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EXAMINATION OF JOLLOF RICE SERVED IN HOTELS FOR PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS

EXAMINATION OF JOLLOF RICE SERVED IN HOTELS FOR PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS

ABSTRACT

This project work is aimed at examination of jollof rice served in hotels for pathogenic organisms and to find out possible pathogenic organisms in the food. Samples were collected from the hotels and were brought to the laboratory for analysis. The sample were homogenized and serial dilution of the sample was made out using 5ml sterile pipette and test tubes. The dilution were the cultured on different media, macconkey agar, and Nutrient agar, discrete bacteria colonies were observed and  each colony was gram stained, the bacteria isolation were staphylococcus aureus, bacillus, Escherichia coli, these micro organism isolated are pathogenic and are toxin when ingested in contamination food.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Aim and objective

Significance of study

Hypothesis

Scope of study

Limitation of study

Delimitation

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review.                                                                           

Composition of rice and its requirement

Source of contamination

Pathogenic bacterial organism that are responsible for contamination of Jollof rice

Some micro organism responsible for jollof rice spoilage

Jollof  rice spoilage

Factors that influence  microbiological activity of food

Prevention of food pathogenic organisms

 

CHAPTER THREE

Material and methods

Sample collection

Media used and sterilization method

Isolation methods n

The serial dilution technique

Plating  and incubation condition

Gram reaction

 

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion

Conclusion

Recommendation.

References


CHAPTER ONE

 

  • INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The intention of food safely is to prevent food poisoning (the transmission of disease through food and to maintain the who lesomeness of the food product through all stages of processing, until it is finally extern. No one doubts the importance of food in our lives. All active living organisms must have a constant serviced of energy  this  energy may be supplied by materials a cell or organism has stored internally (e.g  our fat  or carbohydrate) or it may come from an external source in the environment food (Nutrition) supplies two major component of life, ENERGY and the chemical  building blood of life, (Bor).

 

 

Energy is required for the various enzymatic reaction that require an input of energy for the reaction, the catalyze for example the movement of the muscles on our legs during a race or in their intestine as we digest our intest meal on to draw air into lungs for breathing all requires energy.

Food  also supplies the structural material required for living organisms to make new macromolecules for repair of damage structure  or for new construction such as the manufacturing of off springs,. Apart from it vital function of substaing life, food is referred to as labours of pathogenic  organisms, if not prepared in a tidy and clean environment. This has been recognized as a problem in some restinants in Enugu, concerned with providing proper food for consumers.

 

 

Pathogenic organisms  exist in two major categories. INTOXICATIONS –INFECTION. Intoxication is a result of ingesting toxins produced by microbes that have grown on the food prior to it being eaten. Infection is the result of the food serving as a forniute that carries an infection pathogen deep into the juicy recesses of a body where it is able to gain a foot . generally food pathogenic organism results from contamination of food and the subsequent growth of food pathogenic organisms.

Food poisoning out breaks are of recognized by the sudden  on set of  illness with a shout period of    time among many individual who have eaten or drunk one or more food (Jollodf rice) in common. Single cases are difficult to identify unless in botulism for example there are distinct symptom. Food pathogenic organism may be one of the most common cause of actuate illness, yet cases and difficult to identify vnlesssas in Botulision for example

 

 

There are distant Symptom. Food pathogenic organism may be one of the most common causes of acute illness. Yet cases and outbreaks are generally under recognized and under-requited.   The number of bacterial present : food (jolloff rice) may be used to determined whether or not the food (jolloff rice ) has been handled correctly. Sources, Vehicles and Reuters of continuations

                  Man, Rawfoods, Insects, animals

Rodents, Dust, Soil.

 

 

 

Food or Head

Contact

Surfaces

         Heads

Equipment’s

Cloths.

Vehicles

 

 

                  High   Risk  Foods.

 

 

Fig I

Some disease that are spread by bacteria that enters the body in food (jolloff rice) can multiply at an amazing rate when they are provided with warmth and moisture, (especially at room temperature) Our food can become an ideal home for then. Clean food (jolloff rice ) can be contaminated by bacterial from four main sources.

*   The people present in the workplace and their clothing.

  • other food that is already contaminated.
  • Dirty kitchen or work premises
  • Insect and vermin.

Some time, harmful bacterial  pass directly from the source  of  high risk food, but usually they rely on other things to transfer them to food. These  things are called  vehicles. Ihekoronye A. I. And Ngoddy P.O (1979).

Indirect  contamination using an intermediate  vehicle is the most common e.g the movement  of bateria from the intestine of a food handler to food via their hands after using the toilet. Where contamination  is via for example a culting board, this is known is  cross contamination,  the path that bacteria use to more from the sources to the food is know is the Route.

The privation of pathogenic organism in food, in most cases of food poisoning chain of events takes place and if we are to reduce the incidence of illness, the chain must be broken.

 

Food poisoning bacteria
Multiply
 

Warmth

Give time and
High risk food
Contamination

 

THE FOOD POISONING CHAIR

There  are different ways of breaking the food poisoning chain.

*        Protecting food  (Jolloff rice) form contamination .

*        Preventing any bacteria present in food from multiply.

*        Destory those  bacteria that are present in the food. The problem of food sanitation.

  • Inspecting all food and washing fruit and vegetable before preparation.
  • Using good personal hygiene practice always.
  • Not coupling or sneezing over or around the food.
  • Keeping covered as much as possible in destroy those bacteria with in food (Jollof rice) An adequate cooking food ensuring that a minimum internal cooking temperature of 800c is reacted. The heating processing such as pasteurization sterilization or caming. A combination of a suitable temperature and sufficient time is always required to destroy bacteria. The time and temperature required depends on the particular organism (e.g spores of clostridium perfringen are much more heat resistant than salmonella bacteria).

In food safety programmes the hazard analysis critical control point (HACC?), this is recommended that every food business adopt the HACCP approach to identify all potential hazards and control them before they result in problems.

In setting up a HACCP system will involve the following

  • Set up a HACCP team of those people who fully understand the product.
  • Draw up flow chart that define all stages in the preparation process, from raw materials though to consumption or sale.
  • Identify all potential hazards (eg physical chemical bacterial) e.t.c
  • Identify the citial point consider preventive measures and decide which are needed to eliminate or reduce poetical hazard to acceptable levels.

 

  • AIM AND OBJECTIVE

This is to find out possible pathogenic organism found in food (Jollof rice) sold to Top Rink Hotel and presidential hotel to examine and identify micro organism (bacteria) associated with  Jollof rice (food) sample collected from these hotels in Enugu. And to determines the bacteria load growth.

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY.

The signifcance of the work is to enable us improve the hygiene of food (Jolloff rice) served and a good knowledge of a safe food handling practice suitable light colour protection clothing to be worn and it, will also enable  us to be aware of various pathogenic organism and the infection they transmit through   food (Jollof rice). As result of this the prevention of contamination of food is to be adlered to, this can be achieved by:

  • keeping high risk food at temperature that inhibits the growth of bacterial (i.e our of the damager Zone.) food should be kept below 40c in a refigecated unit an about 700c in a suitable warming unit.
  • Ensuing that during preparation food is in the danger zone for as short a time as possible high risk food must not be left sitting out at room temperature.
  • Using suitable preservation such as salt and sugar.
  • Using various packing method like gas flushing or vacuum packing.
    • hypothesis

Ho         Presence of non- pathogenic organism in the Jollof rice served.

H1         Presence of pathogen organism in the Jollof rice served.

 

  • SCOPE OF STUDY

This project work is based on the identification examination of pathogenic bacterial organism associated with (Jollof rice) served in the following hotels, Top rink and presidential hotel all in Enugu town and the cavsatire organism include  staphylococcus auvious, salmonella, clostridia per fringers, Escherichia coli, the modern problem to food satiation

 

  • LIMITATION OF STUDY

Examination and identification of pathogenic bacterial organism in top rank hotel and preidetial hotel all in Enugu town the food to be examined is only be limited to Jollof rice specifically.

 

  • DELIMITATION

Pathogenic organism to be studied is only restricted to bacterial organism and not viral protozoa, fungal organism

 

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Pathogenic organism are organism that are referred to as specific health hazard associated with gas to intestinal distribute resulting from the consumption of food containing toxins. The  victim suffering from abdominal pain and diarrheas with more vomiting than diarrheas usually manifest the illness, which when untreated in time result to the does not result to death it had  led to unnecessary expenses in seeking medical advice. This has now made me be interested on how we can  improve on our food lygiene to avoid contamination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Customer services in financial institutions, a step towards improving profitability

Customer services in financial institutions, a step towards improving profitability

(a case study of union bank plc, oko)

 

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Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

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Table of Contents

Chapter one

1.0   introduction                                                 1

1.1   background of study                                     4

1.2   statement of the problem                              5

1.3   purpose of the study                                     6

1.4   hypothesis                                                    7

1.5   scope/limitation of the study                 9

1.6   significance of the study                        10

1.7   definition of terms                                        11

Chapter two

Review of related literature                                   15

2.0   introduction                                                 15

2.1   budget                                                         15

2.2   budgeting

2.3   historical development pf budgeting               21

2.4   reasons for budgeting                                   23

2.5   types of budget                                             29

2.6   variance analysis                                          38

2.7   importance of variance analysis                    38

2.8   controllable and uncontrollable cost              44

2.9   responsibility accounting                              44

2.10 budget administration                                   45

2.11 budgetary control                                          46

2.12 objectives of budgetary control                      47

2.13 basic requirements for a good budgetary

Control system                                             48

Chapter three       

Research methodology                                          51

3.0   introduction                                                 51

3.1   population of the study                                 51

3.2   sample size                                                  52

3.3   sample method of data                                  52

3.4   sources of data collection                              53

3.5   administration and retrieval of questionnaire 53
3.6   procedure used for data analysis                   54

Chapter four

Presentation and data analysis                             56

4.0   introduction                                                 56

4.1   presentation and analysis                             56

Chapter five

5.0   introduction                                                 75

5.1   summary of findings                                     75

5.2   conclusion                                                    76

5.3   recommendation                                           77

5.4   suggestion for further research                     78

5.5   limitation of the study                                   79

references                                                    81

appendix a                                                   83

appendix b                                                   84

List of tables

Table i:    response to the question; how is union bank of nigeria plc, oko branch rated by is customers and general public in terms of profitability.

 

Table ii:  response to the question which of union bank of nigeria customer service innovations are its customers aware of?

 

Table iii: response to the question; how do they rate them via-a-vis their ability to engender customer satisfaction?

 

Table iv:  response to the question; what perception do the customers of union bank of nigeria plc have of courteousness and friendliness of their staff at oko branch.

 

Table v:   response to the question; what do the customers of union bank plc, oko fell about their speed of service?

Abstract

Due to the importance of customers service in the business world. Many privileged organizations most especially the financial institutions are now depending strongly on it to enhance or improve their profitability. Ideas and opinions were received from staff and reputable customers of union bank of nigerian plc, oko branch, which was used as a case study.

These ideas and opinions were got through the use of open and close ended questionnaires, interviews and observation. The data collected was analysis with the use of chi-square (x2) which is a statistical technique used in comparing the differences between observed and expected frequencies. Actually only banks with foresight with respect to customer service will succeed amidst competition.

Meanwhile union bank of nigeria plc will really benefit more if they take advantage of the result of this research work, here by sustaining its customers and at the same time keeping them happy.

Chapter one

Introduction

        the topic of this research work is of course, customer services in the financial institutions, a step towards improving profitability (a case study of union bank plc oko).

woodruff (1997) defines profitability as the ability of an investment or a company to make a profit after costs. Overhead, etc. Profit on the other hand, is the difference between the income of the business and all its costs and expenses over a period of time.

shaw (1990) defines a service as a performance that delivers some combination of benefit to the customer.

union bank of nigeria plc, a bank established in 1917, as bank of colonial africa, increased its profits after tax from 5.035 billion in 2001 to 9.375 billion naira in 2005. In july 2009, the bank was rated the 556th largest bank in the world and the 14th largest bank in africa, with an asset base of us $826 million.

however, the bank was one of the banks that were controversially indicated by the central bank of nigeria in november 2009, for what the apex bank termed as improper loan and financial management.

the profitability of banks could be increased through a plethora of ways. These include the aforementioned financial management, the recruitment and training of seasoned personnel, honesty of staff intensive/extensive selling efforts and other factors. Nevertheless, the focus of this work is to examine how profitability could be increased through improved customer services. This line of thought is congruent with the marketing concept, which makes consumer satisfaction the fulkrum of all organizational activity, banks not being exceptions.

 

1.1   background of the study

in the last ten years there have been important changes in the business of consumer financial services. The main characteristic that has marked the evolution of the financial system has been paradoxical (in the sense of reduction in number of banks but increase in their ability to compete, through bank consolidation) increase in competition in the sector. The banking business has undergone changes in the regulation of the sector, changes in consumers demand for services, technological changes and the entry of new competitors from businesses outside banking (gardner et al, 1999). Due to this an increasingly open and competitive framework has been formed, in which many financial entities are beginning to be concerned about developing defensive strategies, in order to avoid in discriminate loss of customers. According to jacuhy and chestnut (1978), firms should strive to maintain long-term relationships with their customers, in order to obtain the advantages of a clientele loyal to the firm.

union bank of nigeria plc was established in 1917, as bank of colonial african. It opened its bank at oko in august 15,1995. The bank, since its inception has initiated several customer friendly innovations and strategies which it also extended to its oko branch. These innovation and strategies include the use of automatic teller machines (atm), computerized banking services, automated security check doors, bullet proof bullion services, flash me cash, air conditioned banking hall, cable television etc.

we will examine, in the course of this research work of course, at a macro level, how these customer services innovations and strategies have increased the profitability of the bank. We will also recommend ways in which the bank could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its service delivery system.

 

1.2   statement of the problem

  1. Lack of customers satisfaction.

Ii.     Loss of market share

Iii.    Poor customer relationship

Iv.    Lack of improved customer service

  1. Poor quality services rendered to their customers

 

1.3   purpose of the study

  1. To determine if customers are satisfied with performances of the bank.

Ii.     To find out the best way to increase the banks customers.

Iii.    To increase the staff and customer relationship.

Iv.    To determine how best to improve customer service.

  1. To find out how to improve the quality of services rendered to the customers.

 

1.4   significance of the study

        this research work may be helpful to those who are either carrying out research work in banks profitability, customer service, hotels any other establishments in the service industry.

it will also be useful to scholars and students of the aforementioned areas.

 

1.5   research questions

the following are the research questions

  1. How is union bank of nigeria plc, oko branch rated by its customers and the general public, in terms of profitability?
  2. Which of union bank of nigeria’s customer service innovations are its customers aware of?
  • How do they rate them, vis-à-vis their ability to engender customer satisfaction?
  1. What perception do the customers of union bank of nigeria have of the courteousness and friendliness of their staff at oko branch?
  2. What do the customers of union bank of nigeria plc, oko branch feel about their speed of service?

 

1.6   hypothesis

the hypothesis was formulated based on the problems stated above.

  1. Null hypothesis – ho: the profitability of financial institutions in nigeria cannot be increased through improved customer service.

Ii.     Alterative hypothesis – hi:       the profitability of financial institutions in nigeria can be increased through improved customer service.

 

1.7   scope of the study

this research work is limited to union bank of nigeria plc, is services are more or less similar to that of other banks.

based on this, the researcher has decided to find out the kind of services and how to satisfactorily these services are rendered to customers.

 

1.8   definition of terms

the following terms are hereby defined:

  1. Customer services: an instrumental activity performed for a consumer or a consummatory activity involving consumer participation in but not ownership of a company’s product and facilities
  2. Marketing: marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating offering and exchanging products of value with others.
  • Marketing concept: is a corporate state of mind that insists on the integration and co-ordination of all the marketing functions which in turn are melded with all other corporate functions, for the basic purpose of producing optimal consumer benefits and maximum long-range corporate profit.
  1. Commercial bank: is an institution which accepts deposits, makes business loans and offers related services for profit.
  2. Bank: this is any person or institution responsible for collecting deposits and other valuable items from customers for safe-keeping.
  3. Customer satisfaction: – this is the extent to which a firm fulfills customers needs desires and expectations.

 

 

Continue reading Customer services in financial institutions, a step towards improving profitability

OXIDATIVE STRESS LEVEL IN FEMALES WITH HEART DISEASES USING VITAMIN A, C AND E AS DETERMINANTS

OXIDATIVE STRESS LEVEL IN FEMALES WITH HEART DISEASES USING VITAMIN A, C AND E AS DETERMINANTS

INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE MARKERS IN MALARIAL INFECTED MICE RECEIVING PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS TREATMENT

 

 

                                                   ABSTRACT

Heart disease is associated with elevated oxidative stress via increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decline in antioxidant defences. Increased oxidative stress is thought to play a role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was carried out to see the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E and total antioxidant (AO) in hypertensive female patients with heart disease. Twenty-two patients (all women) with history of Hypertension from outpatient clinic unit of the State Central Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria where studied. Eight control subjects (all women) with no history of hypertension and heart diseases were studied. The raw group data of their age, weight, height, blood pressure and pulse rate of the subjects were obtained.  They were selected on the basis of general physical examination Serum level of vitamin A, C and E were obtained using documented method. Serum levels of vitamin A,C, and E were 380.24±68.13 U/L and 135.69±21.32 U/L, 1.23±0.13 mg/dl and 1.20±0.09 mg/dl, 136.26±9.72 U/L  and 185.41±1.84 U/L in experimental and control. Vitamin A shows significant increase with experimental when compared with control, but Vitamin C shows mild increase when experimental group was compared with control group, but did not attain significant at (p<0.05) and Vitamin E shows moderate significant decrease when experiment group compared with control group at (p<0.05). This study reveals a significant reduction in serum vitamin E level of hypertensive patients as compared to the controls with the mean vitamin C level showing no significant difference. In this research, the scientific data do not justify the use of antioxidant vitamin supplements for CVD risk reduction.

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1: shows the effect of hypertension

on the blood pressure, enzyme and non

enzyme antioxidants in hypertensive

female patients          –                –       –       –       –       –  62

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Cover page        –       –       –       –       –       —      –       –       -i

Title page  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  –    –       -ii

Certification      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       -iii

Dedication         –       –       –       –       –       –       –       – –     -iv

Acknowledgements    –       –       –       –       –       –  –    –       -v

Abstract    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  –    –       -vi

List of tables and figure     –       –       –       –       –       –  –    -vii

Table of content         –       –       –       –       –       –       –  –    -vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1    INTRODUCTION  –     –       –       –       –       –  –    –       –1

1.2    Aims and Objectives          –       –       –       –  –    –       -5

1.3    Scope of study  –       –       –       –       –  –    –       –       -6

1.4    Significance of study:         –       –       –       –  –    –       -6

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    LITERATURE REVIEW       –       –       –       – –     –       – 7

2.1    HEART DISEASE       –       –       –                —      –       – 7

2.2    TYPES OF HEART DISEASE       —      –  –    –       –       – 8

2.2.2 Hypertensive heart disease         —      –       – –     –       -8

2.2.3 Heart failure    – –       –       –       –       –  –    –       -8

2.2.4 Cor pulmonale or pulmonary heart disease         —      -9

2.2.5 Valvular heart  disease      –       –       –       —      —      9

2.2.6 Cerebrovascular disease    –       –       –       –  –    —      -9

2.2.7 Congenital heart disease   –       –       –       —      -10

2.3    Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease     –       –  –    -10

2.4    Risk factors       –       –       –       –       –  –    —      —      -11

2.5    OXIDATIVE STRESS –       –       –       –  –    —      -13

2.6    Physiological Sources of Reactive Oxidant

Species in Cells         –       –       –       –       –       —-  13

2.6.1 Mitochondrial respiration as a source

of reactive oxidant  species in cells    –       –       –  –    -14

2.6.2 NADH/NADPH oxidase system as a source of

reactive oxidant species in the cell    –       –       –  –    -17

2.6.3 Xanthine oxido-reductase system as a source of

reactive oxidant species in the cell     –       –      –         –  –    -20

2.6.4 NOS uncoupling as a source of reactive

oxidant species in the cell. Uncoupled NO –     —          21

2.7    Reactive Oxidant Species Formation and

Cardiovascular Disease     –       –       –       –      –         —       21

2.7.1 Oxidative stress and endothelial

Dysfunction in aterosclerosis     –       –       –     ­-          –  –    -24

2.7.2 Oxidative stress and hypertension      –       —  –   —      31

2.7.3 Oxidative stress and cardiovascular ischemia –   —      -33

2.7.4 Oxidative stress and heart failure    – –       –  –    -35

2.7.5 Oxidative stress and postoperative arrhythmias –  –    -39

2.8    Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Disease   –       -39

2.8.1 Antioxidants     –       –                –       –  –    —      —      -40

2.8.2 The Use of Antioxidants     –       –       –       –  –    —      -42

2.8.3 Dietary Intervention and Risk of

Cardiovascular Disease     –       –       –       –       –       –  –    -42

2.8.4 Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Risk        —  –   —      -45

2.8.5 Vitamin C and Cardiovascular Disease       —  –   —      -48

2.8.6 Vitamin E and Cardiovascular Disease       –       —      -51

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    MATERIALS AND METHOD        –       –       –       —      -56

3.1    MATERIALS      –       –       –       –       –  –    —      —      -56

3.1.1 Instruments      –       –       –       –       –       –  –    —      -56

3.1.2 Apparatus and glass wares        –       –       –  –    —      -56

3.1.3 Reagents   –       –       —      –       –       –  –    —      —      -57

3.1.4 Specimen –       –                –       –       –  –    —      -57

3.1.5 Blood Serum     –       –       –       —      –  –    —      —      -57

3.2    METHODS         –       –       –       –                –  –    —      -57

3.2.1 Study group      –       –       –       –         –     —      —      -57

3.2.2 Clinical assessment  –       –       –                —      —      -58

3.2.3 Sample collection and preservation    –       –       –  –    —58

3.3    SAMPLE ANALYSIS   –       –       –       –  –    —      —      -58

3.3.1 Serum vitamin E estimation     –       –       –  –    —      -58

3.3.2 Serum  Vitamin A estimation     –       –       –  –    —      -60

3.3.3 Serum Vitamin C estimation      –       –       –  –    —      -60

3.4    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS    –       –       –  –    —      —      -61

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    RESULTS —      –       –       –       –      –       –                -62

 CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  –    — 64

5.1 Conclusion –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –   –      67

References

 

 

                                CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

Heart disease(cardiovascular disease), defined as coronary artery disease, hypertensive heart disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and atherosclerosis including cerebral artery disease and strokes, is the leading cause of death in the United States and disability in the  world today, (Thom, 1989). In the United States, the heart disease death toll is nearly one million each year, and in 2002 the estimated cost of heart disease treatment was $326.6 billion, (Shekelle et al., 2003). To provide early prognosis and better therapies for preventing and curing these diseases, an understanding of the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of heart disease is essential. Growing evidence indicates that oxdant stress production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other free radicals under pathophysiologic conditions is integral in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Free radicals are molecules containing one or more unpaired electrons in atomic or molecular orbital, (Gutteridge et al., 2000). Reactive free radicals play a crucial part in different physiological processes ranging from cell signaling, inflammation and the immune defense, (Elahi et al., 2006). There is increasing evidence that abnormal production of free radicals lead to increased stress on cellular structures and causes changes in molecular pathways that underpins the pathogenesis of several important human diseases, including heart disease, neurological disease and cancer and in the process of physiological ageing, (Pacher 2008; Vassalle et al., 2008). One of the major contributors of oxidative stress is the reactive oxygen species (ROS) family of molecules. These include free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (HO-), lipid radicals (ROO-) and nitric oxide (NO). Other reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), although are not free radicals but they have oxidizing effects that contribute to oxidative stress. ROS has been implicated in cell damage; necrosis and cell apoptosis due to its direct oxidizing effects on macromolecules such as lipids, proteins and DNA, (Izakovic et al., 2006). Production of one free radical can lead to further formation of radicals via sequential chain reactions, (Cronin et al., 2005).

Understanding the contribution of free radical stress in the pathogenesis of disease will allow us to study the development of oxidative stress; a condition that occurs due to an imbalance between cellular production of oxidant molecules and the availability of appropriate antioxidants species that defend against them. In physiological conditions, cells would increase activities of antioxidant enzymes and other antioxidant defenses to counteract occurrence of oxidative stress, (Brunzini et al., 2004). These include radical scavengers such as vitamin E, A, beta carotene and vitamin C, Manganese dependent superoxide dismutase such as manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductae and catalase (CAT). Decreased risk of cardiovascular death has been associated with higher blood levels of vitamin C and E. In addition, vitamin C, vitamin E, and A have demonstrated antioxidant effects, including beneficial effects on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. There is evidence that these vitamins affect other risk factors for CVD such as hypertension. Vitamin E may also reduce coronary artery blockage by decreasing blood platelet aggregation. Thus, it was reasonable to expect that supplementation with these antioxidants would decrease the risk of developing CVD.  Large numbers of people are taking antioxidants with the expectation that they will prevent disease. As part of a natural defense system, antioxidants can mitigate the activity of free radicals and other oxidative species that have been implicated in the development of heart disease, (Krzanowski, 1991; Duthie et al., 1999). The epidemiologic and observational literature has suggested a beneficial effect of antioxidant-rich foods, as well as specific antioxidants, on the risk of CVD and stroke, (Asplund, 2002; Tribble, 1999). Because oxidative functions also contribute positively to the health of the cell by their participation in energy metabolism, biosynthesis, detoxification, and cellular signaling, a balance is clearly required between the pro-oxidants and the antioxidant defense system to maintain health, (German et al., 2001).

1.2     Aims and Objectives

The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of three antioxidants, vitamin E, vitamin C, and A, for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or modification of known risk factors for heart diseases in hypertensive female patients

Specifically, the objective of this study is to determine;

  1. The vitamin A level in hypertensive patient with heart disease.
  2. The vitamin C level in hypertensive patient with heart disease.