra cellular fluid; regulates plasma volume, acid base balance, nerve and muscle function etc. (Robert, et al 2006). It has a very low concentration in sachet water in Aba.

 

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

The aim of this project was to access the physico-chemical properties of sachet water sold in Aba, Abia State.

 

AN EVALUATION AND UPDATE OF GUINEA WORM (DRACUNCULUS MEDINENSIS) AS AN ENDEMIC PARASITIC ORGANISM IN NIGERIA

AN EVALUATION AND UPDATE OF GUINEA WORM (DRACUNCULUS MEDINENSIS) AS AN ENDEMIC PARASITIC ORGANISM IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   Introduction                                                             1

1.1   An evaluation of guinea worm as an endemic

parasitic organism in Nigeria                                   4

1.2   Seasonal nature of guinea worm                              5

1.3   Epidemicity and endemic areas of guinea worm

in Nigeria                                                                 6

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   The menance of guinea worm as an endemic

parasitic organism in Nigeria                                   9

2.1   Socio-economic impact of guinea worm                   10

2.2   Diseases and symptomatic effects of guinea worm   11

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   Taxonomy of guinea worm                                       13

3.1   Morphology of guinea worm                                     13

3.2   Life cycle of guinea worm                                         15

3.3   Mode of transmission of the disease

of guinea worm                                                                17

3.4   Diagnosis and pathogenesis of guinea

worm diseases                                                         18

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   Eradication and preventive initiative of guinea

worm disease (Dracunculiasis) in Nigeria                 20

4.1   Barriers of eradicating initiatives                             23

4.2   Roles of governmental organizations and

non-government agencies in the eradication

of guinea worm in Nigeria                                                24

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   Treatment and management of guinea

worm in Nigeria                                                       27

5.1   Conclusion                                                              29

 

References                                                               30

ABSTRACT

 

Dracunculiasis, also known as guinea worm disease, is caused by the large female of the nematode Dracunculus Medinensis, which emerges painfully and slowly from the skin, usually on the lower limbs. The disease can infect animals, and sustainable animal cycles occur in North America and Central Asia but do not act as reservoirs of human infection. The disease is endemic across the seven (7) states in Nigeria which are; Ebonyi state, Oyo state, Borno state, Plateau state, Anambra state, Kwara state and Niger state. It has a significant socio-economic impact because of the temporary disability that it causes. Dracunculiasis is exclusively transmitted through drinking water, usually from ponds. A campaign to eradicate the disease was launched in the 1980s and has made significant progress. The strategy of the campaign is discussed, including water supply, health education, case management, and vector control. Current issues including the integration of the campaign into primary health care and mapping of cases by using geographical information systems (GIS) are also considered. Finally some lessons for other disease control and eradication programs are outlined. (Carter, 1999).

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0   INTRODUCTION

Guinea worm is an endemic parasitic organism that belongs to the phylum Nematoda. The worm has its scientific name as (Dracunculus Medineansis). Guinea worm cause a disease called, “Dracunculiasis” or “Dracunculosis”. The disease of Dracunculus Medinensis can be described in latin as “disturbance with little dragon”. (Barry, 2007). The worm is found to be about 2 – 3 feet in length. (Hunter, 2007). Guinea worm is also found to be a nematode that causes an incapacitating disease, which affect people in poor, remote areas of Africa, Yemen and India (Watts, 2001). This disease caused by Dracunculus Medinensis (Guinea worm) is a long established human infection which was clearly referred to by various authors from India, Greece and the Middle East in antiquity. In historic times, the infection caused by Guinea worm occurred in Algeria, Egypt, Gambia, Guinea Conakry, the Middle East, South America and the West Indies. (CDC 1999).

In Nigeria, the infection of guinea worm occurred in late 1980s. Its connection of the infection with water sources was recognized early and it was also known that if the pre-patent period were not so long, the mode of infection would have been plain and clear many centuries earlier (Abolarin, 1999). It was found that the larvae expelled from emerging female worms in the limbs of sufferers, developed in fresh water, Cyclops living in ponds, which got ingested through drinking water. Female worms which are pre-emergent can easily move through the connective tissues, but when they are about to emerge to the surface, a few larvae are being released into the sub-dermis through a rapture at the anterior end. The reaction of the host results in the formation of a burning, painful blister, which bursts in a few days to give a shallow ulcer, and there is a marked inflammatory response against the cuticle of the entire worm, preventing its removal. The expulsion of the worms is done with a bacteriological sterile blister fluid which contains larva surrounded by polymorph nuclear neutrophils with macrophage, lymphocytes and eosinophils. After the expulsion of thousand of the larvae, the end of the worm dies up and this mode of expulsion is repeated a few times, with complete worm being extruded in a few weeks. The lesson then gets resolved quickly, but the track of the worm becomes secondarily infected in about half of all the cases, and patients become severely incapacitated. (Ahearn, et al 1996).

A study in Nigeria shows that about 60% patients, mostly in the age bracket of 15-49 years old of both school and working age, were disabled for an average of 12 – 13 weeks during the yam and rice harvesting period. The female worms sometimes burst in the tissues, resulting in a very large pus-filled abscess and cellulites (Caincross, et al 2002 and Ahearn, et al 1996).

 

1.1   AN EVALUATION OF GUINEA WORM (DRACUNCULUS MEDINENSIS) AS AN ENDEMIC PARASITIC ORGANISM IN NIGERIA

Guinea worm is one of the most studied human parasites in Nigeria, with history of its behaviour reaching as far back as the second century. This worm brings about painful and burning sensation which is experienced by infected patient and has resulted to the disease called guinea worm disease (Dracunculiasis). (Bulcher, et al 2005). In Nigeria, endemic areas; people who are infected by the worm are incapacitated due to the disease it causes. It keeps people out of the work and their activities especially farmers, manual workers and students, thus leading to the poor state of several sectors in the country. (Wikipedia, 2009, Bulcher et al 2005).

Dracunculus Medinensis (Guinea worm) is known to be endemic mostly in areas where there is no safe water supply for drinking purposes. In 2008, 5,000 cases were discovered as compared to 201,453 cases in 1991. In Nigeria, the main endemic areas are:

  1. Ebonyi state
  2. Oyo state
  3. Borno state
  4. Plateau state
  5. Anambra state
  6. Kwara state
  7. Niger state.

In Nigeria (2009) (between January and March) Guinea worm disease was declared free (Lawal, 2009).

 

1.2   SEASONAL NATURE OF GUINEA WORM (DRACUNCULUS MEDINENSIS)

There are two patterns of seasonality that occur in Nigeria (areas of endemicity) but this depends on the climatic factors (Guiguemde, 2007).

  • Transmission of guinea worm disease during the rainy season from May to August with a peak in June and July. This pattern usually occurs in the Northern part of the country (Guiguemde, 2007)
  • Transmission of the disease caused by guinea worm during the dry season which may occur as from September to January, as found in some parts of Oyo state, particularly in areas with shallow ponds which dry up by January. Dracunculiasis continues towards the dry season in Anambra state and Kwara state. This pattern is related to the consumption of water from ponds formed in the beds of seasonal rivers (Guiguemde, 2007).

 

1.3   EPIDEMICITY AND ENDEMIC AREAS OF GUINEA WORM IN NIGERIA

Transmission of Dracunculiasis depends on the provisions of water sources, which has important consequences for the designation of eradication programs. Its occurrence takes place in a limited number of areas of endemicity on which these eradication programs are meant to focus. (Nwosu et al 2010).

In Nigeria, in 1991, over 201,453 cases were reported in about 4,576 villages, (Cairncross, et al 2002).

In Ohaozara, Ebonyi state, 5,058 individuals were examined, but a total of 2,422 individuals had either blisters or its ulcers. In 2002, between January and August, the number of cases reduced to about 1,438 cases in Ebonyi state. Among the 16 states of Nigeria’s 36 states affected which includes Plateau, Kwara, Oyo, Anambra, Borno and Niger states, Ebonyi state has the highest incidence of the disease caused by guinea worm (Udonsi, 2002, Adeyeba, et al 1999).

Sex-specific prevalence rate were 50% for males and about 44.4% for females, while age related cases ranges between 30% to 31% among individuals below 20 years, and between 64.5 – 71% among individuals above the age 20 within 1991 endemic year in the country. (United Nation’s Office, 2002). In Oyo state, as of 1988, about 17,000 people were infected, but were reduced to 300 in 1991. As of 1987, a total of 650,000 cases were discovered across the nation. (Lawal, 2009). In 2008, the number of cases discovered was about 5,000 cases of guinea worm infection nationwide. (Wikipedia, 2009). In Ribi and Kanje village in Awe local government area of Plateau state, Nigeria, 982 people were found infected, (Nwobi et al, 1999) which most the infections occurred on the lower limbs of the victims. Emergency of worms from the palm, wrist and upper arm were also encountered. Out of 982 case discovered, 206 persons were totally incapacitated, 193 disabled (amputee) and 431 suffered mere incapacity, while 152 were unaffected, but between January and March 2009, no case of guinea warm was discovered in Nigeria (Lawal Iyabo, 2009).

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DETERMINATION OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC AND HYPERTENSIVE PREGNANT SUBJECTS IN SOME REFERRAL HOSPITALS IN ENUGU STATE

DETERMINATION OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC AND HYPERTENSIVE PREGNANT SUBJECTS IN SOME REFERRAL HOSPITALS IN ENUGU STATE

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION                                                                   1

1.1     Objectives of the Study                                                                   5

1.2     Statement of the Problem                                                      5

1.3     Scope of the Study                                                                 6

1.4     Limitation                                                                               6

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW                                                        7

2.1     Diabetes Mellitus                                                                             7

2.2     Hypertension                                                                          14

2.3     Relationship between Diabetes and Hypertension                17

2.4     Clinical Significant of cholesterol                                         19

2.5     Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis                                           20

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     METHODOLOGY                                                                  22

3.1     Experimental Design                                                              22

3.2     Sample Collection and Storage                                              22

3.3     Statistical Analysis                                                                26

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Results                                                                                    28

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION                                      34

5.1     Discussion                                                                              34

5.2     Conclusion                                                                              35

 

Reference                                                                                36

Appendix                                                                                39

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

The level of lipids profile in the serum of hypertensive and diabetic pregnant women were determined in order to establish any relationship between lipid and hypertensive and debate in pregnancy. Twenty pregnant women who were hypertensive, diabetic and for both condition were recruited for the study, the study aimed at analyzing serum lipid profile for triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and total  cholesterol (TC) in hypertensive and diabetic pregnant common  attending UNTH out patient clinic Enugu. Data were analyzed using UNOVA and (p<0.05) was considered statistically difference in the mean    serum concentration of the four groups of,  that is total M ± SD for hypertensive pregnant women 2.6530 ± 1.78, diabetic 2.2145 ± 1.39, both condition 2.1485 ± 1.13  and  non-condition 1.930 ± 1.45. In conclusion, these changes may have important implications for the development of atherosclerosis and the long-term cardiovascular health of w omen with diabetes and hypertension.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Diabetes and hypertension in pregnant women as associated with an increase incidence of congenital abnormalities when compared with normal pregnancy (Hagay et al, 2005). Frequency of diabetic and hypertensive mother is estimated to be 6-10% (Hagay and Reece, 2006). Alteration in lipid profile is known to occur in diabetic and hypertensive pregnancy (Caron and Kjos, 2000).

In the present study, the following parameters were assessed in the serum to elucidate the biochemical profile status in pregnant women with diabetes and hypertensive (Kjos, 2000). Serum lipid profile parameters to be determined are total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein chore sterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride using Hitachi 902 Atom analyzer.

In reference to diabetes, the pregnant   woman experiences physiological changes to support foetal growth and development. Pregnancy is associated with significant change in the functions of the normal liver. Although the precise mechanism underlying these various alterations is not clear in every case, their recognition is essential to a proper clinical evaluation (Angel, 2006). Lipid metabolism change during pregnancy (Brizzi et al, 2008) Natural rising of plasma lipid is seen in normal pregnancy, but this event is not atherogenic and it is believed that this process is under hormonal control (Rovinsky and gaffin, 2010). But in complicated pregnancy, there a possible defect in the mechanism of adjusting physiologic hyperlipidemia. Plasma lipid profile in the first trimester of   pregnancy may predict the incidence and severity of pre-eclampsia. The anabolic phase of early pregnancy encourages lipogeneses and fat storage in preparation for rapid foetal growth in late pregnancy. Lipolysis is increased as a result of insulin resistance, leading to increased a s   a result of insulin resistance, leading to increased flux of fatty acids to the liver promoting the synthesis of very  low-density lipoprotein (VLDLS0 and increased triglyceride (TG) concentration (Ross, 2007). Because of a decrease in the activity of lipoprotein lipase, very-LDL remains in the plasma for longer and leads to the accumulation of LDL. An increase LDL is associated with the development of atherosclerosis (Ross, 2007). Abnormal lipid metabolism also seems important in the pathogenesis of pregnancy-included hypertension (PIH). Pregnancy included hypertension is characterized by elevated blood pressure, proteinuria, and edema (Dutta, 2001). Although considered to be relatively rare in the United States, PIH occurs world wide in from 2 to 35 percent of pregnancies, depending on diagnostic criteria and study of population. PIH is also called preclampsia and it occurs most often in young women with first pregnancy. It is more common in twin pregnancies, in with chronic hypertension, pre-existing diabetes, and in women who had PIH in a previous pregnancy. Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, contribute significantly to serious complications for both the fetus and the mother (Hagay et al, 205).  PIH occurs more frequently and is more severed women with preexisting hypertension then in women who are normotensive prior to pregnancy. The hypertensive disorder of pregnancy collectively represent a significant public health problem in the United States and throughout the world.

The cause and nature of this disorder is only partially understood (Angel, 2006). Therefore, the presence study was carried out to evaluate plasma lipid concentrations in normal and hypertensive pregnancy in order to establish whether hypertension includes abnormal lipid concentrations that could constitute potential metabolic risks factors for pregnancy complication.

Lipid profile in normal pregnant women, many scientific evidences have raise concern about the adverse effect of abnormal blood lipid levels, like cholesterol and other lipids and lipoproteins, on atherosclerotic disease (Gotto, 2009). The important attached to the need for routine examination of the serum lipid and lipoprotein profile in human subjects especially during pregnancy under disease condition such as diabetes and hypertension is well established (seggmour, 2006). Gotto, (2009) have revealed that serum lipid and lipoprotein profile varies   with age, sex, diet and race. The serum protein and lipoprotein profile of many communities, remain to be established. This study was other fore, designed to access the variation of the serum lipid and lipoprotein profile among the diabetics, hypertensive and normal pregnant.

 

1.1     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To determine the biochemical parameter (lipid profile) of some diabetic and hypertensive pregnant women attending the university of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) at  Ituku Ozalla.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The research work is based mainly on examination of differences in lipid profile among diabetic, hypertensive and non-hypertensive and non diabetic pregnant women, so to avoid future complication which may lead to atherosclerosis, myocardial infection and otherwise  congenital abnormality.

 

 

1.3     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study is limited to the lipid profile of diabetes and hypertensive pregnant women.

 

1.4     LIMITATIONS

This research work is limited by time for sourcing library/literature materials and also by finance.

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THE EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM STEM ON SOME MARKER EMZYME IN LIVER OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS

THE EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM STEM ON SOME MARKER EMZYME IN LIVER OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW- 4
2.1 TAXONOMY OF PLANT (DESMODIUM VELUTINUM) 4
2.2 LIVER- 10
2.3 WHAT THE LIVER DOES 10
2.4 LIVER FUNCTION TEST/MARKER ENZYMES 11

 

  • LIVER MARKERS ENZYMES (AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, LDH) 13

 

2.6 USES OF LIVER FUNCTION TEST – 17
2.7 ATORVASTATIN 18
2.8 PHYTOCHEMICALS 20\
2.9 TYPES OF PHYTOCHEMICALS 21

 

6

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

3.0      MATERIALS AND METHODS           –          –          –          –          24

 

  • IDENTIFICATION AND EXTRACTION OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM

 

PLANTS    – 26
3.2 PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS 27
3.3 EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODEL 31
3.4 COLLECTION OF BLOOD SAMPLES 32

 

  • PROCEDURES FOR CARRYING OUT LIVER FUNCTION

 

TESTS                      –          –          –          –          –          —         –          33

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

  • QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS (PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF

 

SAMPLES) – 37
4.1    QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS (QUALITATIVE PHYTOCHEMISTRY)
37

 

  • LIVER FUNCTION TEST OF RATS FEED WITH VARIOUS SAMPLES –

 

38
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION 39
5.2 CONCLUSION 44
REFERENCES 46

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

7

 

 

TABLE I                  QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF

 

DESMODIUM VELUTINUM STEM

 

 

 

TABLE II                QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL EXTRACT

 

DESMODIUM

 

VELUTINUM STEM

 

TABLE III               LIVER FUNCTION TESTS OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS FED

 

WITH VARIOUS SAMPLES

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURE

FIGURE I                DESMODIUM VELUTINUM PLANT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

 

Present investigations were carried out on the effect of ethanol extract of Desmodium velutinum stem on some liver enzymes of albino wistar rats fed with

 

8

 

 

high fat from cow‟s brain. Twelve healthy albin groups. Group I rats were fed with balanced diet ( mash) and tap water. Group II rats wer alone. Group III rats received combine

 

 

30% ethanol extract of Desmoduim elutinum stem (2.7g/day), Group IV rats were

fed              with   fat   diet   (cow‟s   brain)   and   w

 

(5mg/rat/day). The rats were sacrificed at the end of the experimental (two weeks) period. The plant extract was screened for its phytochemical constituents, using standard procedures. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids. The liver function tests was assessed by measuring the total bilirubin, total serum protein, direct and indirect bilirubin and liver enzymes such as Alanine amino transferase (ALT), Aspartate amino transferase (AST), Alkaline phosphate (ALP), Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) on the liver of the albino wistar rat. The serum, ALT, ALP, AST and bilirubin concentration of the albino wistar rat increased significantly (P>0.05) compared to their total protein concentration. The result obtained indicate that the ethanol extract of Desmodium Velutinum stem possess hepatoprotective activity on the fatty liver

 

of albino wistar rat fed with fat from cow‟s brain. The studied amount of phytochemicals including flavonoid, alkaloid, saponin, tannins, terpenoid

 

which were determined quantitatively using literature methods. The significant effect of the Desmodium velutinum stem ethanol extract was compared with standard drug, atorvastatin. The result in the present study suggest that the ethanol extract of Desmodium velutinum stem can be used in treating liver diseases.

 

9

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

The liver is the largest and most complex internal organ in the body. It plays an important role in the maintenance of internal environment through its multiple and diverse functions. Liver is involved in several vital functions such as metabolism, secretion and storage. Hepatitis or inflammatory disorder involves inflammation and change to the hepatocytes. Hepatitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world. Every year 18,000 people had been reported to die due to liver cirrhosis caused by viral hepatitis (Wang et al., 2008). Ectopic fat storage occurs in obesity, particularly in the liver leading to a condition termed non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) characterized by varying degree of liver injury that progresses from steatosis to tratohepatitis, fibrosis and necrosis. Due to its prominent association with insulin resistance/obesity, NAFLD is regarded as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Liver has great capacity to detoxicate toxic substance and synthesizes useful principles. Therefore damage to liver inflicted by hepatotoxic agents is of grave consequences. Experimental studies have reported that animal fed a high fat diet (HFD) for more than two months develop weight, hyperlipidemic, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and insulin resistance (IR). Besides, consumption of a calorie-rich diet results in lipid accumulation, excess production of inflammatory cytokines and macrophage infiltration that favours the

 

10

 

 

progression of liver disease. Many medicinal plant/indigenous plant have been mentioned and well established as hepatoprotective agents.

 

Desmodium velutinum is a medicinal plant around the world. The extract of

 

Desmodium velutinum showed significant anti-pyretic activity on experimental rats used. Desmodium velutinum is very rich in alkaloids and related amino compounds. It is a source of flavonoid, saponins and pharmacological active agent useful in the treatment of aches and pains. It also showed that one of the uses is for erectile enhancing property. Desmodium velutinum being one of the important medicinal plant in the world may have effect on the liver. However limited studies are available on the effect of Desmodium velutinum treatment on hepatoprotective effect of its extract on high fat diet fed animal. In this regard, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of Desmodium velutinum stem on

 

liver function tests on albino wistar rats fed with high fatrelated from to different hepatoprotective effect by comparing it to a known drug, atorvastatin

 

treatment which is used to lower the level of cholesterol in blood. Since changes in the concentration and composition of plasma lipid and lipoproteins occur frequently in liver disease, these findings may be useful in following the clinical course of patient with liver diseases of various causes.

 

Liver disease is associated with characteristic changes in the lipid composition of the surface coat of plasma lipoprotein particles. Cholesterol accumulate as hepatic

 

11

 

 

secretion of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase decreases, such abnormal circulating lipoproteins tend to induce corresponding changes in cell membrane lipid composition. Stud

 

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON EFFECTS OF BURANTASHI EXTRACT ON LIVER ENZYMES OF AIBINO MALE AND FEMALE WHISTAR RATS.

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON EFFECTS OF BURANTASHI EXTRACT ON LIVER ENZYMES OF AIBINO MALE AND FEMALE WHISTAR RATS.

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ABSTRACT

This work was carried out to investigate the effects of Burantashi extract on liver enzymes of albino male and female whistar rats. Burantashi is a popular seasoning agent to barbecued meat (suya) in Nigeria,mostly found in the northern part of the Nigeria. Liver Enzymes are those enzymes that plays important role in the liver both in function and regulation. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the consistent or recurrent inability of a man to attain or maintain penile erection, sufficient for sexual activity (2nd) International consultation on sexual Dysfunction Paris, June 28th July 1st, 2003). Following the discovery and introduction of Burantashi research on the mechanism underlying penile erection, has had an enormous boost and many preclinical and clinical papers have been published in the last five years on the peripheral regulation of, and the mediators involved in human penile erection. The most widely accepted risk factors for ED are discussed. The research is focused on human data and the safety and effectiveness of Burantasni Stem as a phosphodiesterase -5- Inhibitors (PDE-5) used to treat Erectile Dysfunctions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

  1. Anatomy of the Penis

 

  1. The Penis Vacuum Device

 

  1. The Penis Prosthesis

 

  1. The Anterior view of the Human Liver

 

  1. The Interior view of the Human Liver

 

  1. The Superior View of the Human Liver

 

  1. Liver Lobules

 

  1. Chart Showing Blood and Bile Flow Through the Liver

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

  1. Extract Yield of Ethanol Extract and Aqueous Extract.

 

  1. Phytochemical Properties of Extract

 

  1. Effect of Extracts in Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transferase (SGOT) Activity of Whistar Rats

 

  1. Effect of Extract on Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) Activity of Whistar Rats

 

  1. Effect of Extracts On Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) Activity of Whistar Rats

 

  1. Effect of Extracts on Plasma Glutathione S-Transferase Activity (iu/L) of Whistar Rats

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Physiology of Erection 1
1.2 Hormonal Involvement In Erection 2
1.3 Mechanism of Action of PDE. 5 Inhibition In erectile Dysfunction 3
1.4 Nitric Oxide Regulation of Penile Erection 6
1.5 Atieology of Erectile Dysfunction 8
1.6 Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Males 9
1.7 Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Females 10
1.8 Aim of Study 11

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

8

 

2.0 Literature Review 12
2.1 Literature Review on Male Erectile Dysfunction (ED) 12
2.1.1 Anatomy of the Penis 12
2.1.2 How Erection Occur in Males 13
2.1.3 How Erection is Sustained 13
2.1.4 Causes of Erectile Dysfunction in Males 14
2.1.5 Physical Causes of ED in Males 14
2.1.6 Psychological Causes of ED in Males 19
2.1.7 Diagnosis of Erectile Dysfunction 20
2.1.8 Patient History 20
2.1.9 Physical Examination 22
2.1.10 Laboratory test 22
2.1.11 Psychological Examination 23
2.1.12 Treatment of Males Impotence 23
2.2 Literature Review on Female Erectile Dysfunction 34
2.2.1 Anatomy of the Female External Genitalia 34
2.2.2 How Women Attain Clitoral Erection 36
2.2.3 Causes of ED in Females 36
2.2.4 Physical Causes of ED in Females 36
2.2.5 Psychological Causes of ED in Females 39
2.2.6 Diagnosis of Females Erectile Dysfunction 40
2.2.7 Treatment of Female Erectile Dysfunction 40
9

 

2.3 Literature Review on Burantashi (Pausinystaliajohimbe) 41
2.3.1 Specie Identity 41
2.3.2 Taxonomy 41
2.3.3 History 42
2.3.4 Mechanism of Action 42
2.3.5 Botanic Description 43
2.3.6 Ecology and Distribution 44
2.3.7 Propagation and Management 44
2.3.8 Tree Management 45
2.3.9 Germplasm Management 45
2.3.10 Functional Uses 45
2.3.11 Medicinal Uses 46
2.3.12 Pests and Diseases 47
2.4 The Liver 47
2.4.1 Anatomy of the Liver 47
2.4.2 Histology 48
2.4.3 Structure of the Liver 50
2.4.4 Function of The Liver 54
2.4.5 Liver Infections/ Diseases 56
2.4.6 Liver Enzymes/ Functions 61
2.4.7 Alanine Transaminase (AIT) 62
2.4.8 Aspartate Transaminase (AST) 62
10

 

2.4.9 Alkatine Phosphatase (AIP) 63
2.4.10 Total Bilirubin (TBIL) 63
2.4.11 Birect Bilirubin (Conjugated Bilirubin) 63
2.4.12 Gamma GlutamylTranspeptidase (GGT) 64
2.4.13 5’   Nucleotidase   (5’   NTD) 64
2.4.14 Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) 64
2.5 Phytochemicals 65
2.5.1 Functions of Phytochemicals 65

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials 71
3.1 Method 75

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Result 83
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussion and Conclusion 89
5.1 Discussion 89
5.2 Conclusion 89
References 90

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

PHYSIOLOGY OF ERECTION

 

Penile Erection involves an integration of complex physiological processes involving the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system,

 

hormonal and vascular systems. Any abnormality involving these                                                                                                                                       systems

 

whether from medications or disease has a significant impact on the ability to develop and sustain erection; ejaculate and experience orgasm. (Laumann et al., 1999).

 

The physiological process of erection begins in the brain and involves the nervous and vascular system. The chemicals that initiate erection are neurotransmitters present in the brain. Any kind of stimulation physical or psychological, causes nerves to send message to the vascular system which result in significant blood flow to the penis. Two arteries in the penis supply blood to erectile tissues and the corpora cavernous which become engorged and expand as a result of increased blood flow and pressures. Because blood must stay in the penis to maintain rigidity. An erectile tissue is enclosed by tunicae, which is fibrous elastic sheathes cinch which prevents blood leaving he penis during

 

 

 

 

12

 

electron. When muscle in the penis contract to stop the inflow of blood and open out flow channels and an electron is reserved.

 

 

 

HORMONAL INVOLVEMENT IN ERECTION

 

  • Oestrogen/Progesterone: (These are female hormones that cause clitoral

 

erection. If the body has two much oestrogen and or too little testost erone, she

 

ca n  get very wet   but can not  erect her clitoral  and G-spot.  ( Haimen et al.,

 

2002). Estrogen tends to increase the size of the bread, labia minors (inner lips)

 

and clitoral  hood, but shrinks the glans clitoris  into the  clitoral hood making it

 

invisible. It also increases the thickness of the vaginal lining making the G-spot inaccessible. The mechanism of the clitoral and G-spot erection is the same as that of the penis. It is driven by the parasympathetic sexual nerve (The neurotransmitter acetylcholine) through the neurotransmitter. Nitric oxide and the erection dilator cGMP, which is continuously powered by the burning of testosterone without a testosterone burst and burning. She cannot pop the glans Clitoris and G-spot out. If she is on birth control pills there is a chance that her body is over flooded by estrogens and low progesterone. Over loaded liver cannot produce sufficient essential enzymes to synthesize sufficient NO, cGMP and testosterone to support the clitoral and G-spot erection infact excessive estrogen or progesterone in the body will shrink the penis, clitoral and G-spot, but likely increase the breast size (under the excessive estrogen action).

 

 

 

 

13

 

  • Testosterone:- Testosterone is a hormone produced by the testicles and is responsible for the proper development of male sexual characters. The pump helps the penis to become erect while band maintains the erection.

 

Circulating levels of testosterone correlate with NO, production. Testosterone treatment can reduce central adiposity and insulin resistance, which may contribute to its beneficial effects on vascular NO, and ED. Raising low testosterone levels improves ED and can restore erectile function in response to PDE-5 inhibitors.

 

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF PDE-5   INHIBITION IN ERECTILE

 

DYSFUNCTION.

 

A spinal reflex and the L-arginine nitric oxide guanglyl cycl